Education-in-India

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About school education in India, need for more schools & teachers for the rising youth of India

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Education-in-India

  1. 1. School Education in India General Education of the Youth and Literacy and numeracy for the masses
  2. 2. General Structure of School Education A uniform structure of school education viz., the 10+2 system has been adopted by all the States and Union Territories of India. Primary Stage Middle Stage High School Stage Higher Secondary Stage Graduation Degree 2
  3. 3. Primary, Upper Primary, High and Higher Secondary schools However, within the States and the UTs, there are variations in the number of classes constituting the Primary, Upper Primary, High and Higher Secondary schools, 3
  4. 4. Within the States and the UTs, variations in age for admission to class I, medium of instruction, stages of public examinations, teaching of Hindi and English, number of working days in a year, academic session, vacation periods, fee structure, compulsory education etc. 4
  5. 5. Stages of School Education in India Primary Stage-[1-5] The Primary Stage consists of Classes I-V, i.e., of five year duration, in 20 States / UTs namely Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi and Karaikal and Yanam regions of Pondicherry. 5
  6. 6. The Primary Stage [I-IV] The primary stage consists of classes I-IV in Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Mahe region of Pondicherry 6
  7. 7. Middle Stage of education-[VI-VIII] The Middle Stage of education comprises Classes VI-VIII in as many as 18 States. UTs viz., Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi and Karaikal region of Pondicherry; 7
  8. 8. Middle Stage of education- [V-VII] Classes V-VII in Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Mahe region of Pondicherry and Classes VI-VII in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Yanam region of Pondicherry. In Nagaland Classes V – VIII constitute the upper primary stage. 8
  9. 9. The Secondary / High School The Secondary Stage consists of Classes IX-X in 19 States / UTs. Viz., Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Punjab, Rajasthan , Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi and Karaikal region of Pondicherry. The High School stage comprises classes VIII to X in 13 States/UTs viz., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Orissa, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Mahe & Yanam regions of Pondicherry. 9
  10. 10. Higher secondary School Higher secondary However, the Higher Secondary / Senior Secondary stage of school comprising classes XI-XII (10+2 pattern) is available in all the States / UTs though in some States / UTs these classes are attached to Universities / Colleges. When attached to colleges, it is called Pre- University course. 10
  11. 11. Primary Education Literacy drop out rate shortage of teachers shortage of primary schools
  12. 12. In primary level, grades or standards are from I to V. Primary schools, institutes providing education for grades I to V are the largest among the schools and educational institutes in India. Still their number is far less than what actually should be. The enrollment in primary schools is also greater than in any other level but drop out rate and shortage of teachers is significant in rural areas of many states. 12
  13. 13. The Secondary Education [classes 9-10.] The Secondary Education which serves as a bridge between primary and higher education, to prepare young persons of age group 14-18 in the world of work and entry into higher education. The Secondary Education starts with classes 9-10 leading to higher secondary classes 11 and 12. The relevant children population at the secondary and senior secondary level, as projected in 1996-97 by NSSO has been estimated at 9.66 crores. Against this population, the enrolment figures of the 1997-98 shows that only 2.70 crores attending schools. Thus, two-third of the eligible population remains out of the school system. 13
  14. 14. The Secondary Education [classes 9-12.] To accommodate the children in schools at secondary level, we have at present 1.10 lakhs institutions (1998-99). With the emphasis on universalisation of elementary education and programmes like District Primary Education Programme, the enrolment is bound to increase. In future, we may require more than two lakhs institutions at the secondary level to accommodate them. 14
  15. 15. Overall enrolment ratio: Cause of illiteracy/semi-literacy Combined gross enrolment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary education, in 2005 was 63.8 (%) (HDI) Dropout rates have placed limits on large number of children of this country to receive the light of literacy. 15
  16. 16. General Education upto graduation in India 16
  17. 17. Data of 2005: The gross enrolment ratio Classes (I-V) (6-11 years) 109.4% Classes (VI-VIII) (11-14 years) 71.15% Classes (I-VIII) (6-14 years) 94.92% Classes (IX-X) (14-16 years) 52.26% Classes (XI-XII) (16-18 years) 28.54% Higher Education (18-24 yrs) 11.61 % The drop out rate Classes (I-V) (6-11 years) 25.47 % Classes (I-VIII) (6-14 years) 48.71 % Classes (I-X) (6-16 years) 61.59 % These high drop out rates from both primary and secondary school, combined with low enrolment rates at the higher levels deprive tens of millions of children of their full rights as citizens. 17
