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The Tragedy Of The North Atlantic Cod Fisheries

Jan Champagne
Jan Champagne
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The Tragedy Of The North Atlantic Cod Fisheries
The Tragedy of the North Atlantic Cod Fisheries
In the 1600s, due to the abundance of cod fish in the North Atlantic waters, commercial cod
fisheries became one of the foundations of the New England economy (Seelye& Bidgood, 2013).
However, as people increasingly relied on fisheries to make lucrative profits, the cod fish population
plummeted and the whole business reached its first collapse in the mid 1990s according to the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA 2014). Since then, government regulations
and international agreements have gradually emerged to preserve the Atlantic cod fish population.
Even though the cod fish population did seem to rebound slightly, it could never catch up with
people's monstrous appetite for ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
It seems that a more effective non–technical solution is mutual coercion–to set up strong
government regulations and use technical solutions to aid mutual coercion. "The Tragedy of the
Commons", according to Hardin, is a societal problem arising from individuals depleting shared
resources (1968, pg 1243). Hardin's "commons" are the limited resources shared by society that are
not regulated. In commercial cod fisheries, the commons is the fishing ground, or the ocean. The
tragedy of the commons refers to a dilemma– individuals, maximizing their own utility, could
collectively cause the depletion of common resources. This is because assuming that humans are
self–interested rational beings, every individuals' interest is to maximize their own gain by
exploiting public resources, while the collective interest is to use the resources sustainably.
Likewise, in commercial cod fisheries, the individual's interest is to catch as many fish as possible to
maximize profit. Yet, the collective interest is to fish at a level sustainable for cod fish to reproduce,
so that not only our generation, but also our future generations will not run out of cod. Since we
have hardly resolved the gap between individual interest and collective interest, the problem
persists. This gap has already led to devastating consequences. In 2015, the cod stock in the Gulf of
Maine is at 18 percent of what scientists deem to be a healthy population.
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
The Tragedy Of The North Atlantic Cod Fisheries
Analysis Of The Canadian Salmon Fishy
The subjects presented in chapters1–3 in the Policy Analysis book are The Canadian Salmon
Fishery, What is policy Analysis and Toward Professional Ethics. The Canadian Salmon Fishery
preview is in chapter one. The chapter talks about how the product of policy analysis is advice. How
the advice for policy comes in many forms. "The purpose is to show a comprehensive analysis that
has a description and analysis of the problem, specific policy alternatives, an assessment of the
alternatives, and policy recommendation" (Weimer, Vining pg.1). One of the stories in this chapter
discuss, the Salmon fishery of British Columbia and the challenges it had. The study that was
conducted showed the fishery as of now represents net drain on the wealth of Canadians. This was
the case for several years in spite of the reforms that was done in 1995 and 2001. Even though some
of the problems were inherent were market failures, ineffective or counterproductive government
interventions. They wanted the current regulatory regime change to a policy that was based on
exclusive ownership of the salmon fishing rights for specific rivers. "There were four policy that
analysis examined: (1) the status quo policy, (2) harvesting rights, and (4) individual transferable
quotas. All four are evaluated ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Woodrow Wilson words gave clear statement of the basic foundation for old
administration:"...administration lies outside the proper spheres of politics. Administration questions
are political questions. Although politics sets the tasks for administration, it should not suffer to
manipulate its offices". The old public administration and policy analysis are meant to give better
expertise in public endeavors. When the organizational structures are establishment; the public
administrator can give their attention to personnel, budgets, and operating procedures that will meet
their organizational
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
The Tragedy Of The North Atlantic Cod Fisheries
The Issue Of Canadian Fisheries
LORRAINE MBUYI ECONOMICS 405
Natural resource economics is greatly concerned with solving a phenomenon referred to as the
"Tragedy of the Commons", also known as a situation that results in the overuse of open access
resources by independent agents, looking to retrieve as many resources as possible without giving
regard to other users of the common property. This essay focuses on the issue of Canadian fisheries
as a common example of the issue and a topic subject to much academic research.
