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The problems of identity and change


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The problems of identity and change

  1. 1. The Problems of identity and Change.<br />-John Michael Lu Esquivel<br />
  2. 2. Heraclitus<br />Focused to a new problem, which is the problem of Change.<br />Chief idea was “all things are in flux” <br />Famous for his doctrine of change being central to the universe, as stated in his famous saying, "You cannot step twice into the same river.“<br />
  3. 3. Flux and Fire<br />Heraclitus assumes that there must be something which changes, and he argued that this something is fire.<br />-The world itself consists of a law-like interchange of elements, symbolized by fire. What led Heraclitus to fasten upon fire as the basic element in things was that fire behaves in such a way as to suggest how the process of change operates. <br />Fire is simultaneously a deficiency and a surplus it must constantly be fed and it constantly gives off something either in the form of heat, smoke, or ashes. <br /><ul><li>Heraclitus meant that the world is an “ever-living Fire” whose constant movement is assured by “measures of it kindling and measures going out.”
  4. 4. “all things are an exchange for fire, and fire for all things.” </li></li></ul><li>Parmenides<br />Younger contemporary of Heraclitus and the founder of Eleatic school of philosophy.<br />For Him, change is impossible. The very notion of change is incoherent. <br />Rejected the very notion of change resting his argument on at least two grounds: namely. That if there is a single substance behind all things, the concept of change is absurd logically. And that the phenomenon of change is basically an illusion. <br />he also holds that there is no coming into existence, or ceasing to exist. According to Parmenides, everything that exists is permanent, ungenerated, indestructible, and unchanging.<br />“All is one”<br />
  5. 5. Zeno<br />Born in Elea about 489 B.C., he was over 40 years old when his master Parmenides was about 65 and when Socrates was a very young man. <br />He defended the belief that motion and change are illusions in a series of paradoxical arguments.<br />
  6. 6. Zeno’s Paradoxes<br />1. The Racecourse - “motion is impossible, because an object in motion must reach the half-way point before it gets to the end” (Aristotle, Physics 239b11-13). Why is this a problem? Because the same argument can be made about half of the race course: it can be divided in half in the same way that the entire race course can be divided in half. And so can the half of the half of the half, and so on, ad infinitum.<br />2. Achilles and the tortoise – “The turtle says no matter how quickly you reach where I was, I will always be at the same time another step ahead, because you are always starting in my past and I will always have my head start. “ <br />
  7. 7. Zeno’s Paradoxes<br />3. The Arrow – “If everything when it occupies an equal space is at rest, and if that which is in locomotion is always occupying such a space at any moment, the flying arrow is therefore motionless.” Whereas the first two paradoxes presented divide space, this paradox starts by dividing time—and not into segments, but into points.<br />4. The Relativity of Motion – <br />
  8. 8. Empedocles<br />He said that there is change and at the same time affirming that reality is fundamentally changeless.<br />He agreed with Parmenides that being is uncreated and indestructible that is simply is, saying that “from what in no wise exists, it is impossible for anything to come into being; and for being to perish completely is incapable of fulfillment and unthinkable; for it will always be there, whenever any one may place it on any occasion.” <br /> but unlike Parmenides, he did not agree that being consists simply of the one. To accept the notion of the One would require him to deny the reality of motion, but to him the phenomenon of motion was both too obvious and compelling to deny.<br />
  9. 9. Anaxagoras<br />Agreed with Empedocles that all coming and into and going out of being consists merely in the mixture and separation of already existing substances but he rejected Empedocles account that the formation of the objects of an experience is the product of the forces of Love and Hate. <br />
  10. 10. End of the First Part<br />