Chapter Overview<br />Transport in Mammals<br />8.2	The Blood & Blood vessels<br />8.1 The Circulatory System - Introducti...
Objectives<br />(a) Explain the need for transport system in mammals<br />(b) State the differences between single and dou...
Imagine you are an amoeba…(unicellular organism)<br />Oxygen<br />Water<br />Carbon Dioxide<br />Food<br />Waste materials...
Multi-cellular organism<br />Do you know how many cells do we have in our body?<br />Is diffusion enough?<br />How to tran...
Who will need a transport system?<br />Unicellular organism             (e.g amoeba)<br />Multi-cellular organism<br />(e....
The Need for Transport<br />What makes simple diffusion a reliable mechanism in unicellular organisms?<br />Here are two i...
The Need for Transport<br />Multicellular organisms thus cannot depend on simple diffusion because they have:<br />SMALLSu...
The Need for Transport<br />SMALLSurface Area to Volume Ratio <br />        Increase surface area by having an internal s...
Solution: Devise a pump to Actively circulate the body fluid</li></li></ul><li>Human Circulatory System<br />
Transport system in mammals are subdivided into:<br />Blood system carrying blood<br />Lymphatic system carrying lymph<br />
Blood Circulatory System<br /><ul><li> What does the circulatory system consist of?</li></ul>Heart, Blood Vessels, Blood<b...
3 Parts of the circulatory system<br />Heart<br />The muscular pump, that moves the fluid<br />Causes your pulse<br />Bloo...
Double Circulation <br /><ul><li> For every organ, there will be at least one main artery which brings oxygenated blood fr...
 Double circulation</li></ul>Pulmonary circulation<br /> Systemic circulation<br />
Human Circulatory System<br /><ul><li>Double circulation                    </li></ul>  1) Pulmonary circulation          ...
Organisation of Blood Vessels<br />
Objectives<br />(a) State the functions of blood<br />• red blood cells – haemoglobin and oxygen transport<br />• plasma –...
Red Blood Cell<br />White Blood Cell<br />Platelets<br />
 ‹<br />
Blood- A tissue fluid<br />Composition of blood<br />Blood cells (corpuscles)<br />44%<br />Plasma (Fluid)<br />55%<br />P...
Composition of blood<br />
Components of Blood<br />Only red blood cells and plasma transport materials!<br />Plasma – 55% total volume of blood<br /...
Functions of Blood<br />Transport<br />Oxygen<br />Carbon Dioxide (bicarbonate ions)  lungs<br />Food<br />Hormones<br />...
TB Pg 140<br />Function<br />Structure<br />Transports substances such as:<br />1)Plasma proteins<br />(fibrinogen,prothro...
Plasma<br />TB Pg 140<br />The amount of soluble proteins, mineral salts and glucose in the blood plasma are kept relative...
TB PG 141<br />Components of Blood<br />Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)<br />Biconcave, circular, flattened discs<br />	In...
Components of Blood<br />TB PG 141<br />Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)<br />Small, Flexible and Elastic<br />		To squeeze...
White blood cell<br />
Defenders of the body:WHITE BLOOD CELL<br />What are the similarities between a COUNTER-TERRORIST unit and a WBC?<br />31<...
White Blood cell<br />32<br /><ul><li> colourless (no haemoglobin)
 larger than red blood cells
 ratio of red blood cells: white blood cells = about 700:1
 irregular in shape
 has nucleus
 can move and change shape (able to squeeze through walls of capillaries)</li></li></ul><li>White Blood Cells (Leucocytes)...
Test Yourself! (page 143)<br />(a)	Red blood cells contain a red pigment and have a 		circular, biconcave shape. <br />	...
Platelets (Thrombocytes)<br />Platelets (Thrombocytes)<br />Not true cells; cytoplasmic fragments<br />Play Critical role ...
Functions of Blood<br />Carried by plasma<br />Transport<br />Oxygen<br />Carbon Dioxide<br />Digested Food from blood cap...