This essay serves as a two–part discussion of policies regarding common property open access.
Specifically, two main categories of common–property source regulation price and quantity
regulation. The goal is to explain what properties of a resource ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
Economists ' efforts to create a regulatory infrastructure have led to certain key policy assumptions.
The first step towards determining the effects of the fishing industry is to calculate the amount of
fishing capacity per season, based upon anticipated prices, costs, biomass level, and the regulations
set by the regulatory agency (Homans & Wilen, 1997, p. 3). The government assumes a regulatory
stance in light of environmental goals, anticipating an amount of fishing activity, which is
acceptable.The combination of the government and the industry should theoretically result in an
equilibrium between the companies and the regulatory sector. Their main task is to characterize an
equilibrium between the fishing industry and the regulatory infrastructure so that various situations
related to fishing are taken into account. The cycle of biomass growth between seasons is dependent
on the corresponding harvest, biological growth, environmental effects and the predetermined quota.
Ultimately, it is assumed a full steady state can be reached. The goal of quantity regulation is to
achieve a steady state of biomass in the long run, given constant industry and regulatory behaviour
(Homans & Wilen, 1997, p. 9). PRICE REGULATION
Using economic incentives to conserve fisheries must occur under a regulatory framework that is
enforceable. Price regulation as a result of taxes leaves many
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
The Tragedy Of The North Atlantic Cod Fisheries
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The Tragedy Of The North Atlantic Cod Fisheries

  • 1. The Tragedy Of The North Atlantic Cod Fisheries The Tragedy of the North Atlantic Cod Fisheries In the 1600s, due to the abundance of cod fish in the North Atlantic waters, commercial cod fisheries became one of the foundations of the New England economy (Seelye& Bidgood, 2013). However, as people increasingly relied on fisheries to make lucrative profits, the cod fish population plummeted and the whole business reached its first collapse in the mid 1990s according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA 2014). Since then, government regulations and international agreements have gradually emerged to preserve the Atlantic cod fish population. Even though the cod fish population did seem to rebound slightly, it could never catch up with people's monstrous appetite for ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It seems that a more effective non–technical solution is mutual coercion–to set up strong government regulations and use technical solutions to aid mutual coercion. "The Tragedy of the Commons", according to Hardin, is a societal problem arising from individuals depleting shared resources (1968, pg 1243). Hardin's "commons" are the limited resources shared by society that are not regulated. In commercial cod fisheries, the commons is the fishing ground, or the ocean. The tragedy of the commons refers to a dilemma– individuals, maximizing their own utility, could collectively cause the depletion of common resources. This is because assuming that humans are self–interested rational beings, every individuals' interest is to maximize their own gain by exploiting public resources, while the collective interest is to use the resources sustainably. Likewise, in commercial cod fisheries, the individual's interest is to catch as many fish as possible to maximize profit. Yet, the collective interest is to fish at a level sustainable for cod fish to reproduce, so that not only our generation, but also our future generations will not run out of cod. Since we have hardly resolved the gap between individual interest and collective interest, the problem persists. This gap has already led to devastating consequences. In 2015, the cod stock in the Gulf of Maine is at 18 percent of what scientists deem to be a healthy population. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 3. Analysis Of The Canadian Salmon Fishy The subjects presented in chapters1–3 in the Policy Analysis book are The Canadian Salmon Fishery, What is policy Analysis and Toward Professional Ethics. The Canadian Salmon Fishery preview is in chapter one. The chapter talks about how the product of policy analysis is advice. How the advice for policy comes in many forms. "The purpose is to show a comprehensive analysis that has a description and analysis of the problem, specific policy alternatives, an assessment of the alternatives, and policy recommendation" (Weimer, Vining pg.1). One of the stories in this chapter discuss, the Salmon fishery of British Columbia and the challenges it had. The study that was conducted showed the fishery as of now represents net drain on the wealth of Canadians. This was the case for several years in spite of the reforms that was done in 1995 and 2001. Even though some of the problems were inherent were market failures, ineffective or counterproductive government interventions. They