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POLYMERS

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POLYMERS

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POLYMERS

  1. 1. Presented By , Miss. Janhavi Shirish Zope M Pharmacy 1st year Department : Pharmaceutics R . G . SAPKAL COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 1
  2. 2. CONTENTS  Introduction  Types of Polymer  Classification of Polymer  Characteristics of Polymer  Application  References 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Polymers are very large molecules made when hundreds of monomers join together to form long chains .  The word POLYMER comes from the Greek words poly means many and mer means parts .  Polymer is used as a synonym for plastic .  All plastics are polymers , but not all polymers are plastics N(CH2-CH2) (-CH2-CH2-)s Ethylene Polyethylene 3
  4. 4. TYPES OF POLYMER  Natural Polymers  Homopolymer  Copolymer  Thermoplastics  Thermosets  Long chain Polymers 4
  5. 5. NATURAL POLYMERS  Definition : Natural polymer is a polymer that results from only raw materials that are found in nature .  Some of these natural polymers include DNA and RNA  Cotton , DNA , Wool , Wood are some of the naturally occurring polymers . 5
  6. 6. HOMOPOLYMER  Homopolymers are synthesized from a single type of monomer .  Homopolymers are consists of chains with identical bonding linkages to each monomer unit .  This usually implies that the polymer is made from all identical monomer molecules . 6
  7. 7. COPOLYMER  When two or more different monomers together to polymerize their result is called as copolymer .  This process is called as copolymerization .  Types of Copolymer : 1) Statistical copolymer 2) Alternating copolymer 3) Block copolymer 4) Graft copolymer 7
  8. 8. THERMOPLASTIC  A type of plastic that can be softened by heat , hardened by cooling , and then softened by heat over and over again  Thermoplastic are not cross – linked polymer .  Examples : Polyethylene , Nylon , Polyvinyl chloride . 8
  9. 9. THERMOSETS  Thermoset having the property of becoming permanently hard and rigid when heated .  Thermosets are hard and rigid at room temperature and do not soften on heating .  Examples : Epoxy resins , Phenolic resins , Unsaturated polyester resins . 9
  10. 10. LONG CHAIN POLYMERS  A very long strand of repeating molecules linked together by primary bond .  Polymer chains are orient themselves in lines as they enter a mold but may be annealed so they can recoil . 10
  11. 11. CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER 11
  12. 12. BASED ON ORIGIN OF SOURCE  Natural Polymer :- Polymers which are isolated from natural materials are called as Natural Polymers . E.g. : Cotton , silk , wool , rubber .  Synthetic Polymer :- Polymers which are synthesized from low molecular weight compounds are called as Synthetic Polymers . E.g. : Polyethylene , nylon , terylene.  Semisynthetic Polymers :- These polymers are mostly derived from naturally occurring polymers by chemical modification . E.g. : Rayon 12
  13. 13. BASED ON STRUCTURE  Linear Polymer : Molecules form long chains without branches.  Branched Polymer : Molecules having branch points that connect 3 or more segments .  Cross-Linked Polymer : It includes interconnections between chains .  Network Polymer : A cross linked polymer that includes numerous interconnections between chains . 13
  14. 14. BASED ON MODE OF POLYMERISATION  Additional Polymerization : Same kind of monomers are straight forwardly added . It is rapid chain reaction having chemically activated mers . Each reaction sets up the condition for another to proceed . It consists of 3 stages : Initiation (Birth) Propagation (Growth) Termination (Death) 14
  15. 15. CONT…  Condensation Polymerization : It involves a polymerization reaction between two monomers with the expulsion of a simple by product . A + B AB + Simple by product It involves individual chemical reaction between reactive mer . By product is formed and condensed out . This reaction is slower than additional polymerization. Need reactive functional groups . 15
  16. 16. CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYMER  Low density  Low coefficient of friction  Good corrosion resistance  Good mould ability  Poor tensile strength  Low mechanical properties  Poor temperature resistance  Can be produced transparent or different colours 16
  17. 17. APPLICATION  Medicine : Many biomaterials especially heart valve replacements and blood vessels are made up of polymers like dacron , teflon .  Consumer Science : Plastic containers of all shapes and sizes are light weight and economically less expensive than more traditional containers .  Industry : Automobile parts , pipes , tanks , packing material , adhesives are all polymer application used in industrial market .  Sports : Playground equipment , golf clubs , swimming pools and protective helmets are produced from polymers. 17
  18. 18. REFERENCES  Robinson J R and Lee V H ; Controlled Drug Delivery – Fundamentals and Applications ; Marcel Dekker .  Jain N K ; Controlled and Novel Drug Delivery ; CBS publication . 18
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