How the Red blood cells transport O2<br />
Functions of Blood<br />By  Haemoglobin in RBC<br />Transport<br />Oxygen<br />Fe<br />Haemoglobin<br /><ul><li>A protein ...
Gives blood its red colour
Able to bind to oxygen molecules
In the unbound state, haemoglobin is a deep purplish red.
When oxygen is bonded, haemoglobin turns into a bright red oxyhaemoglobin.</li></ul>O2<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />O2<br ...
Functions of Blood<br />– The Role of Haemoglobin<br />Transport<br />Oxygen<br />Haemoglobin<br /><ul><li>Unbound state ...
Reversible process. How is it reversible?</li></ul>Fe<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />
Functions of Blood<br />– The Role of Haemoglobin<br />Transport<br />Oxygen<br />Hb(O2)4 (oxyhaemoglobin)<br />Hb + 4O2(h...
Functions of Blood<br />Red Blood Cell<br />Body Tissues<br />Fe<br />O2<br />Fe<br />O2<br />Fe<br />O2<br />Fe<br />O2<b...
42<br />The oxygen shuttle<br />
Pulmonary vein<br />Pulmonary artery<br />Transport function<br />Alveoli in lungs<br />Deoxygenated blood is brought back...
Pulmonary vein<br />Pulmonary artery<br />O2<br />O2<br />O2<br />O2<br />O2<br />O2<br />Transport function<br />Alveoli ...
Pulmonary vein<br />Pulmonary artery<br />CO2<br />CO2<br />CO2<br />CO2<br />CO2<br />CO2<br />Transport function<br />Al...
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning<br />=<br />Carboxyhaemoglobin formation<br />Carbon Monoxide<br />46<br />
TB Pg 147<br />Carbon Monoxide Poisoning<br />How does it happen?<br /><ul><li>Haemoglobin combines even more readily with...
Unlike oxyhaemoglobin, carboxyhaemoglobindoes not readily give up its carbon monoxide, so the haemoglobin becomes useless.
This is why people can be poisonedby the fumes of gas or car exhausts in a confinedspace.</li></ul>47<br />
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning<br />How is it treated?<br /><ul><li>by placing face masks on the patients and supplying them wi...
Transport functionHow is a molecule of oxygen being transported from lungs to the liver cell?<br />1<br />2<br />Haemoglob...
Thinking time…<br />How do humans adapt to living at high altitude?<br />What makes their cheeks so red?<br />
At high altitudes, oxygen is low. <br /><ul><li>to compensate for the low concentration of oxygen
 body produces more red blood cells (acclimatisation) rosy cheeks.</li></ul>Increasing the proportion of RBC increases ha...
Functions of Blood<br />Transport<br />Carbon dioxide<br />HCO3-<br />CO2<br />Converted to HCO3- ions and carried in bloo...
Functions of Blood<br />Examples<br /><ul><li>Glucose
Amino Acids
Vitamins</li></ul>Transport<br />Food<br />Hormones<br />Waste<br />Chemical messengers that control many metabolic proces...
Glucagon
Adrenalin</li></ul>Excretory products delivered to the kidneys for removal.<br />Examples<br /><ul><li>Urea
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Transport in humans part i 301_28th june

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  • What do u need in order to live? Oxygen, water, food
  • Millions and millions of cell?
  • Do you ever wonder what makes up blood? Unless you need to have blood drawn, donate it or have to stop its flow after an injury, you probably don&apos;t think much about it.Blood is not just a liquid. It consists of a fluid that has different types of cells suspended in it. But blood is the most commonly tested part of the body, and it is truly the river of life. Every cell in the body gets its nutrients from blood.
