Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The Grammars of Social Media: Thinking platform data under the modes of technicity

660 views

Published on

Digital Media Winter Institute 2018
Smart Data Sprint: Interpreters of Platform Data, Jan. 29 - Feb.2, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
[Short talk]



...................................
Correction in slide 17: #DilmaRoussef and #MichelTemer co-related tag Network. See the Follow Network here: https://www.slideshare.net/jannajoceli/why-look-at-social-media-apis-81702316

Published in: Software
  • Be the first to comment

The Grammars of Social Media: Thinking platform data under the modes of technicity

  1. 1. THE GRAMMARS OF SOCIAL MEDIA: Universidade NOVA de Lisboa NOVA FCSH ˚ iNOVA Media Lab @jannajoceli ˚ thesocialpla?orms.wordpress.com Janna Joceli C. de Omena Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January - 2 February ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH Thinking platform data under the modes of technicity
  2. 2. THE GRAMMARS OF SOCIAL MEDIA following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following All trackable and collectable forms of activity imposed by social media platforms
  3. 3. TECHNICITY following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING A mode of existence* of web platforms, and a form of knowledge *The use of “mode of existence” is inspired by the work of Gilbert Simondon, On the Mode of Existence of Technical Objects (1980),
  4. 4. LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING 1. Grammars 2. Technicity 4. Interpretation 3. Knowledge 5. Case à HASHTAG ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH
  5. 5. Grammars of action are schemas of representation (and also reorganisers) of human activity that originate from computational system’s capture model: “discourse-made-machinery” or “a linguistic metaphor for human activity” [Phil Agre 1994] 1. Grammars Users + Developers + Advertisers + Brands + Researchers + Activists + Government Authorities + Non-profit organizations Application Programming Interface Front-End Interface Back-End Interface [What we can do in the front-end interface is stored, organised, and partially made available in the back-end] Social Media Grammars: Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media Posts ˚˚ URLs˚˚ Tweets ˚˚ Comments ˚˚ Replies ˚˚ Hashtags ˚˚Location ˚˚ Memes ˚˚ Links ˚˚ Channels ˚˚ Reactions ˚˚ Shares ˚˚ Likes
  6. 6. Front-end Grammatisation Public or Private Account ˚˚ Stories [photos, videos, live, boomerang] ˚˚ Mute Stories ˚˚ Direct Messages ˚˚ Upload one or more photos and one minute video ˚˚ Like ˚˚ Comment ˚˚ Save Post ˚˚ Like a comment ˚˚ Reply a comment ˚˚ Post Notifications ˚˚ Tag people ˚˚ Block Users ˚˚ Search [people, tags, places] Back-end Grammatisation GET/users/user-id ˚˚ GET/users/self/media/recent ˚˚ GET/users/user-id/media/recent ˚˚ GET/users/self/ media/liked ˚˚ GET/users/self/follows ˚˚ GET/users/ self/followed-by ˚˚ GET/users/user-id/relationship ˚˚ GET/media/media-id ˚˚ GET/media/shortcode/shortcode ˚˚ GET/media/search ˚˚ GET/media-id/comments ˚˚ GET/˚˚ Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH [Instagram Pla?orm API]
  7. 7. Platform Data ---à “the outcome of capture systems which allow to collapse action and its capture into pre-structured in form, and flexible in meaning” [Gerlitz 2016]
  8. 8. Grammars: mechanisms, production and meaning Posts ˚˚ URLs˚˚ Tweets ˚˚ Comments ˚˚ Replies ˚˚ Hashtags ˚˚Location ˚˚ Memes ˚˚ Links ˚˚ Channels ˚˚ Reactions ˚˚ Shares ˚˚ Likes Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH 2. Actors [humans or automated beings]: ---à have different reasons to produce social media grammars [‘the interpretative flexibility’ van Dijck 2012] ---à assign different meanings to social media grammars [a call for accounting the thickness of the data and its variety of meanings Dalton and Thatcher 2014] 3. Social media grammars should not be treated equally across platforms [Rogers 2017] 1.  Likes, shares, tweets, comments work under particular mechanisms (and an inherent technicity) that belong to social media platforms ---à The politics of platforms (Gillespie 2010] and cultures of use ---à Datafication, Commodification, Selection [van Dijck 2016] ---à Algorithmic configurations [Rieder 2014]
  9. 9. Bots comments --à InstagramMy friends comments --à Facebook Sponsored post --à Facebook My Mix suggested by YouTubeTrends --à Twitter
