E competences 21 10-2013

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Skills for Design, Analysis and Implementation of IT projects

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E competences 21 10-2013

  1. 1. Skills for Design, Analysis and Implementation of IT projects Prof. Dr. ir Jan Devos Universiteit Gent, Campus Kortrijk Graaf Karel De Goedelaan 5 BE-8500 KORTRIJK - BELGIUM T: +32 56 24 12 72 e-mail: jang.devos@ugent.be linkedIn: www.linkedin.com/in/jangdevos Blog: jangdevos.wordpress.org twitter: @jangdevos © Jan Devos pag. 1
  2. 2. pag. 2
  3. 3. pag. 3
  4. 4. IT/IS projects • Runaway projects and system failure • Runaway projects: 30%–40% IT projects – Exceed schedule, budget – Fail to perform as specified • Types of system failure – – – – Fail to capture essential business requirements Fail to provide organizational benefits Complicated, poorly organized user interface Inaccurate or inconsistent data © Jan Devos pag. 4
  5. 5. Traditional approach - Cybernetic system Control theory © Jan Devos pag. 5
  6. 6. pag. 6
  7. 7. IT projects (New paradigms?) “(Computer-based) Information Systems defeat their own purpose because they create complexity.” (Weick 1985) pag. 7
  8. 8. pag. 8
  9. 9. pag. 9
  10. 10. pag. 10
  11. 11. IT projects - new paradigms? Real Options Pricing Models (ROPMs) • Suitable for large IT infrastructure investments • Future revenue streams are unclear (unsuccessful ?) • Invest now – harvest later • An initial expenditure on IT creates the right, but not the obligation to obtain the benefits associated with further development • Management has the freedom to cancel, defer, restart, or expand the project pag. 11
  12. 12. IT projects - new paradigms? Organizing for High Reliability: Processes of Collective Mindfulness (Weick, 1999) • Preoccupation with failure (“Failure is not an option”) • Reluctance to simplify interpretation (beware of ‘frameworks’, ‘models’, ‘mindsets’, …) • Sensitivity to operations (“situational awareness”) • Commitment to resilience (“continuous management of fluctuations”) pag. 12
  13. 13. IT projects - new paradigms? Lessons from HROs • The expectation of surprise is an organizational resource because it promotes attentiveness and discovery • Anomalous events should be treated as outcomes rather than as accidents, to encourage search for sources and causes • Errors should be made as conspicuous as possible to undermine selfdeception and concealment • Reliability requires diversity, duplication, overlap, and a varied response repertoire, whereas efficiency requires homogeneity, specialization, nonredundancy and standardization (bricolage?) • Interpersonal skills are just as important in HROs as are technical skills pag. 13
  14. 14. IT projects - new paradigms? The sociomateriality of IS (Orlikowski, 2007/8) • A relational view of organizations and IS as sociomaterial arrangements of human and non-human actors • Assumes inherently inseparable sociality and materiality of IS • IS enactments can create different kind of realities in practice • E.g. Why is one ERP implementation successful and why is another one considered as a failure? pag. 14
  15. 15. Conclusions • PM does not guaranteed success nor eliminates failures (IS success models) • PM too much focused on ‘how-to-do’ • Management of meaning iso management of control ? • Critical perspective on projects: focus on values (technology is not neutral), ethics and morality equally important than efficiency & effectiveness • Trust vs Control (Devos, 2009) 2003, The chimpanzees’ tea party: a new metaphor for project manager (Drummond & Hodgson) 2006, New Possibilities for Project Management Theory: A Critical Engagement (Cicmil & Hodgson) pag. 15
  16. 16. Thanks pag. 16

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