XML: What is it and why do we care?California AgricultureUniversity of CaliforniaAgriculture and Natural ResourcesCommunication Services and Internet Technology
Or how a mild-mannered journal . . . JANUARY–MARCH 2011 • VOLUME 65 NUMBER 1 California Agriculture APRIL–JUNE 2011 • VOLUME 65 NUMBER 2 California Agriculture Growing bigger, better: Artisan olive oil comes of age (the University California Agriculture JULY–SEPTEMBER 2011 • VOLUME 65 NUMBER 3 of California’s peer-reviewed Food as medicine journal of agriculture, and natural andUniversity of California | Peer-reviewed Research and News in Agricultural, Natural and Human Resources Down on the farm: human Agritourism on the rise Also: Free trade, constructed wetlands, Can what we eat help cure what ails us? rice nitrogen, smart sprayers, almond irrigation resources University of California | Peer-reviewed Research and News in Agricultural, Natural and Human Resources University of California | Peer-reviewed Research and News in Agricultural, Natural and Human Resources research) . . .
. . . can have superpowers on the Web* *especially the semantic Web
Readers today are problem solversTunisia, January 2011
Readers will go to great lengthsto get the information they need. As government tried to block protests, the people went from YouTube, to Facebook, to Twitter
Information wants to be free* ... Information wants to be expensive* *Stewart Brand, Hackers Convention 1984
The tension will not go away Readers expect more – discoverable, accessible content that can be viewed on the"container of choice" – iPhone, Android, Kindle, iPad, laptop . . .
At the same time, faculty authors need “impact” as shownby "metrics" in both thethe popular
and scholarly worlds. Luckily the Web helps us do both.
As land-grant universities, we have• quality content,• some of the best science in the world, and• a long tradition of open-access information,both print and Web
Our content is free in another way now . . . it is no longer restricted to a container
Once we have the content indigital form, we can render it invarious chunks and containers –books, ebooks, PDFs, blogs, websites, journals, ezines, even good old print page turners, presence on databases
But with so many formats and devices -- and readers withdifferent devices -- how can we do this?
We need a multi-tasking tool tocreate content that is ? Discoverable Accessible Actively linkedFlexible -- rendered across platforms and devices Visible in the scholarly world
XML = “extensible markup language”• a language for documents containing structured information;• Including both content and markers, tags identifying what role that content plays.• For example: <title>Huckleberry Finn</title> <author>Mark Twain</author>
Active links on the Web• References• Adam KL. Community Supported Agriculture 2006. Fayetteville, AR:ATTRA-National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service. www.attra.org/attra-pub/PDF/csa.pdf• Altieri MA. Agroecology: The Science of Sustainable Agriculture 1995. Boulder, CO:Westview Pr. 448p.• Anderson-Wilk M. Does community-supported agriculture support conservation?. J Soil Water Conserv. 2007. 62(6):126-7A.• DeLind LB. Ferguson AE. Is this a womens movement? The relationship of gender to community- supported agriculture in Michigan. Hum Organ. 1999. 58(2):190-200.• Feenstra G. CSAs: The consumer-farmer connection. Cal Ag. 1994. 48(5):8- DOI: 10.3733/ca.v048n05p8 [CrossRef]• Flora CB. Bregendahl C. The role of collaborative community supported agriculture: Lessons from Iowa. Leopold Ctr Prog Rep. 2007. 16:44-7.• Galt RE. Counting and mapping community-supported agriculture in the United States and California: Contributions from critical cartography/GIS. ACME: Int E-J Crit Geogr. 2011. 10(2):131-62.• Hinrichs CC. Embeddedness and local food systems: Notes on two types of direct agricultural market. J Rural Stud. 2000. 16(3):295-303. DOI: 10.1016/S0743-0167(99)00063-7 [CrossRef]• Klonsky K. Siebert J. Organic agricultural production in California. California Agriculture: Dimensions and Issues 2004. Berkeley, CA:Giannini Foundation. p. 241-56.
XML tagging for one reference• <ref id="R8"><nlm-citation citation-type="journal">• <person-group person-group-type="author">• <name><surname>Hinrichs</surname>• <given-names>CC</given-names></name></person-group>• <article-title>Embeddedness and local food systems: Notes on two types of direct agricultural market</article-title>• <source>J Rural Stud</source>• <year>2000</year>• <volume>16</volume>• <issue>3</issue>• <fpage>295</fpage><lpage>303</lpage>• <pub-id pub-id-type="doi">10.1016/S0743-0167(99)00063-7</pub- id>• </nlm-citation></ref>
Why is XML so useful?• Machine readable• Flat file – no style• Talks to relational databases – backbone of semantic Web• A standard for that can be recognized by eReaders and mobile devices, databases and platforms – and poured into different containers
What “flavor” of XML ?• There are different kinds of XML.• Each is a DTD or document type definition, a set of rules defining content and structure.
For maximum functionality: NLM DTD *• Established in 2003 by the National Library of Medicine, the world’s largest biomedical library• Designed for content posted to Pub Med Central – a digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature.• Provides free access to full text of articles* Known also as Journal Article Tag Suite (JATS)
Now the de facto internationalstandard of scholarly publication It is popular among aggregators, andhouse style for Atypon and Allen Press,recommended by HighWire and PublicLibrary of Science.
Flavor?• Each “flavor” OF XML includes elements, attributes, and entities, and defines relationships among them.• There are code checkers on line that enable you to test your code for – proper structure (Is there an end tag for every start tag?) and – conformation to the standard.
Functionality -- most important• XML enables content to be channeled into myriad formats and devices: web sites, digital edition on laptop, application for smartphone, reading devices, eReaders, YouTube or Podcast if video or audio files.• It enables content to be indexed by scholarly databases including Thomson ISI Web of Science
Another option: XML metadata + PDF• PDFs are true visual representations of how text is meant to look• PDFs are easy to read because they retain formatting• They include vector graphics that scale cleanly in any device
California Agriculture has posted full text inXML and PDF format back to our first issue in 1946.Beginning in July 2011: California Agriculture went electronic version of record.
We now deliver XML directly to databases. Theydisplay it as soon as we signal new content.
One favorable result: Greater visibility for faculty authors June ‘11: Impact factor for 2010 doubled to .92
Steps to XML1. Hire a web editor (someone familiar with XML flavors, transforms, and CSS).2. Get a friendly, helpful IT programmer to build a database, create transforms and calls3. Hire vendor to digitize your backfile (our vendor is Aptara)4. Learn to maintain and update your site with editorial staff and designers.Check out helpful websites:JATS-Con 2011 PPTs and some videos go to: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK57252/NLM DTD and PubMed Central code checkerhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/pub/validation/
Making your content discoverable to readers and internet databases, aggregators, browsers . . .whether in Ghana . . . Or Iowa