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©	2017	Arm	Limited	
Jan	Jongboom,	Arm	
Johan	Stokking,	The	Things	Industries
Getting	started	with	LoRa	
using	Arm	Mbed	and	The	
Things	Network
Webinar
©	2017	Arm	Limited	2
Your	hosts
Johan Stokking
CTO & Co-Founder, The Things Industries
Jan Jongboom

Developer Evangelist IoT, Arm
©	2017	Arm	Limited	3
The	case	for	LoRa
Powerconsumption/Bandwidth
Range
©	2017	Arm	Limited	4
Many	choices...
10	years	battery	life,	10	km	range
©	2017	Arm	Limited	
LoRa	PHYsics

crash-course
©	2017	Arm	Limited
©	2017	Arm	Limited	6
High	link	budget
TX
P (dBm)
RX
Derived	from	work	by	Thomas	Telkamp
TX	Power
Connector	loss
Antenna	gain
Connector	loss
Antenna	gain
RX	Power
Path	loss	and	fading
14
0
-100
©	2017	Arm	Limited	6
High	link	budget
RX
Derived	from	work	by	Thomas	Telkamp
TX	Power
Connector	loss
Antenna	gain
Connector	loss
Antenna	gain
RX	Power
Path	loss	and	fading
Receiver	sensitivity
-137	dBm
14	dBm151	dBm	link	budget
©	2017	Arm	Limited	7
Link	budget
Wi-Fi
Sub-GHz 6LoWPAN
LoRa
TX	Power RX	Sensitivity Link	budget
20 dBm -75 dBm 95	dBm
11 dBm -110 dBm 121	dBm
14 dBm -137 dBm 151	dBm
©	2017	Arm	Limited	8
Theoretical	maximum	in	free	space
2.4	GHz,	with	95.5	dBm	link	budget:

550	meters	
915	MHz,	with	151	dBm	link	budget:

850,000	meters
©	2017	Arm	Limited	9
©	2017	Arm	Limited	10
Unfortunately...	we	don't	live	in	free	space
Attenuation Reflection and diffraction Fresnel zone
©	2017	Arm	Limited	
Based	on	Tokyo	-	model	for	calculating	realistic	path	loss
Picture by Moyan Brenn: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tokyo_(16043023330).jpg©	2017	Arm	Limited	
Hata	model
Large city (250 bps)
Large city (1,760 bps)
Suburb (250 bps)
TX	height RX	height Range
0.1 m 40 m 4	km
0.1 m 40 m 2.5	km
0.1 m 40 m 9	km
Suburb (250 bps) 1 m 100 m 13	km
©	2017	Arm	Limited	
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxYY097QNs0
©	2017	Arm	Limited	
What	is	LoRaWAN?
©	2017	Arm	Limited	14
LoRaWAN
LoRaWAN	is	a	standardized,	bi-directional	messaging	protocol	on	top	of	LoRa	modulation;	the	
physical	layer	
In	the	data	link	layer,	LoRaWAN	manages	channels,	data

rates	and	executes	MAC	commands	
LoRaWAN	messages	contain	device	addresses	and	the	server

selects	gateways	for	downlink	in	the	network	layer	
The	server	and	device	keep	track	of	frame	counters	and

perform	a	message	integrity	check	in	the	transport	layer	
LoRaWAN’s	over	the	air	activation	(OTAA)	manages	the

creation	of	a	new	session	with	security	context	
LoRaWAN	encrypts	application	payload	but	does	not	prescribe

a	binary	payload	format	to	use
©	2017	Arm	Limited	15
Device	classes
Flexibility	in	power	conservation	versus	fast	network	initiated	transmission
Class	A	!	 Class	B	⏰	 Class	C	⚡
Device	initiated	communication	
Devices	are	typically	in	deep	
sleep	and	send	messages	on	
intervals	and/or	events	
Only	after	uplink	transmission,	
there	is	a	receive	window	for	
downlink	messages	
Best	for	most	sensor	
applications	and	battery	
conservation
Time	synchronized	
communication	
The	network	broadcasts	beacons	
for	devices	to	sync	time	
In	so-called	ping	slots,	devices	
wake	up	and	the	network	may	
send	downlink	messages	
Best	for	most	downlink	intensive	
applications
Network	initiated	
communication	
The	devices	are	continuously	
listening,	often	temporarily	or	
on	power	supply	
The	network	can	send	downlink	
message	at	any	given	time	
Best	for	downlink	intensive	
applications	that	require	low	
latencies
©	2017	Arm	Limited	16
Typical	LoRaWAN	Topology
Network	Session	Key:	Message	Integrity
Applicadon	Session	Key:	Join,	Encrypdon	and	Decrypdon
Devices Gateways Network	Server User