  10. 10. MODE OF EXISTENCE LIKING WAY OF BEING watching THE OPERACIONAL FUNCTIONING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying Hashtagging A FORM OF KNOWLEDGE following SHARING FUNCTIONAL NOTIONS OF KNOWLEDGE A degree of technicity is required to grasp social media grammars
  11. 11. 2.Technicity Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH “If one wants to understand a being completely, one must study it by considering it in its entelechy, and not it in its inactivity or its static states” [Simondon 2009, 19]
  12. 12. Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media 3) Applied research with digital methods 2) Method Social Media Technicity Mode of existence Way of being Schema of concretization Gilbert Simondon (1980, 2009) Algorithmic Techniques APIs Research Strategies 1) Technical Knowledge --—> THICK DESCRIPTION: APIS + ALGORITHMS WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN SOCIAL MEDIA APIS? --—> ◊ politics ◊ technical features ◊ values and assumptions that define them Three connected kinds of problems: --—> --—> --—> ALGORITHIMIC MECHANISMS--—> ◊ shifting concerns from “what is being said” to “how it is being processed and rendered” (Langlois and Elmer 2013) ◊lack of consciousness of what it means to “mechanise methodology” Rieder and Rohle (2012) REFINE THE COMPREHENSION OF SOCIAL MEDIA GRAMMARS’ OF ACTION ALGORITHIMIC API RESULTS EXPLORE WAYS OF DOING RESEARCH --—> --—> --—>
  13. 13. Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media 3) Applied research with digital methods 2) Method Social Media Technicity Mode of existence Way of being Schema of concretization Gilbert Simondon (1980, 2009) Algorithmic Techniques APIs Research Strategies 1) Technical Knowledge --—> THICK DESCRIPTION: APIS + ALGORITHMS WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN SOCIAL MEDIA APIS? --—> ◊ politics ◊ technical features ◊ values and assumptions that define them Three connected kinds of problems: --—> --—> --—> ALGORITHIMIC MECHANISMS--—> ◊ shifting concerns from “what is being said” to “how it is being processed and rendered” (Langlois and Elmer 2013) ◊lack of consciousness of what it means to “mechanise methodology” Rieder and Rohle (2012) REFINE THE COMPREHENSION OF SOCIAL MEDIA GRAMMARS’ OF ACTION ALGORITHIMIC API RESULTS EXPLORE WAYS OF DOING RESEARCH --—> --—> --—>
  14. 14. A CALL FOR FUNCTIONAL NOTIONS OF KNOWLEGDE TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING 1 2 3 4 5
  15. 15. Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH 3. Knowledge Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media 1. What are the entry points used to collect social media grammars? 2. What entry points cannot be captured anymore? 3. What grammars (digital objects) can be part of my study? 4. How far back in time can data be retrieved? 5. What are the standard output files?
  16. 16. Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media User ID Page id Public Group id Closed Group ids Key word URL Users Key words Hashtag LocaGon Entry points for Data ExtracGon* Video ID Channel ID User Name Hashtag LocaGon Hashtag Tweets meta-info Networks Geotags URLs Video Info Video List and Network Channel Info and Network *Tools: Netvizz, Twitonomy, DMI-TCAT, YouTube Data Tools, Visual Tagnet Explorer, Tumblr Tool Media and users Info Co-Tag Network Follow and follower Networks Posts Co-Tag Network Output Files: CSV., TAB. GDF., XML., interacGve chart --—> Social media grammars that can be part of my research Personal Networks [friendship connecGons and like networks] Pages and Public Groups data Page Like Network Page Gmeline images Pages and Groups Network Closed Group Data Friendship connecGon in Groups List of events List of shared URLs
  17. 17. Unavailable entry point for data collection on Instagram: [Instagram User Name to retrieve the Follow or Follower Network] Instagram Pla?orm, 2016. The Follower Network of Dilma Rousseff and Michel Temer. ExtracGon tool: Instagram Network, developer: Erik Borra. VisualizaGon sohware: Gephi (Omena, 31 May 2016)
  18. 18. Facebook Pla?orm, 2013. My Friendship Like Network in December 2013. ExtracGon tool: Netvizz. VisualizaGon sohware: Gephi.(Omena, 2015) Unavailable entry points for data collection on Facebook [Users ID to retrieve Personal Networks – Friendship connections and Like Network]
