3 Flawed Designs: Abstract & Key Words
Abstract
Designers communicate their conceptual model to the user via the system im...
3 Flawed Designs: Purpose & Method
Purpose
The purpose of the exercise is to gain an understanding of how to relate Don No...
3 Flawed Designs: Discussion
Discussion
Through analyzing the fireplace, digital watch, and espresso machine it became obv...
3 Flawed Designs: Conclusion & Bibliography
Conclusion
This project provided insights to the various ways designs can have...
Fireplace: Overview
A fireplace can be used to heat the inside of a living area. The warmth from the flames disperses heat...
Fireplace: Consistency
The designer in this case has hidden the controls for the flue inside the hearth although their int...
Fireplace: Visibility
The control to open and close the flue is located on the top of the hearth, due to the location the ...
Fireplace: Feedback
The fireplace relies on a carbon monoxide detector to provide a warning to the user, this is a separat...
Fireplace: Affordances
The controls on the fireplace have limited affordances. The metal mesh curtains in the front slide ...
Fireplace: Mapping
There is a direct relationship to the flue door and control with the control being located on the door....
Fireplace: Constraints
Due to the location of the flue control the user is forced to reach into the hearth if they start a...
Fireplace: Solutions
Many of the problems with this fireplace design would be inexpensive and simple to implement. For a m...
Digital Watch: Overview
Digital watches typically offer a reading of time with digits instead of hands as on analog watche...
Digital Watch: Consistency
Our mental models have adapted to easily recognize a watch or clock with hands. Sub-dials displ...
Digital Watch: Visibility
The face of the watch is hard to see and labels are scarce on the face, this is an especially di...
Digital Watch: Feedback
Like most digital watches, this Nooka watch has many modes of operation. These modes are controlle...
Digital Watch: Affordances
The controls on the watch allow for pressing, buttons on the side can be pressed and the button...
Digital Watch: Mapping
The mapping on this watch can create confusion with the multiple modes and unfamiliar display. Not ...
Digital Watch: Constraints
Constraints are found within the clasp mechanism. It seems to be a modified version of what is ...
Digital Watch: Solutions
Many of the problems with this watch have to do with the design aiming for a style rather than bu...
Espresso Machine: Overview
Espresso machines often vary greatly in price and complexity. Advanced users prefer to have con...
Espresso Machine: Consistency
Casual coffee drinkers and espresso enthusiasts have different mental models, the conceptual...
Espresso Machine: Visibility
The espresso machine has visible controls with basic symbols that indicate operation status. ...
Espresso Machine: Feedback
The espresso machine provides feedback for the power and ready states with two lights, red and ...
Espresso Machine: Affordances
The controls on the espresso machine only allow for turning. The water chamber has a fixed l...
Espresso Machine: Mapping
The mapping on this machine seems to be well-planned and controls are arranged in a logical orde...
Espresso Machine: Constraints
Constraints are found on almost every movable part on the espresso machine. The water tank c...
Espresso Machine: Solutions
Many things were done well with the design of this machine but there is one major problem: the...
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Joe jancsics 3 Flawed Designs

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This is an assignment for my Advanced Human Factors (ADS710) class at the University of Kansas.