wanted the current regulatory regime change to a policy that was based on exclusive ownership of the salmon fishing rights for specific rivers. "There were four policy that analysis examined: (1) the status quo policy, (2) harvesting rights, and (4) individual transferable quotas. All four are evaluated ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Woodrow Wilson words gave clear statement of the basic foundation for old administration:"...administration lies outside the proper spheres of politics. Administration questions are political questions. Although politics sets the tasks for administration, it should not suffer to manipulate its offices". The old public administration and policy analysis are meant to give better expertise in public endeavors. When the organizational structures are establishment; the public administrator can give their attention to personnel, budgets, and operating procedures that will meet their organizational ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. The Issue Of Canadian Fisheries LORRAINE MBUYI ECONOMICS 405 Natural resource economics is greatly concerned with solving a phenomenon referred to as the "Tragedy of the Commons", also known as a situation that results in the overuse of open access resources by independent agents, looking to retrieve as many resources as possible without giving regard to other users of the common property. This essay focuses on the issue of Canadian fisheries as a common example of the issue and a topic subject to much academic research. This essay serves as a two–part discussion of policies regarding common property open access. Specifically, two main categories of common–property source regulation price and quantity regulation. The goal is to explain what properties of a resource ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Economists ' efforts to create a regulatory infrastructure have led to certain key policy assumptions. The first step towards determining the effects of the fishing industry is to calculate the amount of fishing capacity per season, based upon anticipated prices, costs, biomass level, and the regulations set by the regulatory agency (Homans & Wilen, 1997, p. 3). The government assumes a regulatory stance in light of environmental goals, anticipating an amount of fishing activity, which is acceptable.The combination of the government and the industry should theoretically result in an equilibrium between the companies and the regulatory sector. Their main task is to characterize an equilibrium between the fishing industry and the regulatory infrastructure so that various situations related to fishing are taken into account. The cycle of biomass growth between seasons is dependent on the corresponding harvest, biological growth, environmental effects and the predetermined quota. Ultimately, it is assumed a full steady state can be reached. The goal of quantity regulation is to achieve a steady state of biomass in the long run, given constant industry and regulatory behaviour (Homans & Wilen, 1997, p. 9). PRICE REGULATION Using economic incentives to conserve fisheries must occur under a regulatory framework that is enforceable. Price regulation as a result of taxes leaves many ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 7. Iceland : A Small Island Country Introduction Iceland is a small island country located in the North Atlantic Ocean with only 300,000 populations in a country. They had almost no contact and relationship with other countries within 1000 years. However, throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, Great changes had taken place in Iceland. The average Icelander became 300% wealthier from 2003 to 2006, and all three of Iceland's major banks which are Kaupthing, Landsbanki and Glitnir had developed from tiny saving banks in the 1990s to become the world's top 300 banks a decade later (Gunnlaugsson, 2012). Iceland became the best places for living in this period of time. However, the 2008 world economic crisis sudden started in Iceland and became a national issue, and these three major banks crushed within a few days in October of 2008 (Boyes, 2009; Vaiman, 2011). After this happened, the public had an outcry that the cause of recession should be blame to local politicians and bankers, the government and supervisory agencies (Gunnlaugsson, 2012). However, others argue that they should not only blame to their bankers and politicians. This essay will argue that this financial crisis in Iceland in 2008 was not only caused by these individuals, but also by the society, banking system and world economy. Firstly, this essay will talk about the nepotism and naive belief of neoliberalism from politicians and bankers, then it will move to the reason that why Icelanders only blame to those individuals and show society's ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9. Overfishing Of The World's Ocean Overfishing in the World's Ocean Specific purpose: To persuade my audience that overfishing in the world's oceans are a problem, and propose a policy to change and rectify the situation. Thesis: A global issue concerning the entire planet has arisen as we have overfished our world 's oceans, and the solution to this problem is