Making of a nation:AustraliaExpansion, contact, resistance
Today‘s lessonQuiz: Review definitions―Expansion, contact, resistance‖ exploremeaning.DefinitionsGrowth of Queensland (data and graph)Resistance: Frontier Wars (source exploration)Change (Explore sources)Homework
Quiz:Definitions1. The biggest conflict between white people and the aboriginal.2. South Sea Islanders between 1863 and 1904 were often employedas……….3. The policy of seeking to extend the power and the territories of aparticular, dominant nation to create an empire.4. Australian term ‗blue collar‘ workers refers to this group.5. The feeling of belonging to a nation.6. Farmers or agriculturalists engaged in raising animals for food orother resources.7. Delegates whose aim is to draft or revise a constitution8. Sometimes referred to as the ‗frontier wars‘.Indentured labour, working class, nationalism. Pastoralists,land, imperialism, Constitutional convention, Frontierviolence
DefinitionsSquatter• In Australian history, a squatter was one who occupied a large tract of Crownland in order to graze livestock.• Initially often having no legal rights to the land, they gained its usage by beingthe first (and often the only) Europeans in the area.Penal Colony• A penal colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them fromthe general populace by placing them in a remote location, often an island ordistant colonial territory.Prosperity• Prosperity is the state of flourishing, thriving, good fortune and / orsuccessful social status.• Prosperity often encompasses wealth but also includes others factors which areindependent of wealth to varying degrees, such as happiness and health.
Massacre• An indiscriminate and brutal slaughter of people.• Massacres on Australias frontier tended to fall under a veil of secrecy due tofear of possible legal consequences,• They remained unrecorded as a general ruleAttitudes• A settled way of thinking or feeling, typically reflected in a persons behavior.Guerrilla-like warfare• War tactics which include ambushes, sabotage, raids and elements of surprise.Environmental impact• A change in the make-up, working, or appearance of the environment. Thesechanges may be planned or accidental.• Many introduced species of animals and plants had an negative effect on theAustralian environment.
Source 1: Growth of colonialQueensland‗Colonial Queensland grew rapidly. In the first six years [from 1859] thepopulation rose from 28 000 to over 96 000. By 1865 the government wasraising over £224,000 per year in the sale of Crown lands1. The number ofsquatting runs2 leased rose to 3 236 representing more than 98 millionacres — almost a quarter of the colony. Ironically, the publication anddistribution of the atlas [published for Queensland] coincided with thesevere economic depression of 1866 which saw sales of land decline fromthe highs of 1865, but the number of squatting runs continues to increase.The rapidity and wide-scale of this land acquisition saw widespreadconflict with Aboriginal groups.‘Stell, M 2011, Queensland Historical Atlas,http://www.qhatlas.com.au/content/first-queensland-atlas-18651 Crown land: Land owned by the British Crown (monarch -government)2 Squatting runs: land taken up by squatters (people who occupied a largetract of Crown land in order to graze livestock, i.e. cattle or sheep). Manyof the large properties created in the 19th century on the Darling Downs,for example, were squatters‘ run
Source 2: Queensland’s populationgrowth from 1860 to 1884
Source 2: Queensland’s populationgrowth from 1860 to 1884Queensland:hernatural,agricultural,pastoralandmineralresources.Brisbane:PublicRelationsOffice.PremierandChiefSecretarysDepartment,Queensland,1900?Recordno.695039.-http://www.slq.qld.gov.au/resources/maps
Resource rich Queensland1. Population growth in Qld• 1869 and 1879 107,974• 1879 and 1884 92,0622. The obvious reason is that it was profitable, as stated: ‗the governmentwas raising over £224,000 per year in the sale of Crown lands‘. But it canalso be inferred that it suited the government to encourage settlement onthe land by the growing number of Queenslanders because it would meanthat the government derived money from tax as well as sales. Thegovernment also wanted to encourage settlement on the frontier.3. Somewhere around 25%.4. Sheep dominate the central interior but not the far north. Cattledominate the west and far north, but not the wetter coastal areas.5. To indicate their significance to the Queensland economy.
