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Social Institutions

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Social Institutions

  1. 1. What is a Social Institution? -a group of social positions, connected by social relations, performing a social role, e.g. universities, government, families.
  2. 2. Characteristics of an Institution? • Institutions are purposive. • They are relatively permanent in their content. • Institutions are structured. • Institutions are a unified structure. • Institutions are necessarily value-laden.
  3. 3. Functions of an Institution? • Institutions are purposive. • They are relatively permanent in their content. • Institutions are structured. • Institutions are a unified structure. • Institutions are necessarily value-laden.
  4. 4. The family is the smallest social institution with the unique function or producing and rearing the young. It is the basic unit of Philippine society and the educational system.
  5. 5. Characteristics of the Filipino Family  closely knit and has strong family ties  has a strong loyalty among members  individual interests are sacrificed over the welfare of the group  kinship ties are extended to “compadre” or sponsors
  6. 6. Functions of the Family  Reproduction of the race and rearing the young  Cultural transmission or enculturation  Socialization of the child  Providing affection and a sense of security  Providing the environment for personality development and the growth of self concept  Providing social status
  7. 7. According to Membership Conjugal or Nuclear Family Husband, wife and children Consanguine or extended Family Married couple, their parents, siblings, grandparents, uncles, aunts and cousins Kinds of Family Patterns
  8. 8. According to Terms of Marriage Polyandry One woman married to two or more men Polygamy One man married to two or more women Cenogamy Two or more men mate with two or more women in group marriage Kinds of Family Patterns
  9. 9. According to Line of Descent Patrilineal Descent is recognized through the father’s line Matrilineal Descent is recognized through the mother’s line Bilineal Descent is recognized through both the father’s and mother’s line Kinds of Family Patterns
  10. 10. Kinds of Family Patterns According to Place of Residence Patrilocal Married couple lives with the parents of the husband Matrilocal Married couple lives with the parents of the wife Neolocal Married couple maintains a separate household and live by themselves
  11. 11. Kinds of Family Patterns According to Authority Patriarchal Father is considered the head and plays a dominant role Matriarchal Mother is considered the head and makes the major decisions Equalitarian Both the mother and father share in making decisions and are equal in authority
  12. 12. Super Yano
  13. 13. Multiple Functions of Schools Technical/economic - refers to the contributions of the school to the technical or economic development and needs of the individual, the institution, the local community, the society and the international community.
  14. 14. Multiple Functions of Schools Human/social - refers to the contributions of the school to human development and social relationships at different levels of society.
  15. 15. Multiple Functions of Schools Political - refers to the contributions of the school to the political development at different levels of society.
  16. 16. Multiple Functions of Schools Cultural - refers to the contributions of the school to the cultural transmission and development at different levels of society.
  17. 17. Multiple Functions of Schools Education - refers to the contributions of the school to the development and maintenance of education at the different levels of society.
  18. 18. Manifest and Latent Functions of Education Manifest functions of education are defined as the open and intended goals or consequences of activities within an organization or institution. Socialization Social control Social placement
  19. 19. Manifest and Latent Functions of Education Transmitting culture Promoting social and political integration Agent of change
  20. 20. Manifest and Latent Functions of Education Latent functions of education are the hidden, unstated and sometimes unintended consequences of activities within an organization or institution. Restricting some activities Matchmaking and production of social networks Creation of generation gap
  21. 21. Functions of Schools by Calderon (1998)  Conservation function  Instructional function  Research function  Social service function
  22. 22. Super Yano
  23. 23. Religion is the socially defined patterns of beliefs concerning ultimate meaning of life’ it assumes the existence of the supernatural. -Stark Super Yano
  24. 24. Characteristics of Religion Belief in a deity or in a power beyond the individual A doctrine (accepted teaching) of salvation A code of conduct The use of sacred stories Religious rituals (acts and ceremonies)
  25. 25. Functions of Religion Religion serves as a means of social control. It exerts a great influence upon personality development. Religion always fear the unknown. Religion explains events or situations which are beyond the comprehension of man. It gives man comfort, strength and hope in times of crisis and despair.
  26. 26. Functions of Religion It preserves and transmits knowledge, skills, spiritual and cultural values and practices It serves as an instrument of change. It promotes closeness, love, cooperation, friendliness and helpfulness. Religion alleviates sufferings from major calamities. It provides hope for a blissful life after death.
  27. 27. Churches, sects and cults Church – tends to be large, with inclusive membership, in low tension with surrounding society and tends toward greater intellectual examination and interpretation of the tenants of religion.
  28. 28. Churches, sects and cults Sect – has a small, exclusive membership, high tension with society. It tends toward the emotional, mystic, stress faith, feeling, conversion experience, to be “born again”.
  29. 29. Churches, sects and cults Cult – the more innovative institutions and are formed when people create new religious beliefs and practices. There are three types: audience cults, client cults and cult movements.
  30. 30. Elements of Religion Sacred - refers to phenomena that are regarded as extraordinary, transcendent, and outside the everyday course of events - that is, supernatural.
  31. 31. Elements of Religion Legitimation of norms – Religious sanctions and beliefs reinforce the legitimacy of many rules and norms in the community.
  32. 32. Elements of Religion Rituals – are formal patterns of activity that express symbolically a set of shared meanings.
  33. 33. Elements of Religion Religious Community – Religions establishes a code of behavior for the members, who belong and who does not.
  34. 34. Super Yano
  35. 35. Microeonomics vs. Macroeconomics Microeconomics - concerned with the specific economic units of parts that makes an economic system and the relationship between those parts. Super Yano
  36. 36. Microeonomics vs. Macroeconomics Macroeconomics - concerned with the economy as a whole, or large segments of it.
  37. 37. Basic Economic Problems  What goods and services to produce and how much?  How to produce goods and services?  For whom are the goods and services? Super Yano
  38. 38. Super Yano
  39. 39. The institution which resolves conflicts that are public in nature and involve more than a few people is called a government. It can be city, provincial, national or even international.
  40. 40. Three Branches of the Government Executive Enforces rules and laws Legislative Makes rules and laws Judicial Interprets rules and laws
  41. 41.  Politics - a pattern of human interaction that serves to resolve conflicts between people, institutions, and nations Politics and Administration
  42. 42.  Administration - refers to the aggregate of persons in whose hands the reigns of government are for the time being. Politics and Administration
  43. 43.  Constituent - contribute to the very bonds of society and are therefore compulsary. Constituent and Ministrant Functions of the Government
  44. 44. Examples of constituent functions • The keeping of order and providing for protection of persons and property from violence and robbery. • The definition and punishment for crimes • The administration of justice in civil cases. Constituent and Ministrant Functions of the Government
  45. 45.  Ministrant - those undertaken to advance the general interest of society such as public works, charity and are merely optional. Constituent and Ministrant Functions of the Government

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