A field trip was made to various sites to
studywaterpollution.The objectiveof this trip
was to study point and non-point sources of
waterpollution&to study the several physical
and chemical parameters of polluted water.
Report of field tour
Sir Razi Abbas Shamsi
Department of Botany
Objectives of field trip
1. Gulshan Ravi pumping station, Lahore.
2. Kala shah kaku industrial state
3. Sheikhupura industrial area
Description of the sites
a. Gulshan ravipumping station
b. Ittehad chemicals LTD.
c. Degh canal
d. Ravi rayon LTD.
e. Dawood Hercules LTD.
f. Epcot leather industry
OBJECTIVES OF THE FIELD TRIP:
The main objectives of this tour were as follows.
To study point and non-point sources of water pollution.
To understand the sampling method for research purposes.
To detect and identify different type of pollutants present in the water.
To observe that how municipal waste water is treated preliminary to remove the
floating waste before its disposal into the water streams?
To observe the quality of waste water.
To understand that what are the various physical and chemical parameters of
To understand the impacts of water pollution on the surrounding environment.
To know the quality of waste released from different industries.
THE PLACES VISITED:
Gulshan Ravi pumping station, Lahore.
Kala shah kaku industrial state
I. Ittehad chemicals LTD.
II. Degh canal
III. Ravi rayon LTD.
Sheikhupura industrial area
i. Epcot leather industry
ii. Dawood Hercules chemicals
An excursion was made by our class in the supervision of Dr. Razi Abbas Shamsi to
various industrial sites. The purpose of this trip was to provide the students, experience
and observation other than their daily activities. The significance of this trip was that the
students could get more ideas to carry out their research work. To get new aspects on
which research can be carried out.
As we are studying Water Pollution and its Management and Control so it was
necessary to observe source and practices which are used to control water pollution.
The aim is also to understand the preliminary treatment of the sewage waste before its
disposal into the water bodies.
Our 1st site was Gulshan Ravi Pumping Station; here 70% sewage waste of Lahore is
treated before its disposal into the Ravi River. Our 2nd site was kala shah kaku industrial
state. Here we collected the effluents of Ittehad chemicals and fresh water of Ravi
rayon. Then we drove to the Sheikhupura road, the 2nd industrial area of Punjab. Here
we collected the effluents of a leather industry, Epcot. Our 2nd site in Sheikhupura was
Dawood Hercules. Effluents were collected from here then we drove back to Lahore.
Some physical parameters were noted at the spot i.e. pH, temperature, smell, color and
turbidity of the water and then water was brought to the laboratory to carry out the
chemical analysis of this effluent.
1.5 litre plastic bottles
1.5 litre bottles were taken and marked according to the site.
Water was collected in a bucket then was poured into the bottle with the help of
3 bottles were collected from each site as a sample.
Some parameters were observed at the site i.e. pH, turbidity, smell and
Then water samples were brought to the laboratory to carry out the tests to
detect the presence of nitrates, carbonates, and other chemicals in these water
Water was store at cold and dark place to lower the possibility of reactions of
chemicals in that polluted water.
DISCRIPTION OF THE SITES:
I. GULSHAN RAVI PUMPING STATION LAHORE:
In Lahore, this pumping station is responsible for treatment of 70% of the sewage waste
from different areas of Lahore. This pumping station works under WASA (water and
sanitation agency). Here sewage water is treated to remove the large floating material
from the water and then this is disposed of, with the help of pumps, outside the city in
Ravi River. There were two main wet wells that receive the water from all over the city.
Then this water is passed through the screens for removal of floating material. Here
physical management is done by the peoples who collect the waste material from the
screens. There were 14 pumps, two were functional, that pumps the water and throws it
in streams, from here water is thrown into the river.
1. Main wet well 2.screens for removal of floating waste
LIST OF THE MATERIAL PRESENT IN SEWAGE WATER:
Leaves and branches of trees
Disposable plastic bottles
Waste present in sewage water at Gulshan Ravi Pumping Station
ii. ITTEHAD CHEMICALS LTD. :
Ittehad Chemicals LTD. is one of the companies that produce caustic soda liquid. It
is a publically listed chemical manufacturing company in Pakistan. Its effluents are
discharged into the Degh canal through various point sources.
Effluents of Ittehad chemicals released in water way a (point source)
iii. Degh canal:
Degh canal serves as main conduit for irrigation water in Punjab. Its origin is in India.
It flows through several areas of Punjab and falls into Ravi. In Kala Shah Kaku it
passes near Ittehad chemicals, Ravi rayon and several other industries that
discharge their effluents into it. There is a railway track near ittehad chemicals; on
one side of the track water is polluted due to the effluents. Whereas, on other side of
the railway track water is fresh. Peoples were there, they were fishing in that polluted
Polluted water of Degh canal
iv. Ravi rayon LTD.
Ravi rayon is one of the fabrics synthetic in Lahore, located in Kala Shah Kaku. On
opposite side of the ittehad chemicals, from other side effluents of ravi rayon were
collected. It was the site of polluted water, with highly concentrated with organic
and in organic materials. That’s why the colour of water was so dark as it looks
black, with highlt pungent smell. It open with the help of an outlet in the polluted
water lake of nala Degh.
v. Dawood Hercules LTD.
It is a large manufacturer company of urea fertilizer in Pakistan under the brand
name, Babber Sher. The company was founded in 1971, and its plant is located
near Sheikhupura, about 28km from Lahore.
vi. Epcot leather industry:
It is a leather industry near Sheikhupura. Its effluents are also released through
several point sources in Degh canal. Water samples were also collected from here.