imperative in order to resolve this global problem. Pattern of organization: Problem/Solution Introduction [Attention Getter] How many of you enjoy seafood? How many of you enjoy the ocean and the marine life that inhabits it? In order to ensure that we can still enjoy marine life and seafood we need to head in a new direction because in we heading towards a fish apocalypse in 2048 as already edible fish and seafood species have declined by 90% ("Salt–Water Fish Extinction Seen By 2048",CBS). It is time for the world to make a change in fishing, which has been a practiced by mankind since the Stone Age. [Reveal topics and relate to the audience] Overfishing is a practice that has vast reaching impacts. An increasing amount of fish are being harvested from the oceans in order to meet the demand of consumers. As a result, the oceans marine life is depleting. [Establish credibility] I worked at the Denver Zoo for three years and had the ability to learn about the implications of fishing through talking to keepers and teaching children and the summer camps. As a lover of both seafood and marine life I feel as though it is an important issue. I have done ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 11. The Pacific Bluefin Tuna Is An Valuable Valued Specie Introduction The Pacific Bluefin Tuna is an incredibly valued specie who has been doomed for decades. Although the IUCN has listed this specie as vulnerable, they are far becoming more endangered to the point of extinction. Their population remains at 4% of what they were before commercial fishers began capturing them by the thousands (The IUCN Red List, 2014). The Pacific Bluefin Tuna is one of the largest and fastest fishes in the ocean. Their are three distinctions of the Bluefin Tuna; the Southern, Atlantic, and in this case, the Pacific which is located primarily in the northern hemisphere of the Pacific Ocean. They are special species because they can easily adapt to different environments, migrate for long distances, and are ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Overfishing is a problem because Bluefin Tuna is responsible for keeping population numbers in check, thus creating detrimental effects if the biodiversity were to be threaten and the ecosystem were to become imbalanced. Furthermore, the Bluefin Tuna have fallen victim to becoming targeted and non targeted species by fisherman. Purse seine fishing is the number one fishing method used to catch the Tuna. However, long–line fishing also poses as a threat because they are unintentionally caught in by–catches, creating an unnecessary waste. In addition, studies demonstrate that Japan has the largest number of catches. Japan's economy has the most to loose if they do not protect their valued specie. They have made little efforts for change and the ISC concluded that current levels of fishing have now become unsustainable. It has been concluded that this stock will continue to decline in 2018 (Nickson, 2018). This specie has fallen a tragedy of the commons model due to individuals trying to gain the greatest benefit, without realizing what the long term effects would be when the demands of the resource overwhelms the supply. This will hurt the well being of multiple societies, and most important, the well being of the Bluefin Tuna. The ISC stated that these species need new management plans to ensure it's sustainability. With conservation efforts of the IATTC and WCPFC, there will be a plan for rebuilding spawning populations, placing a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 13. Ethics And Sustainability Of The Skidmore College Honor Code HONOR CODE: I have not witnessed any wrong doing nor have I personally violated any condition of the Skidmore College Honor Code while taking this examination. I attended a meeting last week with other faculty members. One of them let fly her/his opinion that "sustainability does not exist" or is, at best, a "bankrupt" notion that is basically a form of "greenwashing" and that sustainable development was a "joke." Hmmm . . . . Please comment on that assertion. In the process, discuss the "big idea" of sustainable development, and more generally the concept of sustainability as applied to individual businesses. For that matter, what is a "sustainable enterprise?" Can being "sustainable" be good for business? Sustainability has achieved a more ecological tone in the past few decades in terms of a business model, but it originally derives from the concept that a business is successful due to the interconnected areas of economics, culture and ecology. Sustainability is now becoming a somewhat fad and thus it is understandable that it could be misconstrued by some as a form of "greenwashing". Greenwashing is the idea that a company markets their "green" or environmentally friendly changes in policy and values, despite no actual concrete changes in these areas, for example some argue that Fiji Water greenwasher in terms of their marketing as an environmentally friendly water company despite their little effort to actually go carbon–neutral. Many companies are seeing the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 15. Marine Fisheries And Its Impact On The Environment Marine fisheries make