Subjective (Essay) test consists of questions to which students answered/ respond in one or more sentences to a specific question or problem assesses the student’s ability to produce, integrate, and express ideas, and allow the student to be original, and creative.
General Types of Essay Test1. Extended/ Unrestricted/ Uncontrolled response Allows for an in-depth answers of a student’s knowledge, thinking processes, and problem solving behavior relative to a specific topic A free-response essay The student has to recall specific information and organize, evaluate, and write intelligible composition
General Types of Essay Test Examples: Explain the issue about climate change Discuss classroom assessment
General Types of Essay Test General Types of Essay Test2. Restricted/Controlled response The examinee is required to provide limited response based on a specified criterion for answering the question.Examples: Explain the causes and effect of EDSA 1
Learning Outcomes that can bemeasured effectively with essayitems: Abilities to: 1. Explain cause-effect relationships 2. Describe application of principles 3. Present relevant arguments 4. Formulate tenable hypotheses 5. State necessary assumptions
Learning Outcomes that can bemeasured effectively with essayitems: Abilities to: 6. Describe the limitations of data 7. Explain methods and procedures 8. Produce, organize, and express ideas 9. Integrate learning in different areas 10. Create original forms 11. Evaluate the worth of ideas
Types of Essay Questionsby Bloom’s Taxonomy1. KNOWLEDGE remembering; memorizing; recognizing; recalling identification and recall of information Who, what, when, where, how ...? Describe Examples: Explain how Egypt came to be called the gift of the Nile. State the formula for the area of a circle.
Types of Essay Questions by Bloom’s Taxonomy2. COMPREHENSION interpreting; translating from one medium to another; describing in ones own words; organization and selection of facts and ideas Retell... Examples: What is meant when a person says, “I had just crossed the bridge”? Given the mathematical formula for the area of a circle, paraphrase it using your own words.
Types of Essay Questions by Bloom’s Taxonomy3. APPLICATION problem solving; applying information to produce some result; use of facts, rules and principles How is...an example of...? How is...related to...? Why is...significant? Examples: • Give at least 3 examples of how the law of supply operates in our economy today. • Compute the area of actual circles.
Types of Essay Questions by Bloom’s Taxonomy4. ANALYSIS subdividing something to show how it is put together; finding the underlying structure of a communication; identifying motives; separation of a whole into component parts What are the parts or features of...? Classify...according to... Outline/diagram... How does...compare/contrast with...? What evidence can you list for...? Examples: Explain the causes and effects the EDSA 1 on the political and social life of the Filipino people Given a math word problem, determine the strategies that would be necessary to solve it.
Types of Essay Questions by Bloom’s Taxonomy5. SYNTHESIS creating a unique, original product that may be in verbal form or may be a physical object; combination of ideas to form a new whole What would you predict/infer from...? What ideas can you add to...? How would you create/design a new...? What might happen if you combined...? What solutions would you suggest for...? Examples: Describe the origin and significance of the celebration of Christmas the world over. Apply and integrate several different strategies to solve a mathematical problem.
Types of Essay Questions by Bloom’s Taxonomy6. EVALUATION making value decisions about issues; resolving controversies or differences of opinion; development of opinions, judgements or decisions Do you agree...? What do you think about...? What is the most important...? Place the following in order of priority... How would you decide about...? What criteria would you use to assess...? Example: When you have finished solving a problem determine the degree to which that problem was solved as efficiently as possible.
Types of Essay Questions(From Garcia, 2008)1. Recall Simple recall What is the chemical formula for sodium bicarbonate? Selective recall in which a basis for evaluation/judgment is suggested Who among the Greek philosophers affected your thinking as student?
Types of Essay Questions (From Garcia, 2008)2. Understanding Comparison of 2 phenomena on a single designated basis Compare 19th century and present-day Filipino writers with respect to their involvement in societal affairs Comparison of two phenomena in general Compare the Phil. Revolution of 1896 with that of People’s Power Revolution of 1986
Types of Essay Questions (From Garcia, 2008)2. Understanding Explanation of the use of exact meaning of a phrase/statement Explain this statement “............” Summary of a text or some portion of it What is the central idea of communism as an economic system? Statement of an artist’s purpose in the selection or organization of material Why did Hemingway describe in detail the episode in which Gordon, lying wounded, engages the economy enemy?
Types of Essay Questions (From Garcia, 2008)3. Application Causes and effects Why does frequent dependence on penicillin for treatment of minor ailment result in its reduced effectiveness against major invasion of body tissues by infectious bacteria? Analysis Why was Hamlet torn by conflicting desires? Statement of relationship A researcher reported that teaching styles correlates with student achievement at about 0.75. What does this correlation mean
Types of Essay Questions (From Garcia, 2008)3. Application Illustrations or examples of principles Identify 3 examples of the uses of the hammer in a typical Filipino home. application of rules or principles in specified situation. Would you weigh more or less on the moon? Why or why not? Reorganization of facts Some radical Filipino historians assert that the Filipino revolution against Spain was a revolution from the top not from below. Using the same observation, what other conclusion is possible.
Types of Essay Questions (From Garcia, 2008)4. Judgment Decision for or against Should members of the communist party of the Phils. Be allowed to teach in colleges and universities? Why or why not? Discussion Trace the events that led to the downfall of the dictatorial regime of Ferdinand Marcos.
Types of Essay Questions (From Garcia, 2008)4. Judgment Criticism of the adequacy, correctness or relevant of a statement Former President Joseph Estrada was convicted for the case of plunder by the Sandiganbayan. Comment on the adequacy of the evidence by the said tribunal in reaching a decision on the case filed against the former chief executive of the country. Formulation of new questions What questions should parents ask their children in order to determine the reasons why they join fraternities and sororities?
Guidelines for constructingessay questions1. Give adequate time and thought to the preparation of essay questions2. The question should be written so that it will elicit (draw out) the type of behavior you want to measure.3. A well-constructed essay question should establish a framework within which the student operates
Guidelines for constructingessay questions4. Decide in advance what factors will be considered in evaluating an essay response.5. Do not provide optional questions in an essay test6. Use relatively large number of questions requiring short answers (about ½ page) rather than just a few questions involving long answers (2-3 pages)
Guidelines for constructingessay questions7. Don’t start essay questions with such words as “list, who, what, whether”8. Adapt the length of the responses and the complexity of the question and answer to the maturity of the student9. Use the novel type of question wherever feasible10. Prepare a scoring key
Suggestions for grading/scoring essay test1. Check your scoring key against actual responses2. Be consistent in your grading. Use criteria/rubric3. Grade only one question at a time for all papers4. Grade the responses anonymously
Suggestions for grading/scoring essay test5. The mechanics of expression should be judged separately from what the student writes.6. Try to score all responses to a particular question without interruption.7. If possible, have two independent readings of the test and use the average as the final score.8. Provide comments and correct errors.