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Joe jancsics 3 Flawed Designs

  1. 1. 3 Flawed Designs: Abstract & Key Words Abstract Designers communicate their conceptual model to the user via the system image. When designing an object for everyday use designers should have strong awareness and understanding of a user’s mental model, the system image (represented model) should resemble the mental model of the intended user, if it does the device tends to have a good user experience. When designers make poor decisions the reasons typically involve a lack of awareness regarding users. Research plays an integral part in the design process and understanding users and their mental models can prevent poor design elements. For this project we were to take 3 examples of bad design and relate them to the six principles outlined by Don Norman in The Design of Everyday Things. Norman’s six principles are as follows: Consistency (conceptual models): Familiarity and consistent system image Visibility: The user should be able to easily see the state of the device Feedback: Information the device sends to the user- should be immediate following action by the user Affordances: Perceived and actual properties that lend clues to the operation Mapping: Relationship to controls and their effect Constraints: Properties that limit the operation or restrict interaction For each of the 3 objects evaluated we are to suggest solutions to improve the design. Key Words Don Norman, Consistency, Conceptual Model, Mental Model, System Image, Design Model, Visibility, Feedback, Affordances, Mapping, Constraints, Solutions, Fireplace, Nooka Watch, Briel Domus Due Espresso Machine Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors
  2. 2. 3 Flawed Designs: Purpose & Method Purpose The purpose of the exercise is to gain an understanding of how to relate Don Norman’s principles of design to our own experiences. Through relating various devices to the six principles we can expect to see various successes and failures in the design decisions that may otherwise be overlooked. This exercise can help broaden the understanding towards the challenges that designers face trying to create objects and devices for everyday use. Method Method: Using class handouts and The Design of Everyday Things as a guide I selected 3 devices that seemed to be good subjects for analysis: A-A fireplace with poor visibility and location of controls B-A digital watch that uses an unfamiliar system to communicate data to the user C-An espresso machine that functions well but has a tendency to explode if tasks are not handled in a specific order The details of my process were as follows: 1- Analyzed device or object, obtained documentation when available 2- Started working down the list of the six design principles -Took photos and video -Tried different actions with the devices and objects -Documented the findings in a series of presentations ANALOG Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors
  3. 3. 3 Flawed Designs: Discussion Discussion Through analyzing the fireplace, digital watch, and espresso machine it became obvious that some designs were flawed in more serious ways than others. The fireplace can be deadly if a user is not absolutely certain they opened the flue to vent carbon monoxide gasses. Poor visibility and feedback with mapping that requires a user to potentially reach into a fire seemed like careless design decisions. This seemed like safety was sacrificed to save on manufacturing costs and perhaps keep a clean aesthetic quality to the outside of the fireplace. Putting the control directly on the flue hatch inside the hearth of the fireplace is a lazy approach to the design; it disregards visibility and constraints to the user. The Nooka digital watch study revealed the designer should have avoided many of the utility functions if they want to introduce a strange way of telling time. The time and effort spent on confusing features could have been spent improving the manufacturing quality or aspects involving readability. If something is made for fashion and aesthetic uniqueness it should be single function, there seems to be no need to add complexity just for the sake of having extra features. Lastly, the espresso machine is actually a solid design with one serious flaw. The controls and feedback are good, and it is simplified yet consistent for a “power user” or someone that wants elements of manual control over their espresso preparation. The flaw with the espresso machine seems to be purely mechanical; it involves pressure buildup in the brew filter when immediately followed by using the milk steamer without removing aforementioned brewing filter. This may have simply been an oversight where they did not do enough testing or failed to illustrate the use case, it could be easily solved with an automatic release valve mechanism tied to the milk steamer control. Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors
  4. 4. 3 Flawed Designs: Conclusion & Bibliography Conclusion This project provided insights to the various ways designs can have flaws and also helped in understanding how to build a framework around Norman’s six design principles to avoid creating bad designs. The significant time spent analyzing each object provided valuable insights on elements that would otherwise be overlooked. Often times design work can suffer from lack of focus on the user, keeping these six principles in mind can help keep things on track and it gives a solid method to creating useful solutions. Putting the reading material into action by evaluating familiar objects has uncovered the reality that many designers are disregarding methods and often times the users are coping with frustrations because of it. Bibliography Norman, Donald A. (1988) The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Basic Books. Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors
  5. 5. Fireplace: Overview A fireplace can be used to heat the inside of a living area. The warmth from the flames disperses heat throughout the room. An important safety concern is the dangerous carbon monoxide gasses emitted from the fire. When the flue is open the carbon monoxide gas is able to freely exit the chimney into the outside atmosphere. Fireplace Safety Points All homes with a fireplace should have a carbon monoxide alarm system Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors
  6. 6. Fireplace: Consistency The designer in this case has hidden the controls for the flue inside the hearth although their intent is that it is open during operation. An experienced user may have developed a mental model with awareness that the flue needs to be opened manually, but an inexperienced user could make the assumption that it is automatic based on the design lacking a visible external control. Even for an experienced user , who knows that a the flue must be opened for safety reasons, there is still a discovery phase where they need to locate the control inside the hearth. Atmosph Mental Model Carbon Monoxide Conceptual Model Hearth Atmosphere Living Area Flue Living Area Warmth Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors Carbon Monoxide Carbon Monoxide Atmosphere Hearth Hearth Warmth Warmth