Source 4: Cornerstone of Q‘ldEconomy‗By 1859 the pastoral grazing of sheep and cattle hadcompletely transformed at least a quarter of the land use inQueensland and had become the cornerstone of thecolonial economy. Three and a half million sheep andsome 500 000 cattle grazed across a quarter of thecolony‘s land mass, and pastoral concerns generated 70per cent of revenue and over 90 per cent of exports.―Wool, tallow1, and hides are the great staple products ofour colony‖, observed the Brisbane Courier in 1861. ―Uponthe successful working of the princely properties on whichthis produce is raised depends... the growth and stability ofthe wealth of the country‖‘Ginn S 2010, Pastoralism 1860s – 1915,http://www.qhatlas.com.au/pastoralism-1860s-1915Tallow: Hard fat obtained from parts of the bodies of cattle,sheep or horses and used in foodstuffs or to make candles,
Source 5: Value of the pastoral industry‗Any examination of Queensland‘s… official statistics clearly demonstrates theimportance of the pastoral sector [i.e. raising of sheep and cattle] to thedevelopment of Queensland‘s economy.‗Queensland‘s development laws in the late 19th and early 20th centuries focusedalmost entirely upon building more rail networks. These were linked to a growingpastoral industry… the government and many others wanted to increase farmproduction (wool, beef and so on) so that Queensland could sell products bothinterstate and overseas…‗Pastoralism suited the politics and economics of Britain. Pastoralism provided asignificant source of raw materials for British factories. It also helped with theeconomic and demographic [population related] expansion of the British Empire.Queensland‘s economy was also dominated by the same desires [for raw materialsand food and products to sell, expanding settlement, etc.]… The way Queensland‘spolitical economy worked benefitted the pastoral sector…‘Adapted from ‗Political Economics: the State and Economic Growth in Queensland,1900 – 1913‘ in Cameron, David Bruce 1999, An historical assessment of economicdevelopment, manufacturing and the political economy of Queensland, 1900 to1930, University of Queensland,
Importance of the pastoral industry6.‗…had completely transformed at least a quarter ofthe land use in Queensland and had become thecornerstone of the colonial economy‘ (Source 4) and‗pastoral concerns generated 70 per cent of revenueand over 90 per cent of exports‘ (Source 4) and notealso that state development was linked to pastoralindustry requirements as with building the railways(Source 5).7.Erosion and damage to the soil (the animals havehard hooves and are very numerous). Thepastoralists would need to chop down trees to buildyards and fencing and perhaps to feed livestockduring droughts.
Source 7: Explorer Thomas Mitchell,1846‗[Cattle] find these places [i.e.waterholes] and come from stationsoften many miles distant, attracted bythe rich verdure [plants] growing aboutthem, and by thus treading the waterinto mud, or by drinking it up, theyliterally destroy the whole country forthe Aborigines.‘Mitchell T 1846, ‗Journal of an expedition‘, cited in Reynolds, H 1981, TheOther Side of the Frontier, UNSW Press, Sydney, pp. 156 – 157
Source 8: North Queenslandpioneer, 1898‗They [the cattle] trample out the signs ofturtles found in dried-out swamps; the trailof the crocodile to his nest; they eat thetops of the yams, and eat and destroy thelilies; all of which make their [theAborigines‘] food scarcer and harder tofind.‘‗Bulleta: The case for the Aboriginals‘ (12 November 1898), Queenslander, cited inReynolds, H 1981, The Other Side of the Frontier, UNSW Press, Sydney, pp. 158 –159
Source 9: Kangaroo sticking on theDarling Downs, 1894
Source 9 Answers8. Note this quote: ‗they trample out the signs of turtles foundin dried-out swamps; the trail of the crocodile to his nest;they eat the tops of the yams, and eat and destroy thelilies; all of which make their [the Aborigines‘] food scarcerand harder to find‘ (Source 8). Note also that Mitchell saysthe cattle ‗destroy the country for the Aborigines‘ (Source7). The cattle dirtied the water and destroyed thevegetation around the waterholes (Source 7).9. As indicated conflict arose not only over ‗water rights‘,European settlers also directly competed for other foodsources.10. The effect of these activities would be detrimental to therelationship between Europeans and Aborigines becauseof competition for sometimes scarce resources such aswater and pasture (for the Europeans‘ cattle and sheepand for the Aboriginal peoples‘ reliance on hunting animalssuch as wallabies).
