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The Right way to Recruit and Select the Right Talent in Trinidad and Tobago


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Recruitment and Selection in Trinidad is no different than any other country except for the fact that ...

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The Right way to Recruit and Select the Right Talent in Trinidad and Tobago

  1. 1. HRMATT TOOLKIT: Staffing the Contemporary Organisation March2015 Facilitator: JanelP. Phillip
  2. 2. Desired Outcomes  Provide a guide to Planning, Recruiting and Selecting the “right” human Resources to match your organisation  Provide a guide to the right selection tools for your organisation and make sure you get the right ‘fit’  Laying the groundwork for employee retention
  3. 3. Types of Contemporary Organisations  Functional/Tall Structure  Flat Structure  Matrix Structure  Egalitarian Structure  Blended/ Flexible Structures
  4. 4. Types of Contemporary Organisations
  5. 5. Flat Organisation Structures  Flat organizations have relatively few-- sometimes just one--layers of management. Unlike the tall structures common to many businesses, flat structures have a short chain of command and a wide span of managerial control. Span of control, originally a military term, refers to the number of subordinates that directly report to that manager. In a flat structure, more subordinates report to a single manager. Due to the reduced number of management layers, small organizations get the most out of flat structures.
  6. 6. Matrix Organisation Structures  The matrix organization structure is a more complicated structure in which the firm is divided both according to functions and products/services. For instance, a firm that manufactures consumer goods might have three product divisions: foods, personal care and cleaning products. It also might be divided into three functional divisions, such as research and development, marketing and distribution. Each person within the firm serves two divisions, one functional and one product. For example, a person might be a member of both the marketing division and the foods division.
  7. 7. Egalitarian Organisation Structures  In the tradition hierarchical corporate structure, each employee operates under a specific job description. Each employee also reports to a superior who monitors his progress and issues instructions. Egalitarian-style companies eliminate most of this structure. Employees in an egalitarian company have general job descriptions, rather than specific ones. Instead of reporting to a superior, all employees in an egalitarian company work collaboratively on tasks and behave as equals.
  8. 8. Blended/Flexible Organisation Structures  Though egalitarianism is becoming a popular management for small and medium companies, few companies that implement it are purely egalitarian. Most companies use a blend of egalitarian and hierarchical philosophies. Instead of eliminating boundaries altogether, a blended management style makes boundaries more flexible. With flexible boundaries, employees know the tasks they must complete but aren't restricted to performing only those tasks. Flexible boundaries also allow employees more freedom to collaborate with coworkers and introduce their own ideas while still remaining under the direction of a supervisor
  9. 9. What is Staffing  Determining HR Needs in Org  Ensure Org has “Right” quality and quantity of staff  Ensure Org has employees with the “Right” talent and competencies  Ensure employees are the “Right” “Fit” for the organisation.
  10. 10. How Do You Rate Your Existing Staffing Process?
  11. 11. Successful Staffing Starts With……
  12. 12. Successful Staffing Starts With……  A PLAN: If you fail to plan… plan to fail  Strategic planning : Business plan HR plan R&S plan  Knowing: – What you want from your new recruit/Incumbents – When and where you want it – How long you want it for – The costs you are prepared to sustain
  13. 13. Staffing Components PHASE 1 PHASE 2 Job Analysis and Design Human Resource Planning Recruiting Selecting Performance Planning and Appraisal Career Planning Staffing Plan Effectiveness Alignment of Staffing Components Competency Evaluation Engagement Checking
  14. 14. Staffing – Internal/External Environment Staffing- Internal Factor • ? • Unions • Company Structure • Business Plan/Strategy • Core Values • Org Mission Staffing- External Factors • ? • Technology • Competitors • Customers • The Economy • Workforce/Labour Market • Political/Legal
  15. 15. HR FORECASTING External  Net migration into and out of the area  Individuals entering and leaving the workforce  Individuals graduating from schools and colleges  Changing workforce composition and patterns  Economic forecasts for the next few years  Technological developments and shifts  Actions of competing employers  Government regulations and pressures  Factors affecting persons entering and leaving the workforce Internal  Current Staffing  Anticipated Losses – Normal Attrition  Terminations  Retirements  Lateral Transfers out  Promotions out  Demotions out – Changing in Staffing  Reductions in Positions – Anticipated Gains  New Hires  Increase in Positions
  16. 16. HR STAFFING FORECASTING - METHODS  ZERO BASE FORECASTING “Current staffing level as starting point to determine future needs” – Correlation and Regression Analysis – Simulations e.g. “what if sales increase” – Pro Forma Org Structure “staffing based on perceived need” – Benchmarking
  17. 17. Human Resource Planning & Forecasting Process BUSINESS STRATEGY HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING REQUIREMENTS FORECAST Creation of New Jobs Elimination of Existing Jobs No Changes in Jobs Decreases in Positions Increases in Positions Normal Attrition AVAILABILITY FORECAST INTERNAL EXTERNAL
  18. 18. Human Resource Planning Process BUSINESS STRATEGY HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING DEMAND = SUPPLY NO ACTION DEMAND < SUPPLY REDUCE SUPPLY Restrict Hiring/Hiring Freeze Reduce Hours Early Retirement VSEP Retrenchment DEMAND > SUPPLY INCREASE SUPPLY Compensation Incentives Expand Benefits Development Incentives Reduce Selection Standards Creative Recruiting
  19. 19. Know What You Want – Additional Factors to Consider  How many positions do you wish to fill and on what type of employment contract – e.g. permanent, temporary, full time, part time  When do they need to start  Where are the jobs to be located  What is your recruitment budget  How will the culture of the organization/department/work team influence the selection of a ‘best fit’  What caused the turnover in the position?