  7. 7. Fireplace: Visibility The control to open and close the flue is located on the top of the hearth, due to the location the user needs to position themselves close to the floor to actually see the control. From across the room or standing the flue control handle is entirely out of view. Hidden Control rea -Design lacks a visible external control -Use has no visible indication of what state the flue is in (open/closed) -Even for an experienced user there is a discovery phase where they need to locate the control inside the hearth Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors
  8. 8. Fireplace: Feedback The fireplace relies on a carbon monoxide detector to provide a warning to the user, this is a separate device and is not connected to the fireplace. A carbon Monoxide detector is not giving the user any direct feedback on the state of the flue but rather warning them when the levels of gas have become toxic, which would be the result of a closed flue. The only way a user can obtain immediate feedback is by crouching or laying on the floor to see the flue, by the time an external detector is activated it would be too late for the flue to clear gasses and windows would need to be opened with the user exiting the living area. What State is the Flue in? -Only way to obtain immediate feedback is to lay on the floor or crouch -External detector will tell when gasses are at toxic levels but not information about the flue -Carbon monoxide is odorless and invisible State of Flue Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors Safety Note: Carbon monoxide gasses continue to emit from ashes, the flue should remain in the open position for over 24 hours after a fire has extinguished.
  9. 9. Fireplace: Affordances The controls on the fireplace have limited affordances. The metal mesh curtains in the front slide open and closed along a track. The handle on the flue door can be pushed up to open when the flue is in a closed state and pulled down to close when in an open state. Technically speaking, the fireplace hearth does not exclusively limit itself in operation to containing fire for heating; a user could choose to use the hearth for storage and there is no affordance to prevent that use. Metal Curtain Slide Handles Apart Slide Handles Together Flue Push Lever Up Pull Lever Down Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors
  10. 10. Fireplace: Mapping There is a direct relationship to the flue door and control with the control being located on the door. The hinge is located in the center with the control located on the edge closest to the living area. The mapping causes the user to soil their hand during any interaction with the control, essentially punishing the user every time they access it. Push Lever Up -The moment the user touches the control their hand becomes soiled Pull Lever Down Wash Hands Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors
  11. 11. Fireplace: Constraints Due to the location of the flue control the user is forced to reach into the hearth if they start a fire prior to opening the flue, this forces the user to disregard the logic that the fire is burning and reaching into it could cause injury. The reality may be that the top of the hearth does not reach a high temperature but reaching into the fire is not the most comfortable way for a user to test that theory. Constraints also physically affect the user by forcing them to crouch down to view or change the state of the flue control. Physical Constraints -Control is attached directly to flue hatch -Viewing and changing the flue state requires the user to assume uncomfortable positions Cultural & Semantic Constraints -User may be forced to reach into a hot fire to access control -Even if this is safe the user must overcome fear to access the control Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors !
  12. 12. Fireplace: Solutions Many of the problems with this fireplace design would be inexpensive and simple to implement. For a more advanced solution technology could be introduced to safeguard the user and allow more visibility of the flue state. Solutions Simple External Switch + Visual feedback + Easy operation + Can be aesthetically pleasing or decorative -Simple External Switch -Sliding or toggle control on the outer frame with clear visibility and easy access Flue Closed -Automatic flue tied to heat detection -Manual override to safeguard against electrical failures -Integrated timer to not allow flue to be closed within 24 hours of fire -Could help reduce user-error and save lives Flue Open -Remote Features -Connectivity between flue and carbon monoxide detectors -Communication to mobile devices -Remote monitoring and control Mobile Device Status Hearth Data -Fire Status -Flue Status Carbon Monoxide Alarm Transmit to sensor Fire -Carbon Monoxide Levels -Fire Status -Flue State Flue Active Open Carbon Monoxide Levels Safe Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors Monitoring & Control
  13. 13. Digital Watch: Overview Digital watches typically offer a reading of time with digits instead of hands as on analog watches. Digital watches are fueled by battery power and are extremely accurate. In this case, the digital watch does not use the normal means of communicating time with a numerical display, this watch by Nooka displays time using rows of squares, rectangles, and circles. “Excuse me, do you know what time it is?” Analog Watch Face Standard Digital Display Nooka Digital Display 8:18:02 PM Our mental models are adapted to this, we just “know” the numbers even if only 3 of them are labeled. We even “know” it’s 18 minutes past the hour just based on our familiarity with the dial and large indicators make it easy, even if we are off by a minute people often feel comfortable rounding the minutes. Answering what time it is might need a second glance but requires little effort. Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors The digits read exactly as we would say the time, some people may sarcastically read off the seconds after the hours and minutes but we can answer the question of time just by reading the numbers. The traditional digital watch allows us to be exact, there is no need to round numbers off. This may take some effort to answer the simple question regarding what time it is. The top two rows are hours, there is 12 places where bars can fill that area. We need to either take 12 and subtract the 4 missing blocks, or we take 6 from the top row and add 2 from the second, either way we end up at 8. Third row is the minutes, and yes it’s somewhat hard to see...