Source 10: The Moreton Bay Courier,1846‗The first footmark of civilisation on the hitherto tracklesswilds, the first symptom of the victory which sciences andthe arts were about to achieve over barbarous ignorance.The first faint rays from the beacon flame of knowledge,meeting and dispelling the darkness of lower superstition.The home of the savage had become the home ofcivilised man.‘Part of a transcript of an interview with Lecturer at CQU, Denis Cryle2005, in an ABC radio interview with Donna McLachlan,http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/lifelonglearning/the-colonial-press/3422828#transcript(transcript of an interview with Denis Cryle, Lecturer at CQU, in anABC radio interview with Donna McLachlan, (2005),http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/lifelonglearning/the-colonial-press/3422828#transcript)
Source 11: Queenslander, 1880‘This, in plain language, is how we deal with the aborigines: Onoccupying new territory the Aboriginal people are treatedexactly in the same way as the wild beasts or birds the settlersmay find there. Their lives and their property, the nets, canoes,and weapons which represent as much labour to them as thestock and buildings of the white settler, are held by theEuropeans as being at their absolute disposal. Their goods aretaken, their children forcibly stolen, their women carried away,entirely at the caprice [whim] of the white men. The least showof resistance is met by a rifle bullet.‘Evidently settlement must be delayed until the work ofextermination is complete… or until some more rational andhumane way of dealing with the blacks is adopted. It is surelyadvisable, even at this the eleventh hour, to try the morecreditable alternative… to see if we can efface [wipe away]some portion of the stain which attaches to us.’Queenslander, 1 May1880, cited in Kidd R 1997, The way wecivilise, QUP, Brisbane, pp. xv - xvii
Source 12: Wikipedia on frontier warsin Q’ld‗Fighting between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland was more bloody thanany other state and colony in Australia, likely due to Queensland having a larger pre-contact indigenous population than other colonies in Australia, singularly accounting forover one third and in some estimates close to forty per cent of the entire pre-contactpopulation of Australia. The latest and hitherto most comprehensive survey states thatsome 1 500 European settlers and their allies (Chinese, Aboriginal and Melanesianassistants) were killed in frontier skirmishes during the nineteenth century; the samestudy similarly indicates the actual casualties Aboriginal people suffered, in theskirmishes with the native police and settlers and by contemporary political leadersfrequently classified as ―warfare‖, ―a kind of warfare‖, ―guerrilla-like warfare‖ and at timesas a ―war of extermination‖, is highly likely to exceed 30 000. That is a tripling of thehitherto used estimates for Queensland. A Queensland government paid force, the so-called ―Native Police Force‖ (sometimes Native Mounted Police Force), was a keyinstrument in the dispossession and oppression of indigenous people.‘‗The three largest massacres on whites by Aborigines in Australian colonial history alltook place in Queensland. On 27 October 1857 Martha Frasers Hornet Bank station onthe Dawson River, in central Queensland took the lives of 11 Europeans. The tentcamp of the embryo station of Cullin-La-Ringo near Springsure was attacked byAborigines on 17 Oct 1861 killing 19 people including the grazier Horatio Wills.Following the wreck of the brig Maria at Bramble Reef near the Whitsunday Islands on26 February a total of 14 European survivors [were] massacred by local Aborigines.‘Ørsted-Jensen, Robert: Frontier History Revisited: Colonial Queensland and the History War,Brisbane 2011; Evans, Raymond: The country has another past: Queensland and the History Wars,in ‘Passionate Histories: Myth, memory and Indigenous Australia’ Aboriginal History Monograph 21,September 2010 (Edited by Frances Peters-Little, Ann Curthoys and John Docker).; Queenslander 1May 1880 & Brisbane Courier, 8 May 1880, p.2e-f, editorial; The Way We Civilise; Black and White;The Native Police: - A series of articles and letters Reprinted from the ‗Queenslander‘ (Brisbane,
