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Introduction to Drawing

An introduction to drawing for use in Art I and Art II High School Visual Art Classrooom. Warm-up questions are at the end of the presentation.

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Drawing-
The Foundation
      “A drawing must bring life to the space which
      surrounds it. “ Henri Matisse
Blind Contour as Art
Blind Contour
Tape your drawing paper to the table or
board.
Draw a picture of our your hand without
looking at your paper.
Use one continuous line using your whole     It is acceptable to draw
arm, not just your wrist. Don’t pick your    back over lines to get
                                             from one point to
medium off the paper until you are done.     another
Challenge yourself by overlapping hands of
different colors on top of one another. Do
this by turning your paper 90 degrees each
time you finish a drawing.
Student Example –
Blind Contour
Contour Drawing (not blind)

Contour Lines describe the shape of an object, and
include interior detail.
Using one continuous line, sketch your hand. This time
you can look at your paper. Go slow and draw every
single crease and wrinkle in your hand!
Common mistakes are drawing sausage fingers too fast
and then picking up your pencil to draw the creases. 
What makes a good work of
           art?
Let’s brainstorm what makes a good work
of art on the Smart Board.

Everyone needs to say at least one thing!

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Introduction to Drawing

  • 1. Drawing- The Foundation “A drawing must bring life to the space which surrounds it. “ Henri Matisse
  • 3. Blind Contour Tape your drawing paper to the table or board. Draw a picture of our your hand without looking at your paper. Use one continuous line using your whole It is acceptable to draw arm, not just your wrist. Don’t pick your back over lines to get from one point to medium off the paper until you are done. another Challenge yourself by overlapping hands of different colors on top of one another. Do this by turning your paper 90 degrees each time you finish a drawing.
  • 5. Contour Drawing (not blind) Contour Lines describe the shape of an object, and include interior detail. Using one continuous line, sketch your hand. This time you can look at your paper. Go slow and draw every single crease and wrinkle in your hand! Common mistakes are drawing sausage fingers too fast and then picking up your pencil to draw the creases. 
  • 6. What makes a good work of art? Let’s brainstorm what makes a good work of art on the Smart Board. Everyone needs to say at least one thing!
  • 7. What makes a good work of art? Consider such criteria as: good design, harmonious relationships among parts, craftsmanship, the aesthetic response the work provokes, whether it was intended to be seen as a work of art. In small groups pick works of art in your textbooks that illustrate and support you and your groups definitions.
  • 8. Scribbling Exercise & A New Pencil GRIP Tape your drawing paper to the table or board and hold your pencil in the drawing grasp rather than a writing grasp. Fill up your paper with scribble either using 1 type of pencil or changing it for another. Use as many scribble as possible, long, short or broken scribbles, overlap and cover the page. Remember to keep your hand loose and your fingers relaxed. Don’t grip your drawing implement too hard.
  • 10. Media Information There have been crude pencils for over 300 years and pencils similar to those we use today with the writing materials encased in wood, since the 19th Century. The center and writing part of the pencil, called the lead, is a mixture of graphite and clay. The tiny flakes of graphite rub off the pencil and onto the texture of the paper. Pencils are available with a variety of different leads for different purposes. A hard lead is necessary for tiny numbers and exact images while a soft lead is used for drawing and shading. The softest pencils are labeled B for bold and the hardest are labeled H. Numbers with these letters indicate the degree of hardness or softness. A 6H pencil is harder than a 3H pencil.
  • 11. Vocabulary Gradate – To gradate is to change from one thing into another by imperceptible degrees. In drawing we change values, light into dark and then dark into light, in a very gradual transition. Model – To model an object is to cause it to take on a three dimensional appearance, by gradually changing the color or tone. Line – A line, a basic element of design, is the path of a point moving through space. In drawing, we are reducing the image we wish to recreate into either straight or curved lines.
  • 12. Negative Space What is the subject of this drawing by Katelyn Gomez? How can we apply this to drawing a still life of fruit or bottles?