ApplicaTon
ApplicaTon	
Server
©	2017	Arm	Limited	17
©	2017	Arm	Limited	
The	Things	Network
©	2017	Arm	Limited	19
The	Things	Network	Mission
Our	mission	
is	to	build	
a	decentralized,	
open	and	
crowd	sourced	
IoT	data	network	
Owned	and	operated	by	its	users
©	2017	Arm	Limited
©	2017	Arm	Limited
©	2017	Arm	Limited	22
Driving	the	LPWAN	developer	community
0 - 1 1K - 1M1 - 1K
©	2017	Arm	Limited	23
Driving	the	LPWAN	developer	community
where	the	magic	happens
comfort	zone
1K - 1M
©	2017	Arm	Limited	24
You	are	the	network
©	2017	Arm	Limited	25
The	Things	Conference:	1-3	February	2018
https://www.thethingsconference.com
10%	discount	with	code:	'I-KNOW-A-SPEAKER'
©	2017	Arm	Limited	
Getting	started
©	2017	Arm	Limited	27
Arm	Mbed
A	free,	open	source	Platform	OS	targeting	IoT	end	node	devices	
Mbed	
OS
Cortex-M	
RTOS

kernel
Portable

drivers
Integrated

security
IoT

connectivity
Device	
management
Development	
tools
Developer	
community
Partner	
ecosystem
150	development	boards
LoRa,	BLE,	Cellular,	Wi-Fi,	etc.
©	2017	Arm	Limited	
Mbed	OS	tools
28
mbed.org/code
Mbed CLI
Command Line

Interface Mbed pyOCD
CMSIS-DAP Debug Library
Mbed DAPLink
CMSIS-DAP Debug Firmware
Mbed Greentea

Porting Testsuite and CI
Mbed Compiler
Free Online IDE
Mbed	OS	DVCS	support
Mbed	OS	IDEs	and	toolchains
Mbed	OS	core	tools
Arm	Compiler	5
Online	Compiler	to	get	started	quickly	
Wide	support	for	offline	toolchains
©	2017	Arm	Limited	29
Two	approaches
Module Radio
Radio	+	MCU	
Easy	to	integrate	in	own	design	
Pre-certified
SX1272	or	SX1276	
Cheaper	material	/	higher	design	cost	
Need	to	do	own	RF	design
©	2017	Arm	Limited	30
Picking	a	gateway
Kerlink IoT station
Multi-Tech Conduit
IMST iC880A
Lorix One
The Things Gateway
Lorrier LR2
SX1301	+	2x	SX1257
©	2017	Arm	Limited	31
Hands-on,	building	a	network
L-TEK FF1705 Multi-Tech Conduit Network Server
Device	EUI
©	2017	Arm	Limited	
Comparison	against	other	
LPWANs
©	2017	Arm	Limited	
Operated	in	unlicensed	spectrum	
Controlled	by	a	single	company	
From	device	to	gateway:	similar	link	budget	
From	gateway	to	device:	20	dBm	lower	link	budget	
Radios	made	my	multiple	vendors,	cheaper	radio	cost
41
Sigfox
©	2017	Arm	Limited	42
LTE	Cat-M
Licensed	spectrum	is	expensive,	1.4	MHz	channels	
Complex	RF	design	(LTE	frontend)	
Power	management	similar	to	LoRaWAN	
Native	IP,	high	bandwidth	is	nice
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_2008_wireless_spectrum_auction
©	2017	Arm	Limited	43
NB-IoT
Licensed	spectrum	is	expensive,	200	KHz	channels	
Higher	data	rates,	higher	link	budget	
8x	higher	capacity	from	device	to	gateway,	

than	otherwise	
Intellectual	Property	Risk	
Native	IP?	Depends	who	you	ask,	package	size	is	small.
©	2017	Arm	Limited	
http://bit.ly/lora-update-demo
©	2017	Arm	Limited	45
Recap
1. LoRa	is	awesome!	
2. Buy	a	development	board	and	a	gateway,	and	get	started.	
3. Mbed	OS	is	a	proven	platform	OS	with	excellent	LoRaWAN	support.	
4. The	Things	Network	is	the	developer	community	for	LoRaWAN.	
5. Want	to	learn	more?	Come	to	The	Things	Conference,	1-3	February	2018!

https://www.thethingsconference.com
©	2017	Arm	Limited	
https://www.sketchport.com/drawing/6326943955812352/pink-blurry-unicorn-under-a-rainbow
Thank	You!	
Danke!	
Merci!	
!	
!	
Gracias!	
Kiitos!	
감사합니다	
धन्यवाद
©	2017	Arm	Limited	
https://github.com/johanstokking/arm-ttn-webinar
https://os.mbed.com/teams/MultiTech/code/Dot-Examples/
http://bit.ly/lora-update-demo
http://slideshare.net/janjongboom/
©	2017	Arm	Limited	
The	Arm	trademarks	featured	in	this	presentation	are	registered	trademarks	or	
trademarks	of	Arm	Limited	(or	its	subsidiaries)	in	the	US	and/or	elsewhere.		All	rights	
reserved.		All	other	marks	featured	may	be	trademarks	of	their	respective	owners.	


www.arm.com/company/policies/trademarks

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