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Black history from another angle

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Janet Cheatham Bell's offering of African Americans in history who are seldom noticed. People like Meta Warrick Fuller, Lena Walker, William Grant Still, John Brown, the Society of Friends.

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Black history from another angle

  1. 1. BLACK HIGHLIGHTS OF AMERICAN HISTORYJANET CHEATHAM BELL FEBRUARY 2011
  2. 2. Do you know what part thesepeople and events played in African American history? Carter G. WoodsonSociety of Friends (Quakers) Oberlin College Mason-Dixon Line Harpers Ferry, W. Va Historically Black Colleges and Universities
  3. 3. CARTER G. WOODSON 1875-1950 • Worked in Kentucky coal mines and didn’t attend high school until age 20 • B.A. University of Chicago, 1907; Ph.D. Harvard, 1912 • founded Association for the Study of Negro Life & History, 1915 • Established Negro History Week, 1926
  4. 4. CARTER G. WOODSON 1875-1950 • Worked in Kentucky coal mines and didn’t attend high school until age 20 • B.A. University of Chicago, 1907; Ph.D. Harvard, 1912 • founded Association for the Study of Negro Life & History, 1915 • Established Negro History Week, 1926
  5. 5. CARTER G. WOODSON 1875-1950 • Worked in Kentucky coal mines and didn’t attend high school until age 20 • B.A. University of Chicago, 1907; Ph.D. Harvard, 1912 • founded Association for the Study of Negro Life & History, 1915 • Established Negro History Week, 1926
  6. 6. RELIGIOUS SOCIETY OF FRIENDS QUAKERS
  7. 7. QUAKER BELIEFS & PRACTICES• all humans equal • 1688 took first public before God stand against slavery beginning• equality makes the abolitionist (those opposed to slavery) peoples ranks and movement titles unimportant • 1787 organized and• enslaving another operated the human is horrific Underground Railroad• system of slavery • did not participate should be in violence and war undermined
  8. 8. QUAKER BELIEFS & PRACTICES• all humans equal before God• equality makes peoples ranks and titles unimportant• enslaving another human is horrific• system of slavery should be undermined
  9. 9. QUAKER BELIEFS & PRACTICES • 1688 took first public stand against slavery beginning the abolitionist movement • 1787 organized and operated the Underground• Isaac Hopper initiated Railroad efforts in Philadelphia to • did not participate form Underground Railroad in violence and war
  10. 10. OTHER ABOLITIONISTS
  11. 11. OBERLIN COLLEGE OHIO• Founded • first college to admit• 1833 non-whites in 1835 • first college to• graduate women in 1841 • a major stop on the Underground• Asa Mahan, Railroad abolitionist, social reformer, first president of Oberlin
  12. 12. OBERLIN COLLEGE OHIO• Founded • first college to admit• 1833 non-whites in 1835 • first college to• graduate women in 1841 • a major stop on the Underground Railroad• Asa Mahan, abolitionist, social reformer, first president of Oberlin
  13. 13. MISSOURI COMPROMISE 1820
  14. 14. HARPERS FERRY, W. VA
  15. 15. JOHN BROWN 1800-1859• Raided Harpers Ferry to seize weapons and engage in guerilla warfare to end slavery, 1859• Tried and hanged for treason and conspiring with slaves• Trial focused country on slavery
  16. 16. JOHN BROWN 1800-1859• Raided Harpers Ferry to seize weapons and engage in guerilla warfare to end slavery, 1859• Tried and hanged for treason and conspiring with slaves• Trial focused country on slavery
  17. 17. JOHN BROWN 1800-1859• Raided Harpers Ferry to seize weapons and engage in guerilla warfare to end slavery, 1859• Tried and hanged for treason and conspiring with slaves• Trial focused country on slavery
  18. 18. The year after Brown wasexecuted Abraham Lincoln wasnominated by the RepublicanParty to be President of theUnited States. His election in1860 led to the Souths secessionfrom the Union and began theCivil War which lasted from1861-1865.
  19. 19. In 1865, after 246 years, and the loss of 620,000 lives,slavery was abolished.