  • Transport in humans part i 301_28th june

    1. 1. Chapter Overview<br />Transport in Mammals<br />8.2 The Blood & Blood vessels<br />8.1 The Circulatory System - Introduction & Anatomy<br />8.3 The Hear t & Cardiac Cycle<br />8.4 Heart Diseases<br />8.1.1 The need for transport<br />8.1.2 Double Circulation<br />8.3.1. Structure and Function of heart<br />8.3.2 Heart valves, Systole and Diastole<br />8.2.1 Components of the Tissue Fluid<br /> a) Blood Plasma<br /> b) Red Blood Cells<br /> c) White Blood Cells<br /> d) Platelets<br />8.2.2 Exchange of Substances and The Lymphatic System<br />8.2.3 Haemoglobin<br />8.2.4 Rejection and ABO Blood Group<br />8.2.5 Structure-function of blood vessels<br />8.4.1 Myocardial infarction<br />8.4.2 Causes of Heart Diseases<br />
    2. 2. Objectives<br />(a) Explain the need for transport system in mammals<br />(b) State the differences between single and double circulation, and the advantages<br />(c) Identify the main blood vessels to and from the heart, lungs, liver and kidney.<br />(d) State the functions of blood<br />(e) List the different ABO blood groups and all possible combinations for the donor and recipient in blood transfusions.<br />
    3. 3. Imagine you are an amoeba…(unicellular organism)<br />Oxygen<br />Water<br />Carbon Dioxide<br />Food<br />Waste materials<br />Diffusion is enough<br />Cell is able to exchange substances DIRECTLY with the environment.<br />
    4. 4. Multi-cellular organism<br />Do you know how many cells do we have in our body?<br />Is diffusion enough?<br />How to transport materials into and out of Mr Bean efficiently?<br />4<br />
    5. 5. Who will need a transport system?<br />Unicellular organism (e.g amoeba)<br />Multi-cellular organism<br />(e.g humans)<br />Organism does not need transport system. Cell is able to exchange substances directly with the environment.<br />Cells are too far from external environment. Organism needs transport system to ensure efficient exchange of substances.<br />Adapted from http://farm1.static.flickr.com/107/291667041_e1e590124a.jpg?v=0<br />Adapted from http://www.akalaty.com/akalaty/wp-content/uploads/2007/05/extra-big-fat-cartoon.jpg<br />
    6. 6. The Need for Transport<br />What makes simple diffusion a reliable mechanism in unicellular organisms?<br />Here are two important factors:<br />LARGE Surface Area to Volume Ratio<br />Maintaining a Steep Diffusion gradient<br />
    7. 7. The Need for Transport<br />Multicellular organisms thus cannot depend on simple diffusion because they have:<br />SMALLSurface Area to Volume Ratio <br />DIFFICULTY in maintaining a STEEP Diffusion gradient<br />How could they solve these problems?<br />
    8. 8. The Need for Transport<br />SMALLSurface Area to Volume Ratio <br />  Increase surface area by having an internal system of channels or chambers.<br />DIFFICULTY in maintaining a STEEP Diffusion gradient<br /><ul><li> A diffusion gradient is difficult to maintain if they are bathed in static body fluid.
    9. 9. Solution: Devise a pump to Actively circulate the body fluid</li></li></ul><li>Human Circulatory System<br />
    10. 10. Transport system in mammals are subdivided into:<br />Blood system carrying blood<br />Lymphatic system carrying lymph<br />
    11. 11. Blood Circulatory System<br /><ul><li> What does the circulatory system consist of?</li></ul>Heart, Blood Vessels, Blood<br /><ul><li> What is the function of the circulatory system?</li></ul>Circulates blood around the body – Transports useful substances such as oxygen and food to all body cells and transports waste products such as carbon dioxide and urea to the sites of disposal. <br /><ul><li>How are the heart and blood vessels connected to allow circulation of blood?</li></li></ul><li>Circulatory System<br />Blood Vessels<br />Blood<br />Heart<br />12<br />
    12. 12. 3 Parts of the circulatory system<br />Heart<br />The muscular pump, that moves the fluid<br />Causes your pulse<br />Blood vessels<br />The system of channels and tubes that are connected to all parts of the body<br />Blood<br />The fluid that has the capacity to carry the metabolites<br />13<br />
    13. 13. Double Circulation <br /><ul><li> For every organ, there will be at least one main artery which brings oxygenated blood from heart to the organ and one main vein which brings deoxygenated blood out of the organ to the heart.</li></ul> *take note of the main blood vessel<br /><ul><li>Closed system</li></li></ul><li>Double Circulation <br /><ul><li> Blood passes through the heart twice in 1 complete circuit.