  18. 18. Enrolled In & Dropped Out of School: 2003 data In 2003,Out of approx. 211 million children in the (6-14 yrs) age group - 84.91 % are enrolled in schools. More than 35 million children in the (6-14) age group are out of school Net primary school enrolment / attendance is only 77% By year 2016 there will be approx. 500 million people with less than five yrs of schooling Another 300 million that will not have completed high school. Two third of the population will lack minimum level of education Contd…. 18
  19. 19. • More than 50 % of the girls in the country do not enroll in schools • Only 45.8 % girls complete education in rural areas as compared to 66.3 % boys. In urban areas, 66.3 % girls complete education as opposed to 80.3 % boys CHILD LABOURERS • Children put in an average of 21 hours of labour per week, at the cost of education 60 million children are thought to be child labourers 35% of our population are still illiterate Source: (Data compiled from figures provided by CRY, NGO Global March Against Child Labour, and UNICEF), (UNICEF-India-Statistics (2004), (Report of the Committee on India Vision 2020, Planning Commission, 2002) 19
  20. 20. Vocational training and self-employment avenues Every year 5.5 million students pass out of Class X, of which 3.3 million go to Class XI, leaving 2.2 million out of the education stream. Those who drop out after Class VIII are approx. 20-21 million. Urgent attention needed for this 21 million-target group. Available formal training capacity of the country - only 2.3 million students. This leaves a gap of 18.7 million. The ITI system needs to be revamped to fill up this gap. Contd… 20
  21. 21. The National Literacy Mission (NLM) The Community Education Centre (CEC) NLM was based on the 1986 National Policy on Education; set up with the aim of imparting functional literacy to adults in the 15-35 age group by 1988--1995.
  22. 22. India – Moving towards a lifelong learning approach NLM was set up with the aim of imparting functional literacy to 80 million adults in the 15- 35 age group by 1988--1995. It started with a mass campaign approach: the Total Literacy Campaign (TLC), but has evolved into a programme of adult education. Literacy for youth and adults still remains its core, but it is developing elements of lifelong learning for increasingly large and diverse groups of participants. 22
  23. 23. National Literacy Mission: Literacy as an active and potent instrument of change The N L M conceived literacy as an active and potent instrument of change and for the creation of a learning society. Functional literacy was defined as: • Achieving self-reliance in literacy and numeracy; • Becoming aware of the causes of their own deprivation and ways of overcoming their condition through organisation, and participation in the process of development ; Acquiring skills to improve economic status and general well-being. 23
  24. 24. Functional literacy was also aimed at: adopting the values of national integration, environmental conservation, women’s equality and observance of small-family norms. 24
  25. 25. The revised National Policy on Education: 1992 NLM combined Post- Literacy and Continuing Education (PL & CE) activities in order to consolidate and improve functional literacy skills of neo-literates. The Post-Literacy Campaigns had three broad learning objectives – remediation, continuation and application. A new scheme of Continuing Education, distinct from the previous PL & CE, was launched by NLM in 1997. The aim was to provide learning opportunities to neo-literates on a continuing basis and to reinforce and widen the literacy skills for personal, social and economic improvement. 25
  26. 26. Adult Illiteracy Implementation of this functional and instrumental concept of literacy varied greatly and often veered towards a conventional approach that focused more on the mechanics of recognising alphabets at a rudimentary level, rather than self-sufficiency in acquiring the tools for further learning and developing critical consciousness. With over 300 million adults in illiteracy, India accounted for about 40 per cent of the world’s adult illiteracy. 26
  27. 27. The Community Education Centre (CEC) The Community Education Centre (CEC), the main delivery point of CE programmes, looked after by a Prerak (Animator), is meant to be a community-based centre with a library and reading room. It plans and carries out activities in training, information, culture, sports, communication and discussion forums for the communities it serves. The CEC is seen as a permanent institution, located in a public place, open to all, and run with close community involvement. 27
  28. 28. Key stakeholders of the Community Education Centre The participants are neo-literates, mostly women, and the Panchayats (elected local self-government bodies) are regarded as key stakeholders of the CEC. At district level the programme implementing agency is the Zila Shaksharta Samiti ( ZSS or District Literacy Society). A registered society with a General Council and an Executive Committee, under the leadership of the district head of administration. It receives funds from the government and disburses funds to CECs on the basis of approved plans. 28
  29. 29. Vocational And Life Enrichment Education A District Resource Unit (DRU), located in the District Institute of Education and Training (DIET), and the State Resource Centre provide technical and academic support to the programme. The Jan Shikshan Sansthan (People’s Training Organisation), a district-level institution, often managed by an NGO, works with the ZSS to provide vocational and life enrichment education. It offers courses based on local market demands. 29