Wikipaedia ReferencesWelcome to Frontier". Abc.net.au. http://www.abc.net.au/frontier/stories/ep3.htm. Retrieved2010-08-04.Australia. "Stories of the Dreaming - Australian Museum". Dreamtime.net.au.http://www.dreamtime.net.au/indigenous/timeline2.cfm. Retrieved 2010-08-04. ; NSWV&Pre 26 Oct 1857; MBC Nov 14, 1857. Book: Reid, Gordon: A Nest of Hornets: The Massacreof the Fraser family at Hornet Bank Station, Central Queensland, 1857, and related events,Melbourne 1982.Queensland State Archive re 11 Nov 1861 - COL/R2/61/893; 12 Nov 1861 -COL/R2/61/894; 30 Oct 1861 - COL/A22/61/2790; Rockhampton Bulletin 29 Oct 1861;Brisbane Courier 5 Nov 1861, p2d. Brisbane Courier 9 Nov 1861, p2c-d; Brisbane Courier11 Nov 1861, p2g-3a; Brisbane Courier 9 Dec 1861, p3c-d Book: Reid, Gordon: A Nest ofHornets: The Massacre of the Fraser family at Hornet Bank Station, Central Queensland,1857, and related events, Melbourne 1982.Sydney Morning Herald 7 Mar 1872; Sydney Morning Herald 11 Mar 1872; Port DenisonTimes 28 Mar 1872; Brisbane Courier 4/4/72; Queensland State ArchiveCOL/A172/72/1812; Queenslander 6 Apr 1872, p9; Sydney Morning Herald 2 Feb 1874,p3e-f.Source: History of Queensland. In Wikipedia. Fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Queensland#cite_note-5
Source 13: The cycle of violence onthe frontier, Cullin-La-Ringo, 1861‗Thomas Wentworth Wills1 narrowly escaped death on 17 October 1861 when his father [Horatio] and18 others were killed at Cullin-La-Ringo Station on Garden Creek, near Springsure [centralQueensland]...‗The attack at Cullin-La-Ringo… was the largest massacre of whites by Aborigines in Australianhistory. It was a payback massacre, part of the savage frontier guerrilla war that was being waged atthe time. Fifty miles from Cullin-La-Ringo and north of the Expedition and Staircase Ranges, somelocal graziers in 1861 were poisoning Kairi Kairi water holes and shooting Aboriginal people, while thenative mounted police were being encouraged to forcibly evict Aboriginal people from station andriver camps.‗Tommy [Wills] was away at Albinia Downs collecting stores with his stockmen Jim Baker and BillAlbury when the massacre occurred. Horatio [Wills] had a very positive relationship with Aboriginalpeople in Western Victoria and he insisted on locking all firearms away.‗Of course, [after the massacre at Cullin-La-Ringo], another payback massacre followed and morethan 200 local tribesmen and their families were slaughtered as they fled towards Mount Wandoo.P.F. McDonald later wrote, ―It is not easy that a place so gifted by nature should be the scene of sucha cruel massacre…‖ Charles Dutton of Bauhinia Downs wrote ―The Aborigines have one feeling incommon with whites — that of deep implacable revenge for unprovoked injury‖.‗This young colonial grazier who had witnessed the murder of his father, at the age of 26, stayed onto build the 200 000 square mile Cullin-La-Ringo property, with the few remaining shepherds, into aworking station, complete with a flock of 10 000 sheep and cattle, yards, sheds and fences.1 Thomas Wills‘ (Tommy) grandfather was a highway robber named Edward Wills, who wastransported to Australia in 1799. The Wills family had become well known pastoralists. Tommy Wills isalso famous as a champion cricketer and as one of the founders of Australian Rules football.
Source 14: A painting of theaftermath of the Cullin-La-Ringomassacre, 1861Source:PaintingbyT.G.Moyle.(1861).http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cullin-La-Ringo_massacre.jpg
Word associationWords associated withEuropeansWords associated withAboriginal peoples andtheir land• civilisation,• sciences and thearts,• beacon• flame of knowledge,• civilised man.trackless wilds,barbarous ignorance,darkness of lowersuperstition,the savage.12.Europeans deserved to do as they please because of theirsuperior civilisation.
