Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

vernacular architecture in context to Climate Change


Check these out next

1 of 31 Ad

More Related Content

Slideshows for you (20)

Similar to vernacular architecture in context to Climate Change (20)


Recently uploaded (20)

vernacular architecture in context to Climate Change

  2. 2. vernacular architecture • The vernacular architecture of any place is evolved through ages by consistent and continuous effort for more efficient solutions. The vernacular architecture of any place is known for its respect to climate wrt use of passive methods for a comfortable indoor environment. • The word ‘vernacular’ is derived from the Latin word “Vernaculus” meaning local or native. Hence vernacular architecture refers to “native science of building”.
  3. 3. introduction • Many architectural publications advocate that traditional and vernacular homes form the basis of environmentally conscious design. In developing countries, where most of the population remains in rural areas using traditional buildings and technologies, the only feasible way to provide them with better living conditions is to upgrade traditional and vernacular homes. • Source: • Meir, I.A. and Roaf, S.C., 2006. The future of the vernacular: Towards new methodologies for the understanding and optimization of the performance of vernacular buildings. • In: Asquith,L. and Vellinga,M. (Eds). Vernacular architecture in the twenty-first century: Theory, education and practice. (Abingdon: Taylor & Francis Press), pp. 84-90.
  4. 4. DETERMINERS OF VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE. • Broadly speaking, however, vernacular architecture of a region is primarily influenced by the following characteristics:- 1. Climate. 2. Locally available building materials. 3. Indigenous Construction Techniques. 4. Local customs and Social Traditions also influence and mold vernacular architecture of a region.
  5. 5. Sustainable way of life • Vernacular buildings record lifestyles of the past when people had to find a sustainable way of life or perish, just as we will have to now. The new importance of vernacular building is that it has vital ecological lessons for today. • Source: Pearson,S. and Meeson,R. (eds) 2001. Vernacular Buildings in a Changing World: Understanding, Recording and Conservation. York, Council for British Archaeology.
  6. 6. climate and culture • Although housing typologies are a result of multiple determinants, climate and culture are the two most important determinants. Materials, construction, and technology are best treated as modifying factors, rather than form determinants. They make possible the enclosure of a space organization decided upon for other reasons, and possibly modify that organization. They facilitate and make possible or impossible certain decisions, but never determine form. • Source: Rapoport Amos, 1969. House, Form and Culture. Prentice Hall Publications.
  7. 7. Need for recognizing vernacular values by incorporating them • The orientation of buildings’, internal arrangement of spaces, the presence of internal court-yards, use of locally available materials and other factors have combined together to create the desired conditions. Other than improved thermal comfort, the vernacular architecture gives a number of pointers towards betterment of architectural quality in modern architecture with respect to planning principles, aesthetics and building materials used in built form. • There is a need for recognizing vernacular values by incorporating them into our contemporary built forms.
  8. 8. At a glance. • Climate. • Local building materials. • Local customs & Traditions. • Social & Cultural influence on built form. • Indigenous Construction Techniques.
  9. 9. Sample Regions Studied-West Bengal , Kerala and Gujarat. (Warm Humid & Hot Dry)
  10. 10. FINDING CONTEXTUALITY IN VERNACULAR: A Matrix. Click to add text Click to add text
  11. 11. Evolution In Vernacular- Bengal
  13. 13. VARIANTS
  14. 14. Materials • The common building materials used for vernacular construction in Kerala are mud, laterite, red brick, granite stone blocks (in foundations), lime mortar, wood, bamboo, clay roofing tiles and coconut palm leaves. Clay is used in many forms - for walling, in filling the timber floors and making bricks and tiles. Palm leaves are used for thatching the roofs and for making partition walls. Timber, abundant in the state, is the other most important structural element used in Kerala.
  15. 15. Indigenous Technology • Soft laterite available at shallow depth can be easily cut, dressed and used as building blocks. It is a rare local stone that gets stronger and durable with exposure to the atmosphere. • Block of this stone may be bonded in mortars of shell lime – the classic binding material used in traditional buildings.The major building material used was a locally available inferior variety of laterite stone, locally known as ''cheekkal ''.
  16. 16. Indigenous Technology • The skilful choice of timber, artful assembly and delicate carving of wood work for columns, walls and roofs frames are the unique characteristics of Kerala architecture, using accurate joints. (Source:Dr. HarimohanPillai, http://www.archiestud
  17. 17. CLIMATE- RESPONSIVENESS. The wet tropical environments of Kerala create typical architecture with the following characteristics:  1. Use of shingle roofs and protruding eaves as response to tropical rain, wind and other natural elements .  2. Use of grilled windows and porous walls as response to tropical sun glare  3. Significance of the rectangular I- shaped building mass .  4. Open lay-out living spaces. (Source:Dili, A.S., M.A.Naseer, T.Zacharia Varghese, 2010. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, 03(01): 1-5.)
  18. 18. SOCIO- CULTURAL INFLUENCE • The environment sought reflects many socio-cultural forces, including religious beliefs, family and clan structure and social organization. • The houses and the villages are symbolic of the fact that societies share generally accepted goals and values. • Vernacular dwellings are more a result of the aims and desires of an unified group for an ideal environment. • Source: Rapoport Amos, 1969. House, Form and Culture. Prentice Hall Publications.