  20. 20. Talent Management Considerations  “Lack of the right talent can be a major competitive disadvantage” “More organizations are becoming aware of their need for - and lack of - talent, and are putting increasing energy and money into the recruitment of capable, bright people.” – Michael Williams, ‘The War for Talent’  “Today’s high performers are like frogs in a wheelbarrow: they can jump out at any time.” Manfred Kets de Vries
  21. 21. Recruitment and Selection - A New Perspective “Talent”…… – Consistently high ability – and performance – over either a wide range of activities and or within a particular area of expertise – High ability in areas of activity that strongly indicate transferable and comparable capability, in other fields of endeavor, even though the individual may not have yet had experience of the latter
  22. 22. What is Recruitment and Selection?  Recruitment – – The process of actively soliciting applications from potential candidates, internal or external, to meet the identified needs of the organization  Selection – – The process of identifying the potential candidate who is the best fit for the organization and who mutually selects the organization as a best fit for them
  23. 23. The Recruitment and Selection Process Know what you want – – The job profile and person profile Attract the right candidates – Identify your target pool – Choose your recruitment method Select the best fit – Plan the assessment stages – Identify the selection tools for each stage Finalize the selection – Making the offer
  24. 24. The Recruitment and Selection Plan Structured HR/Recruitment plan Imagine you are the candidate Map out your goals for each stage Prepare well in advance Legal implications – recruit fairly Enable your candidates to show their potential
  25. 25. Know What You Want - Developing the Job Analysis  The job title  The job purpose – why does the job exist? How does it benefit the organization?  The job scope – who will the job report to? How many people will the job holder manager? How large is the job holder’s budget?  The job duties – what are the key tasks and responsibilities of the job?
  26. 26. Know What You Want - Developing the Person Profile  What personal attributes are essential and desirable for good performance? – Attributes = experience, qualification, knowledge, skills or competencies – Essential = must have, any candidate lacking this will be rejected – Desirable = nice to have, can use this to distinguish between candidates meeting all the essential requirements
  27. 27. Know What You Want - Developing the Person Profile Essential Desirable Experience gained Knowledge Qualifications Skills/ competencies
  28. 28. Know What You Want - Developing the Job Profile Group activity 1 For your case study company develop the job profile for the position included in the package. Identify one person in the group to present.
  29. 29. Attract the Right Candidates – Identify Your Target Pool  At what level in the organization is the position?  Where is the position located?  Where are potential candidates most likely to be found – Labour market (internal or external) – Local or regional (CSME) – Direct entry from education  How often do you recruit for this position and what is the cost (money, time, opportunity)?
  30. 30. Attract the Right Candidates – Elements of A Good Advertisement Targeted Reflective Attractive Clear Keeping focused
  31. 31. Attract the Right Candidates – Recruitment Method(s)  Internal job posting  Word of mouth  National press  Professional association newsletters/journals  Company website  Internet job sites  Recruitment agencies  ‘Headhunters’ / search consultants
  32. 32. Attract the Right Candidates – Recruitment Method(s) When would you expect ‘word of mouth’ to be an effective recruitment method? What are the pros and cons of these different types of recruitment methods? What are the pros and cons of using ‘anonymous’/unbranded advertisements
  33. 33. Attract the Right Candidates – Identify Your Target Pool and Recruitment Methods Group activity3 Identify the recruitment PLAN you would use for this position. Why have you selected these particular recruitment methods for this position? What may be the drawbacks against which you should mitigate?
