Economically important higher fungi

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Economically important higher fungi

  1. 1. Economically Important Higher Fungi Jannat Iftikhar B11-16 BS(hons) 5th semester
  2. 2. Contents  Beneficial fungi 1. Mushroom cultivation & edibility. 2. Recycling and reuse 3. Fungi in industry • Baking and brewing • Fungi in food processing • Fungi and enzyme production • Fungi in medicine • Commercially important fungal metabolites • Fungal drugs • Fungi in paper making 4. Fungi as Biocontrol agents 5. Mycoremediation  Harmful fungi 1. Food spoilage by fungi 2. Fungi as Plant pathogens 3. Human diseases 4. Destruction to paper industry
  3. 3. BENIFICIAL FUNGI
  4. 4. 1. Mushroom cultivation & Edibility
  5. 5. Cultivated mushrooms Specie name Common name Volvariella volvacea Paddy straw mushroom Lentinus edodes Shiitake Pleurotus ostreatus P. Floridanus P. eringyi Oyster mushroom Flammulina velutipes Velvet foot mushroom, Winter mushroom Auricularia auricula Ear fungus Tremella fuciformis White jelly fungi Pholiota nameko Nameko Royal trumpet mushroom
  6. 6. Volveriella volvaceae Flammulina velutipes Lentinus edodes Pleurotus sp. Auricularia auricula Tremella fuciformis
  7. 7. Cultivated mushrooms Specie name Common name Hericium erinaceus H. coralloides Lions mane, Monkey’s head fungus Agaricus bisporus Button mushroom Ganoderma lucidum Reishi Agrocybe aegerita Pioppino mushroom, Chest nut mushroom Hysizygus tessulatus Brown beach mushroom Grifola frondosa Hen of woods Stropharia rugoso-annulata Wine cap
  8. 8. Pholiota nameko Ganoderma lucidum Hericium erinaceus Agrocybe aegerita Agaricus bisporus Hysizygus tessulatus
  9. 9. Grifola frondosa Stropharia rugoso-annulata
  10. 10. Other edible fungi Fungus name Common name Division Tuber melansporum Perigold truffle Ascomycota Morchella sp. Morels Ascomycota Dictyophora duplicata Bamboo sprouts Basidiomycota Ustilago esculenta Basidiomycota Langermannia gigantea Giant puff ball Basidiomycota Lactarius deliciosus Saffron milk cap Basidiomycota Armillaria mellae Honey mushroom Basidiomycota
  11. 11. Tuber melansporum Langermannia gigantea Morchella sp. Lactarius deliciosus Dictyophora duplicata Armillaria mellae
  12. 12. 2. Fungi as Recyclers
  13. 13. Fungi as recyclers act as recycler of dead organic matter of plants and animals. Lycoperdon perlatum  Trametes versicolor
  14. 14. Fungi as recyclers • Agaricus • Volvariella • • • • • Lentinula Flammulina Pholiota Auricularia Ganoderma Grown on • Straw, by product of agriculture • Wood, sawdust, wood chips, by product of forestry
  15. 15. 3. Fungi in industry
  16. 16. Fungi in industry • • • • • • • Baking and brewing Fungi in food processing Fungi and enzyme production Fungi in medicine Commercially important fungal metabolites Fungal drugs Fungi in paper making
  17. 17. Baking and brewing Fungus name Product Division Sacchromyces carlsbergensis Lager Ascomycota S. cerevisiae Ales and wine Ascomycota S. uvarum Cider Ascomycota S. sake Saki Ascomycota Aspergillus oryzae sake Ascomycota Botrytis cinerea Sweet wine Deutromycota Cytarria harioti Used in baking Ascomycota
  18. 18. Fungi in food processing Fungus name Uses Division Penicillium caseolum Ripening of cheese Deutromycetes Penicillium roquefortii Give colour to cheese (blue cheese) Ascomycota Aspergillus oryzae Production of soya sauce Ascomycota Monoascus purpureus Alter colour of the food (red wine) Ascomycota Crysonilia baking Ascomycota
  19. 19. Fungi and enzyme production Fungus name Enzymes Penicillium spp. Aspergillus spp. Asparaginase , amylase, Glucose oxydase, catalase, Dextranase , Beta glucanase, Glucoamylase Trichoderma, Fusarium Cellulase Phanerochaete Trametes Lignilase Bjerkandera Xylanases Canthrellus cibarius, Agaricus campestris Proteases
  20. 20. Fungal pharcodynamics Specie name Pharmacodynamics Lentinula edodes, Polyporaceae Volvariella Antiviral effect Cardiac toner Collybia villutipes Decrease cholestrol Ganoderma lucidum Decrease level of sugar and blood pressure Armeriella tabescens Increase secretion of bile Hypsizygus marmoreus Antitumor
  21. 21. Commercially important fungal metabolites Specie name metabolite Uses Aspergillus spp. Organic acid, Gluconic acid, Lactonic acid, Citric acid Manufacture of citrates, flavoring ingredient, Manufacture of plastic Sacchromyces spp. Ethyl alcohol, glycerol Solvent, raw material for ether, ester, synthetic rubber, explosive Penicillium spp. , Saccchromyces spp. fats Soap, manufacture of food