  14. 14. Digital Watch: Consistency Our mental models have adapted to easily recognize a watch or clock with hands. Sub-dials displaying seconds or windows with magnified glass have been accepted widely as methods to add functions of seconds and date to a traditional watch, since most people are not seeking seconds when reading time it was not factored into the results of the models. Most adults have a developed mental model where they even know the minutes just by glancing at the nearest hour marker on an analog watch. Traditional digital displays spell out the time exactly as it would read. The Nooka watch requires the user to add or subtract squares, over time this mental model could be learned but unless someone is mesmerized by the display style one has to wonder if it’s worth the effort. Conceptual Model Wristwatch Hours =X Minutes Time of Day =Y 15 30 45 Seconds “ Total QTY Mental Model Time of Day Wristwatch HH:MM:SS Digital “Hours:Minutes” =Time Digital or Analog? Locate Hour Hand ANALOG Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors Total QTY Locate Minute Hand “Hour:Minute” =Time “ =Time
  15. 15. Digital Watch: Visibility The face of the watch is hard to see and labels are scarce on the face, this is an especially difficult watch to read while walking or in low light situations. Various modes are controlled by buttons on the left and right side of the watch, the buttons are unlabeled and the user must remember their function or guess until they learn it. Viewing in the dark is made possible with a night mode, which lasts for 3 seconds and is initiated by pressing the upper left button, it can be pressed multiple times to extend the backlight time but it’s not easy to do, unfortunately long-pressing does not extend the backlight time. Things are Visible | What Do They Mean? Buttons on the left side have no labels or indication of function Time display has very small indicators and minimal text, there is very little contrast which makes visibility a challenge. Buttons on the right side have no labels or indication of function It’s dark out and you have 3 Seconds* to tell me what time it is on your Nooka watch, ready, set, GO! *First you need to find the night mode button to illuminate the display, then the timer starts... Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors Night Mode -Press the top left button to activate -Function times out after three seconds(!)