  34. 34. RECRUITMENT PLAN  See handout
  35. 35. Select the Best Fit – Plan the Assessment Stages Each stage acts as a filter to screen out candidates who fail to meet key criteria for the role.  Stage One – information gathering and initial short - listing  Stage Two – face to face meetings and other assessments  Final Stage – fine–filter selection methods to make fine distinctions between the best candidates and support final decision
  36. 36. Select the Best Fit – The Selection Tools Available ?
  37. 37. Select the Best Fit – The Selection Tools Available  The CV vs. the application form  The Interview – – Technical – Situational – Behavioral – Biographical  Psychometric Tests – – Aptitude and/or personality
  38. 38. Select the Best Fit – The Selection Tools Available (2)  Assessment Centers – Work sample exercises – Presentation exercises – Group discussion and role play – Technical assessment – In-tray / in-basket exercises  Other methods – e.g. graphology, phrenology
  39. 39. Select the Best Fit – Common Problems with Interviews  Expectancy  Self-fulfilling prophecy  Primacy  Stereotyping  Prototyping  Halo and horns  Contrast  Negative information bias  Similar to me  Personal Liking  Information overload  Fundamental attribution error  Temporal extension
  40. 40. Select the Best Fit – So Why Interview?  Predict future job performance and behavior  Focus on aspects of behavior and performance that cannot easily be addressed by other means  Supply information to the candidate  Persuade suitable candidates to accept job offered and join the organization  Create goodwill for the organization
  41. 41. Select the Best Fit – Guidelines for Interviewing  Sequence – – Establish technical abilities before concentrating on the more complex process of assessing their competencies and fit with your organization – Telephone based interviews can be very effective if candidates are widely spread geographically
  42. 42. Select the Best Fit – Guidelines for Interviewing (2)  Format – – One on one interviews allow for greater rapport but have greater potential for interviewer bias – Panel interviews (multiple interviewers) can be fairer but are harder to manage and can be very formal and intimidating to candidates – Telephone-based interviews can be more convenient but are harder to build rapport  Be consistent with the choice of interview type, format or sequence used for each stage of the selection process
  43. 43. Select the Best Fit – Guidelines for Interviewing (3)  Key Interviewing Skills – – Note taking – Objectives – Preparation – Questions – Rapport – Structure – Time Management – Unbiased
  44. 44. Select the Best Fit – Conducting a Professional Interview – If a panel interview, have a pre-interview meeting to identify the chairman, set the ground rules and plan the flow of the interview and questions. – Start on time and welcome the candidate – Introduce yourself and explain the interview and recruitment process – Provide an overview of the company and role – Keep a written reminder of your prepared questions, and stick to them
  45. 45. Select the Best Fit – Conducting a Professional Interview (2) – Avoid confrontational body language – Listen politely and show interest in the candidate’s responses but avoid showing specific approval or disapproval to the candidate’s responses – Summarize to check your understanding of key points – Ask good questions and take good notes using a standard format (such as an interview form); these will be important for making the final decision
  46. 46. Select the Best Fit – Conducting a Professional Interview (3) – Manage the time to ensure that you cover all the questions you need – Ask the candidate if they have any questions – Conclude by thanking the candidate for their time and interest in the role and advise them when they will hear about the outcome. – Evaluate the results of the interview against the person profile using a rating scale (An example of a rating scale is found on page 88 of the Managing recruitment Pocketbook included with your course material)
  47. 47. Interviews Role Play  The Good  The Bad  The Ugly  The absolutely Ridiculous
  48. 48. Select the Best Fit – Guidelines for Selecting and Using Psychometric Tests  Always ensure that tests selected are: – relevant to the person profile – at the right level for the job – reliable and valid and do not discriminate unfairly on grounds of gender, ethnicity or disability  Anyone selecting and administering tests, evaluating results or giving feedback is properly trained and certified to do so  Feedback from tests should be given to all candidates concerning their performance
  49. 49. Select the Best Fit – Guidelines for Selecting and Using Psychometric Tests (2)  Tests users must maintain the highest standards of confidentiality, with results made available only to those with a genuine need to know  No selection decision should be based purely on a psychometric test result. They should always form part of a wider selection process, with inferences backed up by data from other sources.  Test results should not be used as a basis for making decisions based on preference for a particular character type
  50. 50. Select the Best Fit – Guidelines for Using Other Selection Tools  Make sure that the exercises are relevant to the person profile  Tell the candidates in advance what they can expect  Use exercises which are fair and can be assessed consistently and objectively  Integrate the results of each exercise with other information you have gathered about the candidate before making a balanced final decision
  51. 51. Select the Best Fit – the Assessment Stages and Selection Tools Group activity 4  Outline the assessment stages you will use for your selection process – identify the timelines and the persons who would be involved  What selection tools would add most value and how would these contribute to your final candidate selection?