    14. 14. Double circulation</li></ul>Pulmonary circulation<br /> Systemic circulation<br />
    15. 15. Human Circulatory System<br /><ul><li>Double circulation </li></ul> 1) Pulmonary circulation (low pressure) – circulation of blood from heart to lungs to heart<br /> 2) Systemic circulation (high pressure) – circulation of blood around the body except lungs<br /><ul><li>One-way flow of blood</li></li></ul><li>Advantages of Double Circulation<br /><ul><li> (Pulmonary Circulation) </li></ul>Lower pressure to lungs, blood flows slower, allows sufficient time for gaseous exchange; <br /><ul><li> (Systemic Circulation) </li></ul>Higher pressure to body, ensure efficient transportation of useful materials(e.g oxygen) to rest of body cells and allow cells to maintain a high metabolic rate.<br />
    16. 16. Organisation of Blood Vessels<br />
    17. 17. Objectives<br />(a) State the functions of blood<br />• red blood cells – haemoglobin and oxygen transport<br />• plasma – transport of blood cells, ions, soluble food substances, hormones, carbon dioxide, urea, vitamins, plasma proteins<br />white blood cells – phagocytosis, antibody formation and tissue rejection<br />
    18. 18. Red Blood Cell<br />White Blood Cell<br />Platelets<br />
    19. 19.  ‹<br />
    20. 20. Blood- A tissue fluid<br />Composition of blood<br />Blood cells (corpuscles)<br />44%<br />Plasma (Fluid)<br />55%<br />Platelets<br />1%<br />Red blood cells<br />White blood cells<br />22<br />
    21. 21. Composition of blood<br />
    22. 22. Components of Blood<br />Only red blood cells and plasma transport materials!<br />Plasma – 55% total volume of blood<br /> mostly liquid water (~90%)<br />  soluble blood proteins (7%)<br />  hormones<br />  electrolytes<br />  nutrients<br />Cellular Component – 45% total volume of blood<br />  White blood cells<br />  Platelets<br /> Red blood cells<br />(2%)<br />
    23. 23. Functions of Blood<br />Transport<br />Oxygen<br />Carbon Dioxide (bicarbonate ions)  lungs<br />Food<br />Hormones<br />Nitrogenous waste product kidneys<br />Protection<br />Production of antibodies<br />Phagocytosis of foreign bodies<br />Clotting of blood (prevent loss of blood)<br />Distribute body heat especially from muscles and liver, to maintain uniform body temperature<br />
    24. 24. TB Pg 140<br />Function<br />Structure<br />Transports substances such as:<br />1)Plasma proteins<br />(fibrinogen,prothrombin and antibodies). <br />2) Dissolved mineral salts occurring as ions <br />(Na+, +K,Ca2+, Cl-, hydrogencarbonates).<br />3) Food substances (glucose, amino acids, fats, <br />vitamins)<br />4) Excretory products (urea, uric acid,creatinine <br />and CO2 as hydrogencarbonate ions)<br />5) Hormones(insulin, glucagon)<br />6) Blood cells (red and white blood cells)<br />pale yellow liquid<br />made up of 90% water and a mixture of dissolved substance<br />Plasma<br />
    25. 25. Plasma<br />TB Pg 140<br />The amount of soluble proteins, mineral salts and glucose in the blood plasma are kept relatively constant <br /> by the HOMEOSTASIS mechanism (Chapter 12)<br />
    26. 26. TB PG 141<br />Components of Blood<br />Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)<br />Biconcave, circular, flattened discs<br /> Increase surface area to volume ratio<br /> Thinner central area facilitates rapid diffusion of oxygen in and out of the cell. <br />No nucleus, DNA or mitochondria <br />  Allows the RBC to carry more Haemoglobin, thus facilitating the binding and transport of more oxygen molecules.<br />