(Sources of water pollution)
i. Point sources:
Point source s of water pollution refers to the contaminant that enters into the water
ways through a large identifiable source. Such sources include sewage plant, factory
or a city storm drain. During our tour various point sources were observed. They
were as follows; Gulshan Ravi pumping station, effluent from ittehad chemicals,
Epcot industry and Dawood Hercules, these are some of the point sources of water
ii. Non-point sources:
Non-point sources refer to the diffuse contamination that does not originate from
a single discrete point source. Common non-point sources were the leaching of
fertilizers from the agricultural lands. Nutrient run off in storm water from sheet
flow over the agricultural land, contaminated water washed off from the road
sides and highways.
iii. Physical parameters:
Different physical parameters of this polluted water were studied at the spot. That
includes color, smell, temperature, turbidity
Color of the water was due to the various dissolved and suspended
material in the water. Color of every site was different from the other, depending
on the nature of the dissolved matter. Color of the sewage water was greyish
brown while that of effluents of Epcot industry was reddish pink.
Smell of the water is due to the chemicals, and due to the decay of
organic matter in the water. Depending on the waste smell of the water was also
different i.e. the smell of the sewage water was different from that of effluents of
Turbidity is the optical effect caused by the dispersion of and interference
with light rays passing through water containing particles in suspension. It
is used as one of the main indicator of quality of raw, settled and filtered
water. Turbidity of water is due to the presence of very small suspended
matter of size >1 micron along with various other metalloids and colloidal
particles of size <1 micron. It is due to the silt, clay, finely divided organic
matter, plankton and other microscopic particles.
d. TDS (total dissolved solids):
Total dissolved solids (TDS) are the total amount of mobile charges ions,
including minerals, salts or metals dissolved in given volume of water,
expressed in units of mg/volume of water (mg/L), also refers to as parts per
million (ppm). TDS is directly related to the purity of water and the quality of
water purification systems and effects everything that consumes, lives in, or
uses water, whether organic or inorganic, whether for better or for worse.
e. Electrical conductivity of water:
The electrical conductivity of water estimates the total amount of solids
dissolved in water. Electrical conductivity is the measure of ability of water
sample to convey an electric current and it is related to concentration of
ionized substance in water. Conductivity can be used as an approximate
measure of total concentration of inorganic substance in water. Ions that
have a major influence on conductivity of water are H+, SO3-2, Na+, K+, Mg+2,
Ca+, Cl- and HCO3. Hence organic compounds have little influence on
conductivity. Conductivity is often used to express minerals content of water
sample. It is also used for dissolved solids and salinity determination.
iv. Chemical parameters:
It is a scale indicating the acidity and alkalinity of the aqueous solution. pH value
is designated as a number from 1 to 14, which represents a logarithmic scale
indicating the concentration of hydrogen ion. pH of the water is due to the presence
of H+ in water. pH of the effluent released from the Ittehad chemicals was 1 while
that of fresh water was 6. This difference indicates the acidity of that effluent.
Water Samples pH Temp
6 6.8 21 10.875 Light
6.33 322 _ 6 No
6 6.4 19 _ Max.
596 299 _ 4.16 No
6 7.0 25 10.95 Diffus
703 350 _ 10 Grayis
1 1.3 29 0.003
7 _ 5.4
6 6.6 25 _ No
703 _ _ Black Punge
6 6.7 29 3.85 Blue,
5.34 250 _ 3.6 Turbid Nitrate
6 7.2 22 _ v.light
5.64 _ _ Brown
The significant of field tour is that the students perceive more ideas to carry out their
research work. They get new aspects and the things on which research studies can be
carried out. So for the students of science field tours are part of our study so that we
can verify all the terms and concepts which we are studying in our course. As we are
studying “Sources of Water Pollution” and also “Sources of Air Pollution” so it is
necessary to observe sources and management of water pollution which are used to
control the Water Pollution.
The first place visited was Gulshan Ravi Pumping Station where the physical impurities
are removed from municipal waste water. The water was screened and then disposed of
in Ravi and other water bodies. The water sample was taken from this area revealed that
this water has bad odour,6 ph and contain 1.3% NaCl.
The second place visited was Ittehaad Chemical Industry and Deg Naala in Kaala Shah
Kakoo from where three different types of waste water were observed from the point
sources as well as non-point sources such as effluents from Ittihaad Chemical Industry,
polluted water and freshwater.
The next place visited was the Leather Industry in Sheikhupura from where the effluent
waste water contained highly toxic chemicals and highly turbid.
The last place visited was Dauod Hercules that is the Urea Fertilizer Industry. The
water quality was no adequate for heatlhty life, having rotten egg like smell, ph~6.7
All these qualities of water of different areas were due to the presence of different types
of organic, and inorganic waste different dissolved, suspended and colloidal particles
and ions that contribute towards the conductivity of the water.
Industries discharge their waste products in open places and causing air and water
pollution both. As these contains highly toxic pollutants, chemicals and gases that get
into water and air directly and damaging their quality.
There is no proper management to dispose of industrial effluent so these are
contributing a major role in water pollution. So there is need to control water pollution
that is increasing day by day. This is an alarming situation.
I have learnt a lot regarding point and non-point sources of water pollution and the harmful
consequences of these on vegetation, aquatic life and buildings. The water quality is adequate
for life. They have to suffer a lot by drinking polluted water due to lack of industrial
management. How much this pollution is dangerous for humans you can imagine!