  52. 52. The Final Selection  Allow quality time to review the evidence on each candidate as soon as possible after completion of the process.  Evaluate candidate against the person profile based on the results of all selection tools used  Ensure that your selection is fair, transparent  Identify your best candidate and second or third runner up  Make an offer
  53. 53. The Final Selection – Unsuccessful Candidates  Prompt notification of the final outcome  A personalised letter sensitively phrased, acknowledging their time and effort and thanking them for their interest  Offer to keep their details on file only if there is a real chance of a future role  A named contact should they wish more comprehensive feedback on their performance  Sensible suggestions on what could improve their chances next time
  54. 54. The Final Selection – Making the Offer  Make the offer as quickly as possible subject to reference and/or medical checks  Make the package clear – make sure the candidate is fully informed about the full range of benefits on offer  Invite them to discuss any questions or queries they may have  Make it easy to accept – enclose a copy of the offer and a reply paid envelope
  55. 55. The Final Selection – How to Handle a Counter Offer  Consider whether you wish to entertain a counter offer – how much value do you anticipate this candidate will add?  Can you match the counter offer?  Does this fit with your organization culture?  What will the effect of the counter offer be on internal relativity with existing staff and their motivation?
  56. 56. The Final Selection – The Value of Reference Checking  To mitigate against misrepresentation by candidates  To confirm historical facts presented during the recruitment process – – Qualifications – Experience – Job tenure and reason for leaving  The certificate of good character and related reference checks
  57. 57. Will You Win the Talent War?
  58. 58. The “War for Talent” in Trinidad and Tobago  Is there a war for talent in Trinidad and Tobago?  What are the characteristics of the local war for talent?  What factors may be intensifying this situation?
  59. 59. Recruitment and Selection and the War for Talent Why would talented people want to join your organization? – Employer brand / reputation – Compensation – Development or promotion opportunity
  60. 60. Identifying Your Employer Brand/Reputation 1. At your worst, how would your organization or team be described? 2. When you shine, how would your organization or team be described? 3. What does your organization or team represent? 4. What makes your organization or team stand out from your competitors? 5. What is the public image of your leadership team?
  61. 61. Managing the Psychological Contract  ‘…the perceptions of the two parties, employee and employer, of what their mutual obligations are towards each other'  These obligations are – informal and imprecise – inferred from actions and statements made by the employer…during the recruitment process
  62. 62. R&S Processes To Bond New Talent to Your Company  Involve your team in the process – talented people want to know who will help them realize their potential  Provide an honest preview of the job – the talented thrive on a challenge  Set the bar high – profile the company’s successes and strengths so that talented people can see what they will learn
  63. 63. R&S Processes To Bond New Talent to Your Company (2)  Explore and share values and motives – the greater the overlap the stronger the bond  Know your company’s talent predictors – what your best people have in common – and look for evidence in the interview  Treat people well at recruitment – actively manage expectations and show as realistic a picture as possible.
  64. 64. The Importance of the Induction Process  Last phase of R&S, first phase in employee retention  Pre-employment phase helps manage expectations and thus avoid disillusionment  Regular semi-formal meetings with supervisor provide opportunity to ask questions, voice concerns/difficulties and have them handled sympathetically  A learning experience to allow newcomer to reach the required level of performance as quickly as possible
  65. 65. The Importance of the Induction Process (2)  Employee expectations from induction: – Performance efficiency – People – Politics – Language – Goals and values – History Chao et al (1994)
  66. 66. R&S Processes To Keep Existing Talent  Explore alternatives to permanent replacement to broaden the accountabilities  Search the talent pool – based on specific aspirations and track record to identify ‘hidden ‘ talent outside your own team – to consider alongside talent within your own area  Talk to your talent champions – those people who excel at finding hidden talent and helping them thrive
  67. 67. R&S Processes To Keep Existing Talent (2)  Advertise all new and replacement roles internally and externally  Consider evidence of personal development a positive indicator for selection and be prepared to take a nearly ready candidate and help them develop  Ensure rigorous assessment of track record and potential at recruitment stage
  68. 68. Managing the Generation Mix  Schwarzkopfers – born before 1946  Baby boomers – born 1946 –1964  Generation X - born 1965 –1977  Generation Y – born 1978 - 1990
  69. 69. Desired Outcomes  Identifying your target pool and setting up methods that can be sustained  Know the right selection tools for your organisation and make sure you get the right ‘fit’  Laying the groundwork for employee retention
  70. 70. Thank You! Facilitator – Janel P. Phillip