    27. 27. Components of Blood<br />TB PG 141<br />Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)<br />Small, Flexible and Elastic<br />  To squeeze through narrow blood capillaries more easily<br />Contains haemoglobin (Hb)<br />  Allows the reversible binding of oxygen for oxygen transport.<br />
    28. 28. White blood cell<br />
    29. 29. Defenders of the body:WHITE BLOOD CELL<br />What are the similarities between a COUNTER-TERRORIST unit and a WBC?<br />31<br />
    30. 30. White Blood cell<br />32<br /><ul><li> colourless (no haemoglobin)
    31. 31. larger than red blood cells
    32. 32. ratio of red blood cells: white blood cells = about 700:1
    33. 33. irregular in shape
    34. 34. has nucleus
    35. 35. can move and change shape (able to squeeze through walls of capillaries)</li></li></ul><li>White Blood Cells (Leucocytes)<br />TB PG 142)<br />Two groups of leucocytes:<br />Lymphocytes<br /> Formed in bone marrows and mature in lymph node<br />  Typically round with rounded nucleus<br />  Relatively small amount of non granular cytoplasm <br /> Produces antibodies that fight against pathogens<br />Phagocytes<br />  Many types, shapes and sizes<br />  Granular with lobed nucleus<br /> Ingests foreign bodies by phagocytosis<br />
    36. 36. Test Yourself! (page 143)<br />(a) Red blood cells contain a red pigment and have a circular, biconcave shape. <br /> White blood cells are round in shape.<br /> Platelets are small fragments with irregular shapes. <br />The diameter of the red blood cells is decreased so that they can pass easily through the lumen of capillaries; the red blood cells increase their surface area to speed of absorption or release of oxygen; the bell shape slows down the rate of blood flow, giving more time for gaseous exchange.<br />(c) The cells of the body constantly require oxygen to provide energy by tissue respiration, whereas the white blood cells are required only at certain times.<br />
    37. 37. Platelets (Thrombocytes)<br />Platelets (Thrombocytes)<br />Not true cells; cytoplasmic fragments<br />Play Critical role in the clotting of blood<br /> (to be discussed later)<br />
    38. 38. Functions of Blood<br />Carried by plasma<br />Transport<br />Oxygen<br />Carbon Dioxide<br />Digested Food from blood capillaries <br /> in small intestine<br />Hormones<br />Waste<br />Protection<br />Production of antibodies<br />Phagocytosis of foreign bodies<br />Clotting of blood (prevent loss of blood)<br />Distribute body heat especially from muscles and liver, to maintain uniform body temperature<br />
    39. 39. How the Red blood cells transport O2<br />
    40. 40. Functions of Blood<br />By Haemoglobin in RBC<br />Transport<br />Oxygen<br />Fe<br />Haemoglobin<br /><ul><li>A protein complex that contains 4 iron atoms
    41. 41. Gives blood its red colour
    42. 42. Able to bind to oxygen molecules
    43. 43. In the unbound state, haemoglobin is a deep purplish red.
    44. 44. When oxygen is bonded, haemoglobin turns into a bright red oxyhaemoglobin.</li></ul>O2<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />O2<br />O2<br />O2<br />
    45. 45. Functions of Blood<br />– The Role of Haemoglobin<br />Transport<br />Oxygen<br />Haemoglobin<br /><ul><li>Unbound state  haemoglobin has</li></ul>HIGH AFFINITY for oxygen.<br /><ul><li>Binds to oxygen easily.