  20. 20. “American slavery was ahuman horror ofstaggering dimensions.Julian Bond, professor, Department of History,University of Virginia; former national chair,NAACP, graduate of Morehouse College(HBCU)
  21. 21. “It lasted twenty timeslonger than the Naziholocaust,Julian Bond, professor, Department of History,University of Virginia; former national chair,NAACP, graduate of Morehouse College(HBCU)
  22. 22. “killed ten times as manypeople,Julian Bond, professor, Department of History,University of Virginia; former national chair,NAACP, graduate of Morehouse College(HBCU)
  23. 23. “and destroyed cultureson three continents. Julian Bond, professor, Department of History,University of Virginia; former national chair,NAACP, graduate of Morehouse College(HBCU)
  24. 24. “The profits it producedendowed great fortunesand enrichedgenerations.”Julian Bond, professor, Department of History,University of Virginia; former national chair,NAACP, graduate of Morehouse College(HBCU)
  25. 25. AFTER THE CIVIL WARHISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES (HBCU)
  26. 26. HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES• Alabama Agricultural • Delaware State and Mechanical University, 1891 University, 1875 • Fisk University, 1866• Bennett College, (Tennessee) 1873, 1926 (North • Hampton University, Carolina) 1861, 1863 (Virginia)• Central State • Howard University, University, 1856, 1947 1867 (DC) (Ohio) • Morehouse College,• Cheyney University, 1867 (Georgia) 1837 (Pennsylvania)
  27. 27. HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES• Alabama Agricultural • Delaware State and Mechanical University, 1891 University, 1875 • Fisk University, 1866• Bennett College, (Tennessee) 1873, 1926 (North • Hampton University, Carolina) 1861, 1863 (Virginia)• Central State • Howard University, University, 1856, 1947 1867 (DC) (Ohio) • Morehouse College,• Cheyney University, 1867 (Georgia) 1837 (Pennsylvania)
  28. 28. HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES• Alabama Agricultural • Delaware State and Mechanical University, 1891 University, 1875 • Fisk University, 1866• Bennett College, (Tennessee) 1873, 1926 (North • Hampton University, Carolina) 1861, 1863 (Virginia)• Central State • Howard University, University, 1856, 1947 1867 (DC) (Ohio) • Morehouse College,• Cheyney University, 1867 (Georgia) 1837 (Pennsylvania)
  29. 29. HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES• Alabama Agricultural • Delaware State and Mechanical University, 1891 University, 1875 • Fisk University, 1866• Bennett College, (Tennessee) 1873, 1926 (North • Hampton University, Carolina) 1861, 1863 (Virginia)• Central State • Howard University, University, 1856, 1947 1867 (DC) (Ohio) • Morehouse College,• Cheyney University, 1867 (Georgia) 1837 (Pennsylvania)
  30. 30. HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES• Alabama Agricultural • Delaware State and Mechanical University, 1891 University, 1875 • Fisk University, 1866• Bennett College, (Tennessee) 1873, 1926 (North • Hampton University, Carolina) 1861, 1863 (Virginia)• Central State • Howard University, University, 1856, 1947 1867 (DC) (Ohio) • Morehouse College,• Cheyney University, 1867 (Georgia) 1837 (Pennsylvania)
  31. 31. HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES• Alabama Agricultural • Delaware State and Mechanical University, 1891 University, 1875 • Fisk University, 1866• Bennett College, (Tennessee) 1873, 1926 (North • Hampton University, Carolina) 1861, 1863 (Virginia)• Central State • Howard University, University, 1856, 1947 1867 (DC) (Ohio) • Morehouse College,• Cheyney University, 1867 (Georgia) 1837 (Pennsylvania)
  32. 32. HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES• Alabama Agricultural • Delaware State and Mechanical University, 1891 University, 1875 • Fisk University, 1866• Bennett College, (Tennessee) 1873, 1926 (North • Hampton University, Carolina) 1861, 1863 (Virginia)• Central State • Howard University, University, 1856, 1947 1867 (DC) (Ohio) • Morehouse College,• Cheyney University, 1867 (Georgia) 1837 (Pennsylvania)