up some of the largest ecosystems/habitats that span from the coastal regions all the way through the various oceans of the globe. In addition, the habitats and ecosystems of marine fisheries contain some of the most diverse groups of organisms worldwide just because of the sheer amount of the planet's surface that the oceans cover. Although the range and diversity of marine fisheries are vast, they are declining at increasing rates. There are many factors that have led to this decline which include climate change, pollution, and the introduction of invasive species into particular habitats. However, the two largest factors behind the collapse of marine fisheries are directly correlated with human interaction with the marine fisheries. One is the overexploitation by the fishing industry, while the other is habitat alteration (mainly around the coastal areas) (Layman et. al 2011). Findings of the Conservation Issue Marine fisheries revenues totaled about $70 billion in the late 1990s and accounted for $13 billion in net exports (Botsford, L.W., et. al., 1997). The total revenues for marine fisheries today is $91.2 billion This huge industry also supplies a large food source to populations around the world and is an important source of jobs for many countries. However, almost half of the world's fish stocks are fully exploited or overexploited. Fisheries management has failed to reach the one goal of marine fisheries, sustainability. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 17. Marine Protected Areas : A Way Of Increasing Resilience Marine Protected Areas: a way of increasing resilience in different scales The establishment of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) is increasing all around the world (Lubchenco et al, 2003) due to two main reasons: (1) recognition of expanding threats to marine ecosystems; and (2) acknowledgment about the consequences of marine ecosystem break–down to human populations (Roberts et al,2003; Lubchenco et al, 2003). The reality scenario is that people do depend on the ecosystem (Walker & Salt,2006). People depend on the ecosystem directly through exploitation of natural resources but also indirectly through ecosystem services(Walker & Salt,2006; Brown et al, 2001) There is different categories of interests that can drive to the implementation of a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Furthermore there are global–scales concerns that can also be considered in the planning process, such as climate change and it's biophysical consequences in the marine ecosystem (increasing temperature, sea–level rise and ocean acidification) (McLeod et al, 2008). The optimal design and implementation of an MPA depends on your major goal, and in which scale this goal is. However the current research tendency is try to conciliate all types of goals and reach benefits in broader scales (McLeod et al, 2008; Planes,2009; Hastings and Botsford,2003; Oracion,2005; Brown et al,2001). When this marine ecosystem start to be seen as the whole social–ecological system instead of all variables being analyzed one at a time is easy to find a solution that includes all interests (ecological and social–economic). This new point of view take the scientists to turn their focus to find ways to increase the system resilience (Botsford et al,2009; Murray et al,1999; McLeod, 2008) making it more able to absorb disturbances (such as the impacts generate by human action or natural disasters) and still retain its basic function and structure (Walker & Salt,2006). This 'resilience thinking' has been largely expanded recently. The aim of this ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 19. The Population Of Bluefin Tuna The population of Bluefin Tuna has been dramatically declining over the past few decades with no expectation of slowing down. Bluefin Tuna are a very important species of fish because they are one of the top predators in the ocean and if they become extinct the balance of the ocean's ecosystem would be off. The classification of Bluefin Tuna includes a few different types, all of which are endangered and it is estimated that they will soon become extinct. The categorization of each type of Bluefin Tuna species is based on geographical location although the exact number varies from 3–8. Although there are still significant number of Bluefin tuna in the ocean, the demand for the fish has increased dramatically with no sign of decreasing. This demand has caused new and harmful fishing methods to be created. They have become incredibly popular in sushi as well as other food and for this reason the population has declined; however, there are methods that could be used in order to prevent the species from becoming extinct. Analyzing the change in fishing practices and a change in the fish that are caught might explain this change. Due to the fact that the spawning process causes fish to stay in shallow waters and closer to land, they are more likely to be caught at this time. For this reason the age that they are at during the spawning period would indicate what age they usually are when they are caught. "The estimated age structure of fish caught by the Indonesian fleet ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21. Questions