  • 14. Calligraphy Orchids and Rocks 1644 Gu Mei , (Chinese, 1619-1664) Qing dynasty - Ink on satin H: 28.5 W: 1033.5 cm - Nanjing, China
  • 15. Calligraphy The word calligraphy means beautiful handwriting. Calligraphy is often associated with Asian writing and art. In China and Japan, calligraphy is used to form characters that represent the language. However, characters are more than just a letter of the alphabet. They are like pictures. They can represent an idea, an object, or a verbal sound. Chinese and Japanese use the same types of calligraphic lines and brushstrokes in their paintings. Calligraphic lines are usually made with brushstrokes that change from thin to thick in one stroke. http://www.asia.si.edu/explore/china/calligraphy/standardScript.asp http://www.asia.si.edu/collections/singleObject.cfm?ObjectNumber=F1898.423
  • 16. Calligraphy Calligraphy, or beautiful writing, is the most revered form of artistic expression in the Islamic world, for it was through the act of writing that the Koran, the word of God revealed in a series of revelations to the Prophet Muhammad, was recorded and given visual form. Consequently, the Arabic script was continuously refined and imaginatively embellished to become the most recognizable and ubiquitous symbol of Islam. Adapted to every possible surface—from monumental stone structures to delicate silk robes—words, both religious and secular, were employed not only to impart information, but also to lend visual beauty to these works. http://www.asia.si.edu/exhibitions/online/islamic/calligraphy1.htm
  • 17. Calligraphy Contrary to the assumption that the Koran prohibits figurative representation, it only warns against the creation and worship of idols to prevent idolatry. Fueled by more orthodox interpretations of Islam, however, religious disapproval of figural representation took hold shortly after the Prophet's death in 632. In general, Korans, religious structures, and the furnishings for these spaces are devoid of figural imagery and adorned primarily with abstract motifs and calligraphy. Figural representation, on the other hand, is found on works of art created for use in a private, secular context. In part, the religious prohibitions encouraged the development of a distinct abstract decorative language that became another principle feature of the arts of the Islamic world.
  • 18. Break it Down! Cezanne considered shapes to be the basic forms; the sphere, cone, and cylinder.
  • 20. Media Exploration Draw a straight line Make 2 lines that are exactly the same Draw curved lines, moving only your fingers. Draw curved lines with your whole arm, keeping your wrist locked Hold your pencil at an angle and draw with the side of the lead and draw a spiral, looping down and down, using relaxed and easy movements. Draw a very dark patch. Draw a very pale, faint line. Draw a circle shape. Pick a spot to be the palest area and use the spot farthest away (opposite) from it to be the darkest area. Change the circle into a sphere by modeling evenly, gradating from light to dark. Draw a rectangle and gradate it from dark at the bottom to light on top. Experiment on your own. Do all of the above on a separate sheet of paper AGAIN and create a composition.
  • 22. Letter Exercise Divide your drawing paper into 3 columns and rows like a tic-tac-toe board. Choose a letter of the alphabet. Using your pencil. Repeat the letters or numbers throughout the composition, changing the value and the direction of each. This exercise will help you better understand the concept of positive and negative space. It will also improve your ability to use variety, value and organization in your composition. Notice how the negative space stand out clearly from the composition in some cases, and appears neutral or insignificant in others. p.30 Discover Drawing
  • 23. Letter Rotation Student Example by Courtney Hooker Page30 in Discover Drawing
  • 26. Still Life Gesture – Let’s Practice
  • 27. Gesture Gestural drawing: A quick drawing that captures the gestures and movements of the body. Also a quick drawing to capture the essence of a subject. It is a quick drawing with no erasing. Hint: Draw the mass of the object & keep your hand moving.
  • 28. Sketching – The under drawing or before painting
  • 29. Line creates Mood Surrealist Kay Sage often depicted landscapes and environments in this style. Look at the angles and diagonal lines in the lower part of All Soundings Are Referred to High Water, and note the lines formed by shadows. Write a short description of the mood that the diagonal lines help emphasize. I will pick people at random to read their descriptions. Do you think they will all be the same or different?
  • 31. Value Exercise Divide your paper into 4 rows. There are many ways to create value in a drawing. Use the same basic shapes (circles, rectangles, squares, triangles) in three different compositions. Create a range of values by using tones (2nd row), dots(3rd row) and hatching (bottom row). p.35 Discover Drawing