  22. 22. Fungal drugs Fungus name Drug Penicillium chrysogenum , Penicillium griseofulvin Penicillin Griseofulvin Cephalosporium, Cephalsporin Cylindrocarpon lucidum Trichoderma polysporum Cyclosporin A Aspergillus fumigatus Gliotoxins Claviceps purpurea C. fusiformis , C. paspalii. Ergotamine, ergometrin Phoma sp. Squalestatin
  23. 23. Fungi in paper making • • • • Coriolus versicolor Polyporus ance Poria monticola Gloeophyllum trabeum
  24. 24. Coriolus versicolor Poria monticola Polyporus ance Gloeophyllum trabeum
  25. 25. 4. Fungi as Biocontrol Agent
  26. 26. Fungi in weed control Biocontrol fungus Weed target Septagloeum gillis Wallrothiella arecuthobii Wallrothiella arecuthobii Alternaria cassiae Casia obtusifolia Colletotrichum gloeosporiordes Jussaea decurrens Phyllosticta Glycosmis Puccinia chondrillina Puccinia coronata Condrilla juncea Poa annua Phragmidium violaceum Rubus sp.
  27. 27. Fungi in control of fungal plant diseases Biocontrol fungus Target fungus Trichoderma Armillaria mellae, Heterobasidion annosum, Rhizoctonia solani Fusarium roseum Claviceps purpurea Verticillium alboatrum Verticillium alboatrum Cicinnobolus cesatii Sphaerotheca fuliginea
  28. 28. Fungal pathogens of arthropods Genus Principal target Beauveria Colorado beetle , codling moth Hirsutella Citrus rust mite Metarhizium Spittlebug, mosquito larvae Verticillium Aphids, whitefly Aschersonia Whitefly, scale insect
  29. 29. Mycoremediation • Pleurotus ostreatus prey on fecal coliform bacteria. • Agaricus bisporus degrade gram + and gram – bacteria. • Gomphidius glutinosus, Craterellus tubaeformis, Laccaria amethystina used in remediation on radioactive metals.
  30. 30. Mycoremediation Fungus name Metal absorbed Aspergillus niger Cu A. oryzae Cd Penicillium chrysogenum Cromium, nickel, zinc, lead Sacchromyces cerevisiae Uranium
  31. 31. Fungi as source of biofuel • Phanaerochaete chrysosporium • Ceriporiopsis subvermispora Phanaerochaete chrysosporium Ceriporiopsis subvermispora
  32. 32. HARMFUL FUNGI
  33. 33. 1. Plant pathogen
  34. 34. Fungi as plant pathogen Casual agent Disease name Taphrina sp. Peach leaf curl Verticillium, Fusarium Vascular wilt disease Podospheara Microspheara Powdery mildew (apple) Ustillago spp. smut fungi , Bunt of wheat Corn smut, Loose smut of barley, wheat etc Puccinia spp. Hollyhock , Cedar-apple, White pine blister, Cereal rusts Armillaria spp root rot of fruit and forest trees. Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and Pythium. Damping of seedlings
  35. 35. Fungi as plant pathogen Casual agent Division Disease name Venturia spp. Ascomycota Apple scab, pear scab, die back Cleviceps purpurae Ascomycota Ergot of rye Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Deutromycota Anthracnose Botrytis cinerea Deutromycota Grey mould Ceratocystis fimbriata Ascomycota Black rot Erysiphe graminis, Erysiphe oidium Ascomycota Powdery mildews
  36. 36. Apple scab Grey mold Ergot of rye Black rot Anthracnose Powdery mildews
  37. 37. Rust on plants Die back
  38. 38. 2. Fungi as human pathogen
  39. 39. Fungi as human pathogens Fungus Disease Trichophyton spp. Epidermophyton spp. Athlete’s foot Microsporum Trichophyton Ring worm Microsporum Trichophyton Tinea cruris (jock itch) Histoplasma capsulatum Histoplomosis Cleviceps purpurae Ergotism
  40. 40. Athlete’s foot Ring worm
  41. 41. 3.Food spoilage by fungi
  42. 42. Food spoilage by fungi Specie name Food spoiled Fusarium spp. , A. paraciticus, P. citrinum, P. verrucosum, Fusarium graminearum, Chrysonilia sitophila Cereals and nuts Wellemia sebi, P. corylophilum A. glaucus Jam and jellies Botrytis cinerea, Gloesporium spp. , Monilia Fruits Penicillium, Aspergillus, Eurotium, Scopulariopsis Fish, meat and egg Eurotium herbariorum, A. versicolor, Scopulariopsis sp. Raw milk Sclerotinia, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Botrytis Vegetables
  43. 43. Destruction to paper industry • • • • • • • • • • • Polyporus adustus Chaetomium Aspergillus, Cephalothecium Stachybotrys Alternaria Fusarium Cladosporium Stemphyllium Dematium Polysticus hirsutus

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