• Launched on 2nd October 1975 in
33 Community Development Blocks,
ICDS today represents one of the world’s
largest programmes for early childhood
development. ICDS is the foremost symbol
of India’s commitment to her children –
India’s response to the challenge of
providing pre- school education on one
hand and breaking the vicious cycle of
malnutrition, morbidity, reduced learning
capacity and mortality, on the other.
Children are the first call on human resource
development (HRD) – because young children are
the most vulnerable and the foundation for lifelong
learning and human development is laid in these
crucial early years. Investment in HRD is a pre-
requisite for economic development of any nation.
The first six years constitutes the most crucial period
in life, when the foundations are laid for cognitive,
social, and emotional, physical/motor development
and cumulative lifelong learning.
Child survival, growth and
development, has to be looked at as
a holistic approach, as one cannot
be achieved without the others.
There have to be balanced linkages
between education, health and
nutrition for proper development of
ICDS is an inter-sector programme which
seeks to directly reach out to children,
below six years, especially from vulnerable
and remote areas and give them a head-
start by providing an integrated programme
of early childhood education, health and
nutrition. No programme on Early
Childhood Care and Education can succeed
unless mothers are also brought within it
ambit as it is in the lap of the mother that
human beings learn the first lessons in life.
• Delhi , August 6, 2010
• The ICDS Scheme is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme
implemented by the States/UTs on a sharing
pattern of 90:10 for all components including
Supplementary Nutrition Programme [SNP] for
North East and 50:50 for SNP and 90:10 for all other
components for all States other than North East. 8
The Scheme offers a package of six services viz.
1. supplementary nutrition,
2. pre-school non-formal education,
3. nutrition & health education,
5. health check-up and
6. referral services.
The latter 3 services are provided through the Public
Health Infrastructure and system of the Ministry of
Health & Family Welfare.
• This information was given by Smt. Krishna
Tirath, Minister of State for Women and Child
Development (Independent Charge) in a written
reply to a question in the Lok Sabha.
• The Minister further said that
currently, the Scheme is being implemented
through a network of 11.83 lakh operational
Anganwadi Centres (AWCs), against 13.67 lakh
sanctioned AWCs as on 31.5.2010, across the
The Scheme envisages involvement of Voluntary
Organizations, Central Social Welfare Boards, Local
bodies, Panchayati Raj Institutions etc. wherever
they are functional, to be actively involved in this
Programme for implementation, soliciting
community support etc.
The State Governments can, within the overall
framework of the ICDS entrust the whole or part of
the ICDS projects to a Voluntary Organization for
which grants to them would be provided by the
concerned State/UT administrations.
As per information available, number of NGOs
engaged by States/UT Admns., including the State of
Gujarat for implementation of ICDS, is 66.
Child & mother nutrition:a majorchallenge
• Nutrition indicators like under weight in pre-
school children, stunting, wasting of these
children, prevalence of low birth weight, anemia
in pregnant women, adolescent girls and children
under three years, poor breast feeding and
complementary feeding rates pose a major
• Chronic mal-nutrition among school children as
reflected by stunting and wasting is 45.5 %, and
15.5 % respectively as per national Family Health
Survey (NFHS) 2, 1998-99.
The right to food-paradoxin US
The General Comment on the Right to Food says: “the
roots of the problem of hunger and malnutrition are
not lack of food but lack of access to available food”.
As a recent Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy
(IATP) report says, “The United States is food secure,
but the Government fails to protect its people’s right
to food. The US Department of Agriculture reports
that some 11% of US households (and 18% of US
children) lack access to adequate food at some point
in the year. That statistic represents 12.6 million
people. Yet, even after exports, the domestic supply of
food in the US could feed everyone in the country
It is indeed unfair and unjust that so many
millions of children should suffer and die
from under-nutrition especially when the
economic performance of the country has
been impressive for close to two decades
now. Particularly disconcerting has been the
extremely slow pace of improvement in the
nutritional status of children.
What then are the actions needed to ensure
the eradication of child under-nutrition ?