  19. 19. Unavailable entry points for data collection on Facebook [Groups ID to retrieve Close Group Data, and Friendship Like Network] Facebook Pla?orm, 2014. Five Facebook Groups - the fans of The Big Bang Theory. Undirected graph of the friendship connecGon according to gender and locale. 13.762 acGve users. ExtracGon tool: Netvizz, developer: Bernhard Rieder. VisualizaGon sohware: Gephi. (Omena, 2015)
  20. 20. [The search for websummit tags was made on 28 sep 2017] 961 posts retrieved in November 2014 2.256 posts retrieved in November 2015 7.216 posts retrieved in November 2016 ParGcular event: #websummit Data extracGon: 28 September 2017 How far back in time can data be retrieved? Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH media items are ordered according to when they were tagged ˚˚ Instagram is a good source for historical data when it comes to the study of non-popular tags or event-based tags.
  21. 21. Popular tag: #ForaTemer Data extracGon: 8 August 2017 #foratemer 10898 media items that were posted between 2014.08.19 and 2017.08.08 »» total per year: 2014: 13 posts 2015: 1 post 2016: 17 posts 2017: 10.865 posts jul_836 aug_9.986 [only 8 days] Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH How far back in time can data be retrieved? media items are ordered according to when they were tagged ˚˚ Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media
  22. 22. Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH the decisions we make and the metrics we opt for in order to first select and then give meaning to social media grammars the need to go beyond high-engagement parameters 4.Interpretation Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media
  23. 23. Engagement Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media
  24. 24. The dual logic of Engagement 1. the sums of acGons media items receive 2. the recurrent use of na-vely digital objects (1) or grammars of ac-on (2) from many actors about a topic + (1) Rogers, 2013; (2) Agre, 1994 Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media
  25. 25. the most engaged list [or popular or famous] the ordinary list [or marginal or less popular] 1. the sums of acGons media items receive 2. the ordinary use of na-vely digital objects (1) or grammars of ac-on (2) from many actors about a topic + The dual logic of Engagement (1) Rogers, 2013; (2) Agre, 1994 ? dominant voice ordinary voice Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media
  26. 26. LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING 1. Grammars 2. Technicity 4. Interpretation 3. Knowledge 5. Case study: Hashtag Engagement Research
  27. 27. *Project conducted in the context of Digital Methods Summer School at the University of Amsterdam in 2017, lead together with Elaine Rabello, Andre Mintz, and others. Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH The four perspecGves to visualise hashtag engagement is an alternaGve approach to research based on high-engagement parameters. It proposes the split of dominant and ordinary voices for reaching a broader narraGve of the not as popular publicaGons; providing both different ouqakes of the the same phenomenon and findings the span across the perspecGves. [Omena, J.J., Mintz, & A Rabello, E. (forthcoming). Visualising hashtag engagement]
  28. 28. Media Item Perspective Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media Four perspectives to visualise Hashtag Engagement˚˚ Metrics of audience engagement per media item combined with user activity ˚˚ 1.  It is a form of delimiting the dominant and ordinary voices 2.  It allows to detect the composition and structure of the dominant/ordinary voices 3.  It benefits both the visual and textual content analysis of these groups of actors Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH
  29. 29. [Designed by Beatrice Gobbo]
  30. 30. Workers’ Protests: General Strike [15 March 2017] midianinja uneoficial jeanwyllys_real br4sileirissimos samanthaschmutz dilmabolada jornalistaslivres cutbrasil Tuliparuiz ofalanteblog foratemer sergio_moro_heroi_do_brasil umaoutraopiniao artesdepressao revistaforum portalg1 foracorruptosoficial trlacerda radioguerrilha filhasdefrida Conservative Protests: Anti-corruption [26 March 2017] direitadaopressao chegadecorruptos sergio_moro_heroi_do_brasil rachelsherazade vaza.di_u_ma_vez foracorruptosoficial sergiomoroironico vejanoinsta ronaldocaiado quadrinsta radiojovempan jornal_opopular vitoriotrevisanneto fora.corruptos brtrends opovoonline promonarquia portalne10 acordabrasil__ foi_golpe The dominant voice along the day of protests, March 2017, Brazil. Media Item perspective Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media Four perspectives to visualise Hashtag Engagement˚˚ Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH
  31. 31. User perspective Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media Four perspectives to visualise Hashtag Engagement˚˚ Metrics of caption or hashtag adoption per user ˚˚ 1.  It is a way to visualise the textual content (captions) by clustering tags, terms or positioning 2. It allows to relate hashtag content with caption or visual content 3. It benefits the identification of actors who try to create a buzz around the hashtag 4. It helps to detect botted accounts Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH
  32. 32. User perspective Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media Four perspectives to visualise Hashtag Engagement˚˚ Methodological experiment conducted in the context of Digital Methods Summer School at the University of Amsterdam in 2017. Analysis by Janna Joceli, Elaine Rabello, Andre Mintz, Suay Ozkula, Gabriela Sued, Ece Elbeyi, and Alessandra Cicali. (see hqps://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/InstagramLivenessVisualisingengagement).
  33. 33. User perspective Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media Four perspectives to visualise Hashtag Engagement˚˚
  34. 34. 26 March 2017 – Instagram’s most active users by hashtag mention A chronological perspective from 2016 to March 2017 Total of mentions: 33.856 ˚˚ Data extraction: 27 March 2017 Tools: Visual Tagnet Explorer and RankFlow User perspective Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media Four perspectives to visualise Hashtag Engagement˚˚
  35. 35. Visual perspective Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media Four perspectives to visualise Hashtag Engagement˚˚ Visual characteristics of images associated with hashtags˚˚ It promotes automated analysis of visual content or the option of plotting images to detect visual patterns FOOD TEXT BANNERS FACES SELFIES CROWDS URBAN LANDSCAPE SKY Image-Label Network of the anG-coup protests in Brazil, 18 March 2016. Methodological experiment conducted in the context of Digital Methods Summer School at the University of Amsterdam in 2017. Analysis by Janna Joceli, Elaine Rabello, Andre Mintz, Suay Ozkula, Gabriela Sued, Ece Elbeyi, and Alessandra Cicali. (see hqps://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/InstagramLivenessVisualisingengagement).
  36. 36. 15 March 2017, Brazil – Exploring the visual patterns of the Workers Protests [Available images: 5.688 ˚˚ Tools: DownThemAll and ImageSorter] Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media
  37. 37. Everybody in the streets against The Terminator: Michel Temer NAMASTEMER: The ‘Fora Temer’ that lives in me, salutes the ‘Fora Temer’ that lives in you. I Want to retire! [plotting images to detect memes]
  38. 38. Grammars of hashtag perspective Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media Forms of hashtag use: positioning, double sense hashtags, hijacked hashtags, hate hashtags Four perspectives to visualise Hashtag Engagement˚˚ Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH
  39. 39. Omena, J.J. 2018 The Grammars of Social Media Digital Media Winter InsGtute 2018 ˚ SMART Data Sprint: Interpreters of Pla?orm of Data ˚ 29 January ˚ Universidade NOVA de Lisboa˚ NOVA FCSH The stories pla?orm grammars can tell will depend on what you have collected and how, what you have selected and the opGons you have made to filter and visualise social media grammars. Before analysing or restarGng this same process, you describe what you see, you describe your impressions - accounGng the whole process. The descripGon is as important as the findings. Finally, all intellectual effort you have put on that dataset will define what or how you interpret a parGcular issue according to one or more grammars.
  40. 40. TWEETING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching OBRIGADA J linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting TWEETING retweeting LIKING following SHARING watching TAGGING linking COMMENTING replying DELETING hashtagging POSTING reposting retweeting LIKING following SHARING

×