  30. 30. Districts with low education level About a quarter of India’s 600 districts which have a low education level now each have a district literacy society and a functioning adult education programme under its auspices. Although the NLM objectives and programmes are conceptually linked to a broader approach to adult and lifelong learning, the heavy burden of illiteracy compels India to remain focused on narrow literacy objectives, especially in seven of the 28 states which account for 65 per cent of the total illiterate population. 30
  31. 31. Remedy for low education level It is in the same states that the national programme for primary education, Sarva Shisksha Abhiyan (Education for all Campaign), is weak and, therefore, continues to feed the pool of illiteracy. This is so much so that the primary schools have been described as maintaining a system of ‘institutionalised sub-literacy.’ (The Statesman, editorial, 22 August, 2006). Other challenges relate to finding effective pathways to address the multiple disadvantages of educationally-deprived populations who are living in extreme poverty, are largely low-caste or ethnic minorities, often in poor health, and women. 31
  32. 32. Expansion of functional literacy in India National Knowledge Commission (2008) stressed a focus on expanding functional literacy among the population. Illiteracy remains a major problem, even among the age-group 15-35 years. Therefore literacy programmes must be expanded rather than reduced, and given a different focus that is directed towards improving life skills and meeting felt needs, especially (but not only) among the youth. 32
  33. 33. Role of Central & State Governments The primary responsibility for school education is borne by the state governments. Therefore any policy changes must be with the full participation and involvement of the States. However, positive changes in systems of schooling will require the active involvement of the Central Government as well as State Governments. This is not only in the matter of providing resources but also in promoting organizational and other changes. 33
  34. 34. SUPPORT ORGANI SATIONS of Union Department of Education: National Council of Educational Research and Training : Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS) Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS) Central Tibetan Schools Administration (CTSA) Central Institute of Education Technology 34
  35. 35. National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). The NCERT was established in 1961. It functions as a resource centre in the field of school education and teacher education. The NCERT undertakes programmes related to research, development and training extension and dissemination of educational innovations etc., through various constituent Departments at the headquarters in New Delhi and 11 Field Officers all over the country. Publication of school textbooks and other educational material like teachers’ guides/manuals etc. are its major functions. 35
  36. 36. Central Institute of Education Technology (CIET) CIET is an important unit of NCERT which is engaged in the production of satellite based audio and video programmes for Elementary and Secondary levels which are aired on All India Radio, and Doordarshan. CIET also coordinates programme production activities of the six States Institute of Education Technology at Patna, Lucknow, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Pune and Bhubaneshwar. 36
  37. 37. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) The CBSE, the Headquarter of which is in Delhi from 1962, subscribes to a diverse, mass participative education system with a broader base of access that provides the benefits of uniformity, flexibility and diversity as envisaged in the National Policy of Education; the services of the Board are available to various educational institutions in the country and to meet the educational needs of those students who have to move from State to State. 37
  38. 38. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) It was then called as ‘The Board of High School and Intermediate Education’. It was established with a view to play a useful role in the field of Secondary Education, to raise the standard of Secondary Education, to make the services of the Board available to various educational institutions in the country and to meet the educational needs of those students who have to move from State to State. With the expansion of its territorial jurisdiction, 38
  39. 39. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Board today has 8979 schools [on 31-03- 2007] including 141 schools in 21 countries. There are 897 Kendriya Vidyalayas, 1761 Government Schools, 5827 Independent Schools, 480 Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas and 14 Central Tibetan Schools. 39
  40. 40. The prime focus of the CBSE is on Innovations in teaching-learning methodologies by devising students friendly and students centered paradigms. Ø Reforms in examinations and evaluation practices. Ø Skill learning by adding job-oriented and job-linked inputs. Ø Regularly updating the pedagogical skills of the teachers and administrators by conducting in service training programmes, workshops etc. 40
  41. 41. 41

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