Several expert groups have offered valuable
suggestions on how best to tackle the
problem of child under-nutrition. These
suggestions fall broadly into three clusters;
technical, programmatic requirements, and
There is overwhelming evidence to suggest that
tackling child under-nutrition requires a life cycle
approach, which implies that different interventions
are needed at different stages in the life of a woman
(during adolescence and pre-pregnancy and after the
birth of the child) and of a child (immediately at
birth, up to six months, 6-23 months and 24-59
Five critical technical Interventions
1. Improve breast feeding practices in the first six months of
the infant’s birth _ by early initiation and colostrum feeding;
feed only breast milk for first six months.
2. Complementary foods [rich in energy, protein,
micronutrients and minerals] after 6 month with breast
feeding up to 2 years.
3. Control micronutrient deficiency & anaemia in the first years
of life; Vitamin A supplement, deworming, ORS when
affected by diarrhea,
4. Control deficiencies in young women,
5. Provide quality care for children with severe under-nutrition
under appropriate medical supervision.
1. Situation Analysis
2. Linkages with other sectors
3. Political commitment and partnership
4. Capacity Building
5. Communication & Community
6. Corporate Social Responsibility
• Implementing ICDS in a mission mode; pilot a
two anganwadi -worker model in the ICDS;
ensuring better coordination between health &
• Coordinate between Ministry of Women & Child
Development and Ministry of Health & Family
• To overcome malnutrition, Institutional
structures for public policy and coordinated
action in nutrition may be established.
• At Panchayat, Nagar palika, and local body levels
a Council for freedom from Hunger may be
• Women’s nutrition during reproductive age, and
child nutrition during first two years are to be
provided with community food security systems.
general guidelines: child’s needs
• Children of all ages need affection and attention,
opportunities for physical and mental growth,
and a healthy, safe environment. However,
children's needs will vary based on their age and
• The following are some general guidelines for
different age groups.
• Since you know your child's personality and
preferences the best, develop some questions of
your own. 46
Baby'sNeeds (0 - 18 months)
• Nurturing and love.
• Adequate individual attention from a familiar
and consistent caregiver.
• Routines that can be adapted to your baby's
• Opportunity for exploration and learning
(activities so that babies aren't left alone in cribs
for long periods of time).
• Clean environment (i.e. diapering and eating
areas are separate).
• Safe environment, including "baby safe" toys.
• How would you manage a child who cried
• At what age do you think discipline should
• What kind of discipline would you use with
children the age of my child?
Young Children'sNeeds(18months - 5 years)
• Adequate adult guidance.
• Activities to stimulate creativity and build
• Routines that build a sense of security.
• Other children to play with.
• Safe, clean, pleasant environment indoors
• What kinds of meals do
• What activities do you
provide for children this
• How do you handle toilet
• What do you do if a child is
angry and behaving
Olderchildren(schoolchildrenages 5 - 11)
• Age appropriate learning
opportunities during vacations and
• Other children of the same age.
• Adequate adult leadership and
• Space enough for active sports
• What is needed is an
fatherhood that is centred
on who men really are,
what aspirations they have
as fathers, and their own
potential to change
themselves. He must also
acknowledge and respond
to realities such as
socioeconomic factors, the
balance between home-life
and work, and cultural
norms, all of which impact
on men as they strive to be
good fathers. 52
ROLES PARENTS PLAY
Three indicators which are consistently used to measure
people’s ‘success’ in later life are:
• moving up in society;
• fulfilment of potential; and
• capacity to form and maintain rewarding relationships.
Parents’ own success in these terms provides role models
and examples for their children, and can therefore be an
important success factor for their children.
Available evidence suggests that the more men and women
cooperate economically, the more equally they tend to
divide childcare responsibilities. Whether or not the father
lives with his children, the quality of his relationship with
their mother is also influential.
Food_ Availability, Accessand Absorption
• Food availability is assured when enough
of it is produced or imported and at an
affordable price it is available locally.