    46. 46. Reversible process. How is it reversible?</li></ul>Fe<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />Fe<br />
    47. 47. Functions of Blood<br />– The Role of Haemoglobin<br />Transport<br />Oxygen<br />Hb(O2)4 (oxyhaemoglobin)<br />Hb + 4O2(haemoglobin)<br />high oxygen concentration (lungs)<br /> Bright red<br />low oxygen concentration ( in body tissues)<br />Purplish red<br />
    48. 48. Functions of Blood<br />Red Blood Cell<br />Body Tissues<br />Fe<br />O2<br />Fe<br />O2<br />Fe<br />O2<br />Fe<br />O2<br />As blood passes through oxygen-poor tissues, oxyhaemoglobin releases its oxygen. Oxygen then diffuses in solution into tissue cells.<br />
    49. 49. 42<br />The oxygen shuttle<br />
    50. 50. Pulmonary vein<br />Pulmonary artery<br />Transport function<br />Alveoli in lungs<br />Deoxygenated blood is brought back to the lungs through pulmonary arteries.<br />Oxygenated blood is brought out of the lungs through pulmonary veins.<br />Adapted from http://www.3dscience.com/img/Products/Images/clip_art/respiratory_alveoli_web.jpg<br />Adapted fromhttp://www1.bellevuepublicschools.org/curriculum/k6web/fifthgrade/bodysys/alveoli2.jpg<br />
    51. 51. Pulmonary vein<br />Pulmonary artery<br />O2<br />O2<br />O2<br />O2<br />O2<br />O2<br />Transport function<br />Alveoli in lungs<br />Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli (higher concentration of oxygen) to blood capillaries (lower concentration of oxygen), down a concentration gradient. <br />Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood capillaries (higher concentration of oxygen) to alveoli (lower concentration of oxygen).<br />Adapted from http://www.3dscience.com/img/Products/Images/clip_art/respiratory_alveoli_web.jpg<br />Adapted fromhttp://www1.bellevuepublicschools.org/curriculum/k6web/fifthgrade/bodysys/alveoli2.jpg<br />
    52. 52. Pulmonary vein<br />Pulmonary artery<br />CO2<br />CO2<br />CO2<br />CO2<br />CO2<br />CO2<br />Transport function<br />Alveoli in lungs<br />Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli (higher concentration of oxygen) to blood capillaries (lower concentration of oxygen), down a concentration gradient. <br />Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood capillaries (higher concentration of oxygen) to alveoli (lower concentration of oxygen).<br />Adapted from http://www.3dscience.com/img/Products/Images/clip_art/respiratory_alveoli_web.jpg<br />Adapted fromhttp://www1.bellevuepublicschools.org/curriculum/k6web/fifthgrade/bodysys/alveoli2.jpg<br />
    53. 53. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning<br />=<br />Carboxyhaemoglobin formation<br />Carbon Monoxide<br />46<br />
    54. 54. TB Pg 147<br />Carbon Monoxide Poisoning<br />How does it happen?<br /><ul><li>Haemoglobin combines even more readily with carbon monoxidethan with oxygen to form a bright pink compound called carboxyhaemoglobin.
    55. 55. Unlike oxyhaemoglobin, carboxyhaemoglobindoes not readily give up its carbon monoxide, so the haemoglobin becomes useless.