  33. 33. HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES• Alabama Agricultural • Delaware State and Mechanical University, 1891 University, 1875 • Fisk University, 1866• Bennett College, (Tennessee) 1873, 1926 (North • Hampton University, Carolina) 1861, 1863 (Virginia)• Central State • Howard University, University, 1856, 1947 1867 (DC) (Ohio) • Morehouse College,• Cheyney University, 1867 (Georgia) 1837 (Pennsylvania)
  34. 34. THE ENDTOMORROW: THE INNOVATORS
  35. 35. INNOVATORST H O S E WH O H A D N O R O L E M O D E L S
  36. 36. BENJAMIN BANNEKER 1731-1806 • Astronomer, surveyor, mathematician • 1783 completed carving of America’s first clock which worked for 20 years • Wrote to Thomas Jefferson in 1791 challenging his claim that blacks could not understand Euclid
  37. 37. LEWIS LATIMER 1848–1928• Patented an improved toilet system for railroad cars in 1874• Drew the blueprints for Alexander Graham Bell’s first telephone in 1876• Patented the carbon filament, an important part of the light bulb — while working with Thomas Edison in 1884
  38. 38. LEWIS LATIMER 1848–1928• Patented an improved toilet system for railroad cars in 1874• Drew the blueprints for Alexander Graham Bell’s first telephone in 1876• Patented the carbon filament, an important part of the light bulb — while working with Thomas Edison in 1884
  39. 39. DANIEL HALE WILLIAMS 1856-1931 • Graduated Chicago Medical College, 1883 • Founded Provident Hospital, 1891 • First physician to successfully perform open heart surgery, 1893
  40. 40. IDA B. WELLS-BARNETT 1862-1931• Rust College (HBCU)• Sued Chesapeake & Ohio R.R. for discrimination, 1884.• Journalist who owned her own newspaper in Memphis and Chicago• Fearless crusader against lynching• A founder of the NAACP
  41. 41. “I felt that one hadbetter die fightingagainst injustice than todie like a dog or a rat ina trap. I had alreadydetermined to sell my lifeas dearly as possible ifattacked.” Ida B. Wells
  42. 42. MADAM C. J. WALKER 1867-1919 • Entrepreneur and America’s first female self-made millionaire • Founded a national hair-care business
  43. 43. “There is no royal flower-strewn path to success. Andif there is, I have not found itfor if I have accomplishedanything in life it is because Ihave been willing to workhard.” Madam Walker
  44. 44. MAGGIE LENA WALKER 1867-1934• First woman to charter a bank in the U.S., St. Luke’s Penny Savings Bank, 1902• First woman bank president• Obtained her skill with money as leader of the Independent Order of St. Luke burial society in Richmond, VA
  45. 45. CHARLES DREW 1904-1950 Received an athletic scholarship to Amherst College in MA M.D., McGill University (Montreal), 1933 Ph.D., Columbia University, 1940 Researched blood transfusions and developed blood plasma and blood banks
  46. 46. REGINALD LEWIS 1942-1993• Economics degree Virginia State U., 1965 (HBCU)• Law degree Harvard University, 1968• Purchased Beatrice International Foods in a $985 million LBO, 1987• Activist and philanthropist
  47. 47. THE END
  48. 48. THE ARTISTS
  49. 49. IRA ALDRIDGE 1807-1867 • Distinguished Shakespearean actor from New York. • Performed in top theaters in Europe and England where he received many honors. • One of 33 actors of the English stage honored with bronze plaques at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre at Stratford-on-Avon
  50. 50. “I will live down theprejudice, I will crush itout. I will show to theworld that a man mayspring from a race ofslaves, and yet far excelmany of the boastedruling race.” Charles W. Chesnutt, 1878
  51. 51. CHARLES WADDELL CHESNUTT 1858-1932• Novelist, short story writer, public intellectual whose work exposed American hypocrisy• The Conjure Woman (short stories) published in 1899 was followed by novels: The House Behind the Cedars and The Marrow of Tradition in 1900 and 1901.