• Food access is assured when we can buy,
prepare and consume food to avail a
• Food absorption is assured when we have
normal physical and mental health and are
able to maintain it with our diet. 58
Initiatives to improve the nutritional status of the
population during the last five decades include:
• Increasing food production and building buffer
• Improving food distribution and building up the
public distribution system [PDS]
• Improving household food security through:
• improving purchasing power,
• food for work programmes and
• direct or indirect food subsidy. 59
Pre-primary Education is
offered to children in
both urban and rural
In urban areas, where
sufficient children are
available within a
separate Nursery Schools
or departments are
• Otherwise nursery classes are attached to Junior
Basic or Primary Schools.
• In addition to that Pre-Primary education is
provided free of cost.
• Thus, the main object of Pre-primary Education is
to give young children social experience rather than
• It has an essential part to play in every school
System, though Pre-primary education in India is
not a fundamental right and thus a very low
percentage of children receive preschool
In the formal education system, Pre-primary
Education is considered to be an integral part
of regular schools.
Therefore, all pre -primary instruction is
attached to Junior Basic or Primary Schools.
The pre primary education is termed as
Pre primary education also extends to
• crèches and
• Montessori schools.
In these sections of schools, these special
educational facilities are made available to the
children below the compulsory age of six.
The main objective of pre-primary education is
• to present an environment to children to
develop a healthy mind through
constructive activities and
• informal learning experiences.
• This environment also prepares children for
a later day primary education by
• enabling them to adjust to the surroundings
outside their home.
Pre-primary education helps develop
• the physical and mental development of
• promote their emotional and
educational development, and
• smoothen their socialization (social
Actually, in pre-primary education importance is
not to be given to any kind of formal teaching or
learning, and attention is to be given to the
psychological development of the children.
The activities of pre-school are to be designed as
per the interest and the need of the children. So, it
is ideal not to have a permanent syllabus for the
Generally, the main activities of pre-schools
are free-play, organized play, story sessions,
music and dance, acting, drawing and
painting, creative work, nature study,
language development, and inculcating a
sense of counting, measurements, and
• A child who is already a member of a family learns
to become a member of a society through the
process of socialization in which language plays a
very important role.
• Though it is often quoted that, as far as pre-school
is concerned, "love is the language and play is the
method," love should also be expressed in a
human language, in addition to other parental or
caregivers' loving behavior, including nonverbal
• The shelter of parental love takes a backseat
in the pre-school environment, and is, kind
of, substituted by an institutional
arrangement of a learning environment in
which teacher and other children come to
play a part.
• From a family situation, a child thus begins
to get exposed to the rain and shine of the
community that surrounds it.
Role of mother tongue
• This process of socialization becomes
very natural if it is done in the mother
tongue of the child.
• Since language itself is a system of
symbols, when the initial socialization is
done in a non-mother tongue of the
child, language symbolism gets more
complicated and the child begins to feel
• This happens more so, especially when the
language used in the pre-school has no
opportunities of reinforcement outside its
• First generation learners and children from
the families which have very little exposure
or competence in English face this barrier.
The Indian government lays emphasis to primary
education up to the age of fourteen years
(referred to as Elementary Education in India.)
It has also banned child labour in order to ensure
that the children do not enter unsafe working
Both free education and the ban on child labour
are difficult to enforce due to economic disparity
and social conditions. 80% of all recognized
schools at the Elementary Stage are government
run/supported, making it the largest provider of
education in the Country.
• However, due to shortage of resources
and lack of political will, this system
• massive gaps including high pupil
• shortage of infrastructure and
• poor level of teacher training.
• Education has also been made free for
children for six to 14 years of age or up
to class VIII under the Right of Children
to Free and Compulsory Education Act
UN-MDG Progress Report 2010
• In India, the per cent age of undernourished
population was reduced from 24 % to 21 %.
• Human Development Index of India was 134
in 1984 and it has remained same in 2007.
• South Asia has done well in providing
universal primary education, reaching 90%
• National Advisory Council in India
submitted a draft of a Food Security Bill to
Govt. of India.