Module 3 enzymes and electrolytes


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Module 3 enzymes and electrolytes

  1. 1. Enzymes and Electrolytes
  2. 2. 3 Liver Enzymes • Alkaline Phosphatase/ALP • Alanine Aminotransferase/ALT • Asparate Aminotransferase/AST • The liver filters and processes blood as it circulates through the body. It metabolizes nutrients, detoxifies harmful substances, makes blood clotting proteins and performs many other vital functions. The cells in the liver contain proteins called enzymes that drive these chemical reactions. • When liver cells are damaged or destroyed, the enzymes in the cells leak out into the blood, where they can be measured by blood tests. Further testing is required for any abnormal result.
  3. 3. Electrolytes • Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge. • Electrolytes affect the amount of water in your body, the acidity of your blood (pH), your muscle function, and other important processes. You lose electrolytes when you sweat. You must replace them by drinking fluids. • Common electrolytes include: • • • • • • Calcium Chloride Magnesium Phosphorous Potassium Sodium
  4. 4. Calcium • A test for calcium in the blood checks the calcium level in the body that is not stored in the bones. Calcium is the most common mineral in the body and one of the most important. The body needs it to build and fix bones and teeth, help nerves work, make muscles squeeze together, help blood clot, and help the heart to work. Almost all of the calcium in the body is stored in bone. The rest is found in the blood. • Normally the level of calcium in the blood is carefully controlled. When blood calcium levels get low (hypocalcemia), the bones release calcium to bring it back to a good blood level. When blood calcium levels get high (hypercalcemia), the extra calcium is stored in the bones or passed out of the body in urine and stool. The amount of calcium in the body depends on the amount of: • Calcium you get in your food. • Calcium and vitamin D your intestines absorb. • Phosphate in the body. • Certain hormones, including parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and estrogen in the body.
  5. 5. Chloride • A chloride test measures the level of chloride in your blood or urine. Chloride helps keep the amount of fluid inside and outside of your cells in balance. It also helps maintain proper blood volume, blood pressure, and pH of your body fluids. Tests for sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate are usually done at the same time as a blood test for chloride. • Most of the chloride in your body comes from the salt (sodium chloride) you eat. Chloride is absorbed by your intestines when you digest food. Extra chloride leaves your body in your urine.
  6. 6. Potassium • This test measures the amount of potassium in the blood. Potassium (K+) helps nerves and muscles communicate. It also helps move nutrients into cells and waste products out of cells. Your doctor may order this test to diagnose or monitor kidney disease. The most common cause of high potassium levels is kidney disease. • Because potassium is important to heart function, your doctor may order this test if you have signs of high blood pressure or heart problems. Small changes in potassium levels can have a big effect on the activity of nerves and muscles, especially the heart. Low levels of potassium can lead to an irregular heartbeat or other electrical malfunction of the heart. High levels cause decreased heart muscle activity. Either situation can lead to life-threatening heart problems.
  7. 7. Sodium • Sodium is a substance that the body needs to work properly. Sodium is found in most foods. Your blood sodium level represents a balance between the sodium and water in the food and drinks you consume and the amount in urine. A small amount is lost through stool and sweat. • Many things can affect this balance. Your doctor may order this test if you: • • • • Have had a recent injury, surgery, or serious illness Consume large or small amounts of salt or fluid Receive intravenous (IV) fluids Take diuretics (water pills) or certain other medications, including the hormone aldosterone The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt.
  8. 8. CO2 / Carbon Dioxide • The CO2 test is most often done as part of an electrolyte or basic metabolic panel. Changes in your CO2 level may suggest that you are losing or retaining fluid, which causes an imbalance in your body's electrolytes. • CO2 levels in the blood are influenced by kidney and lung function. The kidneys are mainly responsible for maintaining the normal bicarbonate levels.
  9. 9. CO2 testing may be ordered, usually as part of an electrolyte panel when: Someone is having a routine blood screen • A doctor suspects that a patient may be retaining water or is dehydrated, upsetting their electrolyte balance • A doctor wants to evaluate a patient’s acid-base balance (pH) • A doctor wants to monitor a condition or treatment that might cause an electrolyte imbalance •