  52. 52. META WARRICK FULLER 1877-1968 • Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art, 1898 • Prize-winning student • First artist to celebrate Afro-centric themes • Studied in Paris as a protégé of Rodin
  53. 53. Two of Fuller’s sculptures
  54. 54. WILLIAM GRANT STILL 1895-1978• Studied at Wilberforce University (HBCU) and Oberlin College• Classical composer who played several instruments.• First black to have his symphony performed by a major orchestra.• First black to conduct a major symphony orchestra in Los Angeles, 1936
  55. 55. TROUBLED ISLAND BY WILLIAM GRANT STILL• This grand opera • The New York City was the first by a Opera Company received 22 curtain black to be calls on opening night, performed by a but it was never major opera performed again. company in 1949.
  56. 56. RICHARD WRIGHT 1908-1960 • His novel, Native Son (1940), first bestselling book by black writer and first selected by the Book-of-the- Month Club. It was also adapted for stage and film. • Black Boy (1945), his autobiography, also a bestseller and BOMC selection
  57. 57. GORDON PARKS, SR. 1912-2006• Self-taught photographer, poet, composer, filmmaker, writer• First black photo- grapher at Life magazine, 1948-1972• First black to produce and direct a major Hollywood film, The Learning Tree, 1969
  58. 58. American Gothic as interpreted by Gordon Parks
  59. 59. GWENDOLYN BROOKS 1917-2000• Poet Laureate of Illinois, 1968-2000; Poetry Consultant to the Library of Congress, 1985-86• Recipient of many poetry grants and awards including a Guggenheim, and in 1950, the first Pulitzer Prize awarded to an African American for her collection of poetry, Annie Allen.
  60. 60. THE ENDTOMORROW: ADVOCATES AND POLITICIANS
  61. 61. ADVOCATES & POLITICIANS
  62. 62. RICHARD ALLEN 1760-1831 • Worked at night to save money and purchased his freedom in 1783 • Created the Free African Society and negotiated purchase of property in 1787on which first church was built. Current church is on that same land. • Established the African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1816, first independent black institution in America • Allen became first bishop
  63. 63. ELIZABETH KECKLEY 1818-1907• Moved to nation’s capital and became Mrs. Lincoln’s seamstress and confidante• Author of Behind the Scenes: 30 Years a Slave and 4 Years in the White House, 1868• Founder and president of the Contraband Relief Association, 1862
  64. 64. HIRAM R. REVELS 1822-1901 • First person of African descent elected to the U.S. Senate (R) from Mississippi, 1870 • Nominated a black to attend West Point, but he was refused admission. • Left Senate to become President of Alcorn State University (HBCU) in 1871.
  65. 65. MARY WHITE OVINGTON 1865-1951 • Suffragette, socialist, journalist, author • Liaison between the (all-white) National Negro Committee and the (all-black) Niagara Movement that merged to form the NAACP • First Executive Secretary of the NAACP, 1910
  66. 66. ELLA BAKER 1903-1986• Graduate of Shaw University (HBCU)• Field Secretary for the NAACP, 1940-1947• Founder of and advisor to SNCC (Student Non Violent Coordinating Committee), 1960• SNCC initiated student sit-ins and Freedom Rides that desegregated lunch counters and interstate bus travel
  67. 67. FANNIE LOU HAMER 1917-1977 • Voting rights activist • Helped to organize Mississippi Freedom Summer for SNCC • Vice-Chair of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party • Spoke at 1964 Democratic Nat’l Convention
  68. 68. CARL STOKES 1927-1996• First African American elected mayor of a major city, Cleveland,1967-1971• Only politician to publicly support Muhammad Ali’s refusal to be drafted• First black anchorman in NYC on WNBC-TV, 1972• Cleveland municipal judge, 1983-1994• Ambassador to the Seychelles, 1994-96
  69. 69. CARL STOKES 1927-1996• First African American elected mayor of a major city, Cleveland,1967-1971• Only politician to publicly support Muhammad Ali’s refusal to be drafted• First black anchorman in NYC on WNBC-TV, 1972• Cleveland municipal judge, 1983-1994• Ambassador to the Seychelles, 1994-96
  70. 70. THE LAST WORD

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