  16. 16. Digital Watch: Feedback Like most digital watches, this Nooka watch has many modes of operation. These modes are controlled by buttons on the left and right side of the watch, the display gives no indication or label of what mode it is currently operating in, it is up to the user to either study the behavior or find a pattern and memorize the order of different unlabeled menus. The only feedback provided is the changing behavior of the display, which is so different from our developed mental models it can be difficult to translate the seemingly abstract information. State of the Device | Unknown Various Modes of Operation (all look the same): -Time -Date -Alarm -“Chrono Mode” -Acts as a stopwatch -Display goes completely blank -User must press an unlabeled button to start filling the seconds row with bars -Audible feedback is present on some functions The only “mode” indicator on the face of the watch for is “AL”, which stands for alarm, this is active when the alarm is turned on and when the alarm time is being set. Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors
  17. 17. Digital Watch: Affordances The controls on the watch allow for pressing, buttons on the side can be pressed and the buttons on the side of the clasp can also be pressed. There is a series of holes and hooks on the inside of the clasp that allow adjustment to size, the affordance is limited by the bracelet being fixed to the watch and the holes having a pattern that locks with the hooks in one direction only. Push Buttons -Buttons A, B, C, and D can be pressed -Long-press is used in some modes/functions Clasp -Buttons on side can be pushed towards center to open clasp -Hinged mechanism closes and snaps into place -Hooks and holes allow for size adjustment Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors
  18. 18. Digital Watch: Mapping The mapping on this watch can create confusion with the multiple modes and unfamiliar display. Not having labels on anything visible combined with changing functions depending on what mode it ends up feeling like a random guess with every button press. The watch does have labels on the wrist-facing side, these can help a user learn to navigate features while using the watch off-wrist. The point should also be made clear that this mapping is flawed, having to flip the watch around makes operation less than ideal at times and the learning process lacks reward. -Backlight/Night-mode -In time-set modes this is a PLUS button -In Chrono/Stopwatch mode this is START/STOP/RESTART -Long pressing in most modes enters a timeset function -Once in time-set modes this button confirms entries (long-press) and advances to next value (short press) -In time-set modes this is a MINUS button -In alarm-set mode this is the ON/OFF alarm toggle -In Chrono/Stopwatch mode this is RESET (long-press) Button Labeling is engraved on the bottom of the watch case (facing wrist) Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors
  19. 19. Digital Watch: Constraints Constraints are found within the clasp mechanism. It seems to be a modified version of what is referred to as a “Deployant clasp”, this is an alternative to having a buckle system on a strapped watch. This clasp has specific cuts in the holes so that it locks in at the desired size, the buttons on the side to release are clear in function but the manufacturing feels cheap and requires a bit of pulling to open the clasp. Clasp Nooka Clasp Closed -Constrained to one direction on the strap Open Push Buttons Toward Center -New approach to a traditional clasp design -Low-quality manufacturing makes it sometimes difficult to remove -Clasp pin makes a snap noise and sometimes sounds like it may be damaged Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors Similar Design but Higher Quality Clasp Closed Open Push Buttons Toward Center
  20. 20. Digital Watch: Solutions Many of the problems with this watch have to do with the design aiming for a style rather than building for utility. Some of the finest wristwatches in the world don’t even have a seconds hand, often times it’s left out because a clean and simple dial is considered more classic and aesthetically pleasing. The Nooka watch was built to be unique and introduce a different concept for displaying time, they overcomplicated things by adding too many utility features such as the date mode, stopwatch, and alarm. First... Let’s Be Honest -This watch was never designed to be a utility device -Would you use this as a stopwatch? -How about an alarm? -It is not water resistant -Plenty of other watches do a better job at clearly answering “What time is it?” Solutions -Make it deliberately about fashion and trim out the utility features -The features don’t add value with the current level of complexity -Higher quality clasp -Better materials -Make it water resistant -At the price point this is a must, people should not have to worry about a watch taking on water Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors
  21. 21. Espresso Machine: Overview Espresso machines often vary greatly in price and complexity. Advanced users prefer to have control over specific parameters, where as more casual users prefer a machine with more automatic features. In this case we are looking at the Briel Domus Due, it is a good machine with many nice features that an advanced user can enjoy, but it has a flaw in the design involving pressure that can build in the filter, this pressure can lead to hot coffee and steam projecting from the machine when the user removes the filter. Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors
  22. 22. Espresso Machine: Consistency Casual coffee drinkers and espresso enthusiasts have different mental models, the conceptual model in this case caters more toward the enthusiast. Below it is the mental model for a more casual coffee drinker. A casual coffee drinker would probably have a lot of learning to do, for a coffee enthusiast with a developed mental model the Briel machine offers convenient features such as a built in tamp, which is used to tightly compress the ground coffee prior to brewing. Conceptual Model Water Ground Espresso Scoop Into Filter Cup Loose Grounds Cold Milk Briel Domus Due Tamped Grounds Steamed Milk Latte Espresso Mental Model Water Ground Espresso Espresso Machine Scoop Into Filter Cup ANALOG Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors Espresso