Interpreting text answers13. … They are treated exactly in the same way as thewild beasts or birds that the settlers may find on theland. The lives of the Aboriginal peoples and theirproperty, their nets, canoes, and weapons are held bythe Europeans as being at their absolute disposal.Their goods are taken, their children forcibly stolen,their women carried away, entirely at the caprice[whim] of the white men. The least show of resistanceis met by a rifle bullet…14. ‗…settlement must be delayed … until some morerational and humane way of dealing with the blacks isadopted. It is surely advisable, even at this theeleventh hour, to try the more creditable alternative…to see if we can efface [wipe away] some portion ofthe stain which attaches to us…‘
Interpreting text answers15. This was ‗likely due to Queensland having a larger pre-contactIndigenous population than other colonies in Australia‘.16. ‗the actual casualties Aboriginal people suffered, in the skirmishes withthe native police and settlers and by contemporary political leadersfrequently classified as ―warfare‖, ―a kind of warfare‖, ―guerrilla-likewarfare‖ and at times as a ―war of extermination‖, is highly likely toexceed 30,000.‘17. The list of references certainly improves the reliability; even though wedo not know who the author is. This information seems to have seriousand reputable references to back it up, enhancing its reliability.18. Work through the TADPOLE checklist, focusing on the elements thatare applicable to this source. Consider the purpose of the source(inform/educate rather than to persuade/warn), check to see if verifiablefacts have been included rather than unsubstantiated opinion (yes),check the content for references (in this case, scholarly andspecialised) and look for corroborating ideas and evidence in this
Cullin-La-Ringo questions19. The source states that the killing of 19 whites atCullin-La-Ringo was a ‗payback massacre‘because ‗some local graziers in 1861 werepoisoning Kairi Kairi water holes and shootingAboriginal people, while the Native MountedPolice were being encouraged to forcibly evictAboriginal people from station and river camps‘.20. ‗Tommy [Wills]… had a very positive relationshipwith Aboriginal people in Western Victoria and heinsisted on locking all firearms away‘.
Cullin-La-Ringo questions21. ‗Another payback massacre followed‘, ‗TheAborigines have one feeling in common with whites –that of deep implacable revenge for unprovokedinjury‘.22. The use of ‗massacre‘ and ‗slaughtered‘ — evaluativelanguage of judgement — imply that the killings werenot justified. The fact that it mentions ‗families‘ (whichimplies women, children and the elderly) also stronglysuggests an unfavourable judgement.23. While the sources mentioned in Source 13 are allEuropean, their points of view vary from P.F.McDonald who wrote of ‗such a cruel massacre‘ andCharles Dutton‘s observation that the Aborigines andEuropeans shared the feeling of ‗deep implacablerevenge for unprovoked injury‘. Overall the source isfair and balanced because it identifies motives for themassacre and shows atrocities committed by both
Cullin-La-Ringo massacre, 1861questions24. See annotations on the painting above.25. That of the white settlers. Explain your choice.Student responses will vary; they may suggest thatthe style of painting is European, or that the contentof the painting focuses on the European response toevents. They may indicate that apart from one or twonative police, Aboriginal peoples are absent from thepainting.26. They may suggest that this was a time when graphicviolence was not exhibited; they may suggest that thepainter did not want to portray the real barbarity of thekillings; they may suggest that the painter did notactually see the bodies and was constructing this
Changes over time answers27. It is depicted as free and living in family groups ashunter-gatherers in harmony with Nature. It is anidealised view of life before European settlement.28. The Aborigines are portrayed as dislocated people,town dwellers dressed in western attire, the mendebilitated by alcohol and the women and childrenimpacted by that.29. The cartoonist seems critical of the impact ofEuropean ‗civilisation‘ on Aboriginal peoples in termsof robbing them of their land and lifestyle, movingthem to towns, and then degrading them by dressingthem as Europeans and introducing them to alcohol.
Strengths and weaknessesSource Strengths WeaknessesSource 13Text from QldHistorical AtlasMentions a range of European views frompeople both anti and pro the Aboriginalpeoples.Quotes directly from P. F McDonald andCharles Dutton, the latter a nearby grazier ofthat time.The fact that this is cited in the QueenslandHistorical Atlas underpins its validity.No Aboriginal views arerepresented.Source 14Painting byT.G MoyleThe painting was done in 1861, the year ofthe massacre.That this painting is stored at the John OxleyLibrary suggests its value as a primarysource.The image appears ‗sanitized‘,and the horror of the massacre isnot evident. Without the previoussource, it would be difficult tounderstand the image. Evenwhen one knows this was amassacre, it is difficult toestablish details.
Homework.Write down homework activities in diary.
Review today‘s lessonQuiz: Review definitions―Expansion, contact, resistance‖ exploremeaning.DefinitionsGrowth of Queensland (data and graph)Resistance: Frontier Wars (source exploration)Change (Explore sources)Homework