    56. 56. This is why people can be poisonedby the fumes of gas or car exhausts in a confinedspace.</li></ul>47<br />
    57. 57. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning<br />How is it treated?<br /><ul><li>by placing face masks on the patients and supplying them with air containing a much higher proportion of oxygen than usual.</li></ul>48<br />
    58. 58. Transport functionHow is a molecule of oxygen being transported from lungs to the liver cell?<br />1<br />2<br />Haemoglobin in RBC binds with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin.<br />Blood transports oxyhaemoglobin to all tissues in the body.<br />3<br />As RBC moves through the capillaries in the lungs, oxygen diffuses from the alveoli (higher concentration) into RBC (lower concentration).<br />Rearrange!<br />4<br />Oxyhaemoglobin releases its oxygen to tissues containing very little oxygen by diffusion.<br />
    59. 59. Thinking time…<br />How do humans adapt to living at high altitude?<br />What makes their cheeks so red?<br />
    60. 60. At high altitudes, oxygen is low. <br /><ul><li>to compensate for the low concentration of oxygen
    61. 61. body produces more red blood cells (acclimatisation) rosy cheeks.</li></ul>Increasing the proportion of RBC increases haemoglobin content <br />more oxygen can be transported to tissue cells per unit time.<br />For the same reason, long distance runners often train at high altitudes before a big race hence when they run at lower altitudes, body can carry oxygen more efficiently, run longer.<br />
    62. 62. Functions of Blood<br />Transport<br />Carbon dioxide<br />HCO3-<br />CO2<br />Converted to HCO3- ions and carried in blood plasma<br />CO2 diffuse into blood plasma<br />As blood passes through lungs…<br />HCO3- ions converted back to CO2<br />Conc. of CO2 higher in plasma than lungs<br />Diffusion from plasma to lungs<br />CO2<br />
    63. 63. Functions of Blood<br />Examples<br /><ul><li>Glucose
    64. 64. Amino Acids
    65. 65. Vitamins</li></ul>Transport<br />Food<br />Hormones<br />Waste<br />Chemical messengers that control many metabolic processes.<br />Examples<br /><ul><li>Insulin
    66. 66. Glucagon
    67. 67. Adrenalin</li></ul>Excretory products delivered to the kidneys for removal.<br />Examples<br /><ul><li>Urea
    68. 68. Uric Acid
    69. 69. Creatinine</li></li></ul><li>Functions of Blood<br />So we have seen how blood transports metabolic substances and the important role played by haemoglobin….<br />Next, we shall look at the protective functions of blood.<br />Transport<br />Oxygen<br />Carbon Dioxide<br />Food<br />Hormones<br />Waste<br />Protection<br />Production of antibodies<br />Phagocytosis of foreign bodies<br />Clotting of blood (reduce loss of blood)<br />Distribute body heat especiallly from liver and muscles<br />Protection<br />Production of antibodies<br />
    70. 70. By platelets<br />By phagocytes<br />By lymphocytes<br />Protective function<br />Phagocytosis<br />Antibody production<br />Blood Clotting/Coagulation<br />
    71. 71. Protective function<br />Blood Clotting<br />When blood vessels are damaged,<br />1) Platelets adhere to the cut edges. Platelets release chemicals to attract more platelets. Formation of platelet plug prevents external bleeding.<br />2) Damaged tissues and blood platelets release thrombokinase (enzyme).<br />3) Thrombokinase neutralises action of heparin (anti-clotting substance in blood).<br />4) In the presence of calcium ions, thrombokinase catalyses conversion of inactive prothrombin to active thrombin (enzyme).<br />5) Thrombin catalyses conversion of solublefibrinogen to insoluble fibrin threads.<br />6) Insoluble fibrin threads entangle blood cells. A clot and scab is formed. A yellow-ish liquid serum is left behind<br />
    72. 72. Function of Blood Clotting<br /><ul><li> Clotting seals wound, preventing excessive loss of blood
    73. 73. Clotting of blood by platelets prevent further entry of bacteria/ foreign particles reduce infection by pathogens</li></li></ul><li>What if some microbes get into the wound?<br />
    74. 74. Protective function<br />Phagocytosis<br /><ul><li> Phagocyte flows over to the foreign particle.
    75. 75. Phagocyte engulfs foreign particle.
    76. 76. Destroy pathogens by phagocytosis and ingest foreign particles like bacteria that gain entry into blood</li></ul>Adapted from http://www.cutiegadget.com/pict/pacman-plush.jpg<br />
    77. 77. Protective function<br />Antibody production<br /><ul><li> Disease causing micro-organisms in blood stream.
    78. 78. This stimulate Lymphocyte releases antibodies.