  • 33. Scribble into TONE Exercise There are those who find the subtle gradation of value (sometimes we say tone) from darkest dark to lightest light – one of the miracles of drawing. Start scribbling on your paper without lifting your medium off the paper and by slightly varying the pressure, you will begin to get the effect of gradation. If you remember that gradation comes from scribbling and that scribbles must be kept close together you will soon master it.
  • 34. Value Value: Refers to the properties of darks and lights used in a composition. The range of value depends on how much light is reflected on the surface of the objects. Value gradation is used to create the illusion of three –dimensional space on a two- dimensional plane. Value gradation shows the gradual change of lights to darks. Values are usually shown on a value scale, with white at one extreme and black at the other. p.35 Discover Drawing
  • 36. Highlight, Midtone & Shadow Direct Light – Lighting in which the light goes straight from the source to the lit object. An example is a light bulb or the sun. Compare that to indirect lighting, which is when there is no single direct light source. The object is lit by scattered or bounce light. For example on a cloudy day when the sun is covered by clouds, its rays are scattered and everything is lit indirectly. All forms, when lit with direct light have the same elements – highlight, halftone, core shadow, reflected light, and cast shadow. It’s an essential skill to be able to quickly identify each element on a given object and to execute each accurately. In this example there are 4 different values on the object and one shadow. A. Highlight http://www.stanprokopenko.com/blog/2009/08/direct-light/ B. Halftone C. Core Shadow D. Reflected Light E. Cast Shadow
  • 40. Cubist Drawing What is wrong with the drawing above??
  • 41. Point to Ponder #1/2 Name and define the five basic kinds of lines.
  • 42. Point to Ponder #1/2 ANSWER Vertical lines move straight up and sown Horizontal lines are parallel to the horizon. Diagonal lines slant. Curved lines change direction gradually. Zigzag lines are made from a combination of diagonal lines
  • 43. Point to Ponder #1 What feelings and moods do horizontal, vertical and diagonal lines usually suggest?
  • 44. Point to Ponder #1 ANSWER Horizontal lines usually suggest calmness, repose, and balance. Vertical lines convey height, stability, and dignity. Diagonal lines express action, movement, and tension.
  • 45. Point to Ponder #2 What is the difference between an outline and a contour line?
  • 46. Point to Ponder #2 An outline is usually made by just the outer edges of the object, whereas a contour outline of an object usually includes some interior detail.
  • 47. Point to Ponder #3 What are two characteristics of line that give the line personality and help convey a specific mood or feeling?
  • 48. Point to Ponder #3 ANSWER Two characteristics of line that give the line personality and help convey a specific mood or feeling are its direction or movement, and its quality or weight.
  • 49. Point to Ponder #4 What are implied lines? Give an example of an artwork in your textbook that illustrates implied lines. Be prepared to point out these implied lines to your table partner or Mrs. Henderson
  • 50. Point to Ponder #4 ANSWER Implied lines are lines that are suggested without actually having been drawn or incorporated. See Exploring Visual Elements pg. 24 & 25
  • 51. Point to Ponder #5 Lines vary in appearance in five major ways: (A) length (B) width (C) texture (D) direction and (E) degree of curve. Match the letter above with the description of the line below. ____ (a) Lines can curve gradually or not at all, become wavy, or form spirals. ____ (b) Lines can be rough or smooth ____(c) Lines can move in any direction, such as vertical, horizontal, or diagonal ____(d) Lines can be long or short. ____(e) Lines can be wide or thin. See Glencoe ArtTalk Teacher Materials Study Guide – Chapter 4 pg. 7
  • 52. Point to Ponder #5 ANSWER (a) E (b) C (c) A (d) D (e) B
  • 53. Changing Perspective Look at artist’s who have used ordinary objects in different ways. How do they help you look at objects differently? Giuseppe Arcimboldo. Marcel Duchamp. Joseph Cornell, Andy Warhol p.212, Georgia O’Keeffe p.77. Exploring Visual Elements pg. 24 & 25
  • 56. Let’s Draw Boxes Move your pencil like a wind-shield washer to check the angle of your boxes. Next look at the negative space and shadows. Think which of the 3 sides you see is light, medium and dark. Shade them in appropriately.
  • 57. Let’s draw an animal Using the 5 different types of line (notice no shading) Pick a picture from the pile And Draw your animal Remember to break it down!
  • 60. Sequential Self-Portrait Sequential art