  23. 23. Espresso Machine: Visibility The espresso machine has visible controls with basic symbols that indicate operation status. When it powers on a red light comes on, and when it is ready to brew a green light illuminates. In the center is a pressure gauge that gives direct feedback to the user when the pump mechanism is sending water from the chamber. The user can also easily see the coffee being dispensed and when in steam mode steam ejects from the nozzle on the side where the steam control knob is located. A water level window is also on the side of the machine so a user knows how much they have at any given time. Cup Warming Area Power/Start/Stop Knob Pressure Gauge Built-in Tamp Coffee Dispensing Area Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors Water Chamber Lid Cup Size Knob Milk Steamer Knob Water Level Window Steam Nozzle Drip Tray
  24. 24. Espresso Machine: Feedback The espresso machine provides feedback for the power and ready states with two lights, red and green respectively. During the brew process the analog pressure gauge is active and a low reading can indicate to the user if there is air in the hoses or a problem with the machine. All controls are knobs, when the machine is started the knob automatically returns to it’s prior position but the dispensing of coffee is a direct form of feedback, repeating the twist action on the start knob will stop the brew immediately. Ready On Water Level Window Dispenses Coffee Here Dispenses Steam Here Red light illuminates when powered on Green light illuminates when heating element and pump are ready to brew Coffee or steam is immediately dispensed when the control for either is activated Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors
  25. 25. Espresso Machine: Affordances The controls on the espresso machine only allow for turning. The water chamber has a fixed lid with a removable tank that can be pulled out using two handles. The coffee chamber twists in one direction to attach to the machine and back out in the same direction to remove. Affordances are limited and make this seemingly complicated machine rather simple. The built in tamp is exactly sized to fit with the coffee filter and affords for pulling upwards and twisting to tamp the grounds. Knobs and handles afford twisting Lid affords opening along hinge Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors Water tank affords pulling/pushing
  26. 26. Espresso Machine: Mapping The mapping on this machine seems to be well-planned and controls are arranged in a logical order. The use of basic diagrams on the knobs helps during the learning stages but after a short amount of time the three knobs have easy functions and locations to remember. A B C D Knobs -A has 3 positions -top=off -middle=on -down=start brew/stop brew -B has a limited range (~80°) -bottom=small cup (strong- less water) -near top=large cup (weak- more water) *user can set to large cup but use knob A to stop at any time to manually control strength Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors Tamp and Filter Cup -C Integrated tamp -located near coffee dispensing area -convenient and offers good leverage -user must pull upwards -machine is heavy but a second hand is needed to support top if aggressive tamping is desired -D Grounds cup -Twists directly onto brewing area -Removable/reusable filter -Large handle is useful while tamping grounds E Steam Control Knob -E Steam control located above steam nozzle -45° turning range -located directly above steam nozzle -easy to determine relationship
  27. 27. Espresso Machine: Constraints Constraints are found on almost every movable part on the espresso machine. The water tank cover is hinged and the tank itself has large grooves that prevent it from being inserted incorrectly. The filter for the brew cup has ridges so that it locks into place, the brew cup filter is also sized to fit exactly onto the built-in tamp. The brew cup locks into place by twisting and only turns in one direction. Lastly the drip tray is removable and is contoured to fit facing one direction only, the constraints make it is nearly impossible to reassemble anything incorrectly. -Hinged cover constrains water tank access -Notches on the brew cup constrain filter placement -Drip tray constrained to only face one direction -Locking mechanism with one-way turning Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors -Notches on water tank prevent backwards assembly
  28. 28. Espresso Machine: Solutions Many things were done well with the design of this machine but there is one major problem: the brew chamber can build significant pressure and cause a mess! If a user decides to make espresso and then steam milk without first removing the brew chamber pressure builds and essentially explodes once the user releases the lock. This may be because of a Y-valve system with the steam mechanism or it could be the brewed grounds continue to emit steam which gets trapped in the chamber, without taking the machine apart it is difficult to say. This is a great machine, but... -The brew chamber builds pressure and can cause a coffee explosion! -Currently the user must remember to remove the brew cup prior to steaming milk -The device gives no feedback to the pressure in the brew cup -Accidentally leaving the brew cup while steaming milk can lead to an unpleasant surprise during cleanup Solution -Make some type of pressure release -Integrated with activation of milk steamer -A button on the brew cup handle -Something that happens automatically once brewing has stopped and until the brew cup is removed Joe Jancsics | ADS710 Advanced Human Factors

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