    79. 79. Antibodies can - rupture bacteria - agglutinate bacteria such that they will be easily digested by phagocytes </li></ul> - neutralise harmful products (e.g toxins) produced by bacteria/foreign particle. <br />- prevent viruses from attaching to host cells by attaching to them <br />
    80. 80. Functions of Blood<br />Protection<br />Production of antibodies<br /><ul><li>Antibodies are soluble proteins…
    81. 81. Mostly produced by lymphocytes.
    82. 82. Capable of recognizing foreign objects…
    83. 83. Then binds to them…
    84. 84. Foreign objects with antibodies bounded to them are destined for destruction by immune system. </li></li></ul><li>Vaccination: <br />Injection of dead foreign bodies into humans to stimulate lymphocytes into secreting antibodies<br />Adapted from http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_lm2JI7sGwYI/SZUGTvIT7RI/AAAAAAAAEkQ/14mCG1Y2RX0/s400/vaccination(5).jpg<br />*  Hexa (Six-in-One) includes   Diphtheria/Tetanus/Pertussis (DTaP)   Haemophilus Influenza type B (Hib)   Inactivated Polio (IPV)   Hepatitis B<br />** Diphtheria/Pertussis/Tetanus (DTaP), Haemophilus Influenzae type B (Hib) & Polio (IPV)<br />
    85. 85. Graph (2nd exposure to foreign bodies): - More antibodies - Response is faster<br />2nd exposure to the same foreign bodies<br />Amount of antibodies in blood<br />1st exposure to foreign bodies<br />Graph (1st exposure to foreign bodies): Lymphocytes respond to foreign bodies by producing antibodies.<br />
    86. 86. Protective function<br />Phagocytosis<br />Antibody production<br />Blood Clotting<br />What will happen when <br />tissue or organ transplant occur?<br />
    87. 87. Organ transplant or tissue rejection<br /> In 2002, Ms De Cruz became the first person in Singapore to receive an organ transplant from an unrelated living donor.<br />"Taking medication every day has become ordinary...The only thing I'm fearful about is becoming immune to the anti-rejection drugs I'm on and the possibility of renal failure."<br />
    88. 88. <ul><li>Circular, flattened, biconcave shape
    89. 89. No nucleus
    90. 90. Contain haemoglobin
    91. 91. Elastic.Able to turn bell shape</li></ul>Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)<br />Transport oxygen from lungs to cells around body<br />Transport function<br /><ul><li>Pale yellowish liquid
    92. 92. Contains 90% water</li></ul>Transports substances such as soluble proteins (e.g. fibrinogen, prothrombin, antibodies), dissolved mineral salts (e.g. calcium), food (e.g. glucose, amino acids), excretory products (e.g. urea, carbon dioxide), hormones (e.g. insulin) around body<br />Plasma<br /><ul><li>Irregular in shape
    93. 93. Presence of nucleus
    94. 94. Colourless. No haemoglobin
    95. 95. Elastic. </li></ul>Defense body against diseases<br />White Blood Cells<br />(Leucocytes)<br />Protective function<br />Membrane-bound fragments of cytoplasm (not true cells) <br />Platelets (Thrombocytes)<br />Blood clotting<br />
    96. 96. Test Yourself! (page 151)<br />(a) To produce antibodies against disease-causing microorganisms.<br />(b) To ingest and destroy foreign particles like bacteria.<br />(c) To carry oxygen to all parts of the body.<br />(d) To bring about blood clotting when tissue is damaged.<br />2 Any organ from another person may be treated as a foreign body by the recipient’s immune system. The recipient’s lymphocytes may respond by producing antibodies to destroy the transplanted organ.<br />3 By matching the tissue of the donor and recipient as closely as possible, e.g. using tissue donated from a relative, or by using immuno-suppressive drugs.<br />4 Blood may be infected with disease-causing microorganisms such as bacteria. The patient’s body produces more white blood cells to combat the bacteria e.g. more phagocytes to ingest bacteria and more lymphocytes to produce antibodies.<br />

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