  19. 19. SOCIO- CULTURAL INFLUENCE • In the district of Kottayam there is a traditional strip of canal-settlement with a couple of rows of traditional-vernacular houses facing the river and the boulevard flanking both sides of the river. • These strips mostly belong to traders and merchants who are Muslim and Christian Syrian.
  20. 20. SOCIO- CULTURAL INFLUENCE • The house types are popularly considered Christian Syrian and perform the eclectic vocabulary of Kerala, Southeast Asian, and Portuguese styles. The seashore settlements, especially those around the ancient trading ports, show the most extreme eclectic features compared to those in inland Kerala. • Source: Susilo, I., 2010. The Living Culture and Typo- Morphology of Vernacular-Traditional Houses in Kerala, ah_w.pdf.
  21. 21. Agraharams. • The Agraharams of Kerala is the standing vestiges of the history of a group of people who were basically Brahmins who had migrated to this land and made it their abode. • The name originates from the fact that the agraharams have rows of houses on either side of the road and the temple to the village god at the centre, thus resembling a garland around the temple. • An agraharam is held to be two rows of houses running north-south on either side of a road at one end of which would be a temple to Shiva and at the other end, a temple to Vishnu. • The design and layout of the Brahmin agraharams are in contrast to the traditional architectural style followed in Kerala
  22. 22. Bhungas-Kutch,Gujarat. Gupta,J. and Mazumdar,S. (2016), How sustainable are vernacular dwellings? , Architecture time space & people, Vol. 16, Issue 2, February 2016, pp. 34-40. (ISSN 0973- 8339).
  23. 23. Hasan Fathy's Pioneering Work  Hassan Fathy (1973) built thick mud walls and traditional courtyards, in his works at New Gourna Village for 3,000 families.  He created opportunities for passive cooling and enlisted the villagers as builders  Fathy used the stack effect to good effect in his designed dwellings,  with intelligently placed courtyards and proper openings at different levels. Inducing stack effect through well designed courtyards and properly placed openings at different levels by Hasan Fathy. (Source: Fathy, 1973)​
  24. 24. Conclusion: Lesson learnt from tradition to take forward.  Traditional Indian way of living was inherently energy cautious.  A multi-faceted life-style with strong linkages to the environmental and climatic context, appropriateness of materials and technologies used.  Many of the traditional features are replicated in some modern buildings, but the functional utility of the buildings are lost while replicating them.  Traditional materials and techniques can be analyzed in terms of energy consumption, in future studies.  The Vernacular strategies in existence in India, irrespective of the fact that not much quantitative studies have been done in the field, possess immense potential in this regard and need further research.  Appropriate planning devices like courtyards, suitable orientation, envelope design, responsive roof design and appropriate fenestration design should be employed.  Stress on locally available materials without major modifications in their organic states along with the use of local crafts and skills should be done.
  25. 25. Re-interpreting.... Traditional homes in warm-humid climates using light-weight construction with openable walls and shaded outdoor porches, raised above ground. Modern Day interpretation of the Traditional timber frame roof in concrete Kerala.(Source:Dr.Harimohan Pillai, (Source:
  26. 26. Other Indigenous Vernacular Techniques. • Rammed earth domes - The walls, which formed a hexagon on the inside, were also made of rammed earth. To transfer the thrust from the dome to the foundation, buttresses were integrated with the walls. • The Nubian dome technique has been known in Upper Egypt for thousands of years. In this technique, circumferential courses of adobes are laid using a movable guide. • Persian dome with wind Persian dome with wind catchers.
  27. 27. Compacted Soil Block • The technique of production of compacted soil block is relatively young in comparison with other methods. • Compacting the soil in a small form produces a block, which by means of the increased density, is both stronger and more water resistant than an ordinary mud brick. • Compressing the prepared soil "pre-designed mixture of clay, sand, and fine gravel" in a dry- moist condition (humidity 8-12%) under high pressure (60-100 Kg/cm2) in a small steel moulds. • When moist earth is compacted in a manual or powered press, the compressed elements so formed are called “soil blocks.” • In their unbaked state, bricks produced by an extruder in a brick plant are called “green bricks.
  28. 28. Way Forward...for fighting climate change thru essence of vernacular architecture. • How to recreate the thermal properties of traditional materials like mud with cow-dung layer, rice husk, and thermally insulative khapra (clay tile) layer with modern day industrially produced materials . • Calculating thermal conductivity, transmittance and insulation properties of bamboo reinforced rammed earth walls and explore other fusions of bamboo and earth to make composite materials with good thermal performance in tropical climates. • A comprehensive study of the thermal properties of non- stabilized compressed earth blocks with the goal of having it published in ASHRAE and in the building standards of India should be made. • The Bureau of Indian Standards has already brought out a code of practice (IS: 2110-1980) for the construction of rammed cement soil walls for rural houses. Further codes for rural houses need to be brought for construction with compressed earth blocks and rammed earth walls to bring uniformity in construction practices with mud in different parts of the country. • Use of rationalized traditional technologies needs to be researched upon and encouraged as has been done and displayed at the Rural Building Centre of National Institute of Rural Development, Hyderabad (NIRD), a HUDCO initiative, in line with 16 diverse climatic areas of India including Kutch, hot-dry area, coastal high-rain areas, Deccan Plateau, etc.
  29. 29. Thank You, It's been a pleasure presenting this to you.