On Sustainability And Change Sustainability and Change Assignment 3 Submitted by: Kalpesh Shah Student Id: 1250948. Component 1: Provide an introduction to the organizations, carefully describing all stakeholders of these companies and their issues (e.g. the owners, the fish, the employees etc). Sealord Company Introduction Sealord is a global enterprise with processing and marketing companies spread across as five continents, backed by worldwide fishing network. In New Zealand, Sealord has its corporate office in Auckland whereas the fishing and processing plant is based at Nelson. Sealord is 100% owned subsidiary of Kura Ltd which itself is a joint venture of NISSUI and Aotearoa Fisheries Ltd (Owned by Maori Representative Group), with ownership of 50% equity each. Aotearoa Fisheries Ltd also owns Papuri Taonga which is the Quota Owning Company and has leased its fishing quota licence to Sealord Group Ltd. The stakeholders include, employees. The company was established more than 50 years ago and is ranked one of the largest top 60 companies in New Zealand. The company holds 20% of the Total Allowed Commercial Catch (TACC) as on 2013. The stakeholders for Sealord are the employees, the principal owners and the shareholders (Aotearoa Fisheries Ltd and Nissui) for following ethical practices and for profitable venture, Fisheries department in Ministry of Primary Industries, Export promotion council and Ministry of Environment, Department of Conservation for following ethical and sustainable ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 23. Fishing Culture Essay Fishing has been in human history since time started. Fishing has been a part of our culture for all these years because it helped us survive because it provided food therefore helping us develop and expand has an organism. The fishing culture has been on every single continent and is vital knowledge for survival as time progresses new technologies appear to help evaluate the fishing and its methods. Math and science are continuing to advance and further develop how humans obtain fish. As time goes by developed countries pay great amounts of attentions to fish stocks and the consumption of fish species. These numbers are very important to environmentalist because it helps the government set percentage quotas to keep the fish species in good ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... A bag limit is the number of fish a person could take of an individual species of fish. Some of the major variables that scientist look for is the anatomy of the fish, human intervention and pressure of the individual fish species, and climate. Every single species of fish is different. Baitfish are meant to be consumed by predator fish therefore they are plentiful and usually in abundance so there are no bag limits. Even the color of the fish is important. Red Snapper is in abundance because they are Red. In the fish eye spectrum red is invisible so these fish are plentiful so the government does not have to put strict regulations. Offspring is also very important some fish lay thousands of eggs because in reality not many will survive, but bigger fish will lay less numbered fish because the chance of survival is much higher for these fish species. Math is all around these subjects because scientist collects data and numbers from oceans to predict and examine a bag limit. There is also statistics in bag limits because scientist have to go out collect data on the fish and as well as the people. For example the popularity of the fish correlates directly to the number of offspring a fish produce. If a fish produces a lot of off spring and there's no demand for the fish then no bag limits should be placed, vice versa. In the fishing word everything is a numbers game because numbers don't ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25. The Problem of Overfishing One of the growing issues that has been plaguing our marine habitats is the problem of overfishing. What this means is that we are taking fish from the ocean, at rates that are far higher than the fish can replenish themselves, which is a problem because fish and other marine organisms are very important for millions of people around the world. They are relied on because sometimes it is the only way to have access to a good source of proteins and fatty acids throughout the day. The key for sustainable management revolves around the idea of the economics of the catch. What this means is that we can maximize the fish that we obtain from the oceans while still allowing them to replenish year after year. The way that it works is that fish have a different growth rate depending on where they lie in regards to their carrying capacity. When they are at their carrying capacity they have a very low growth rate so this would be an ideal time to catch fish. The other ideal time to catch fish is when they are at half of their carrying capacity because this is when they have the highest growth rate. If this was done, fisheries would be able to catch the same number of individuals as the fish produced that year, while the population remained at half the carrying capacity. One way that we limit how many fish can be caught is by imposing quotas and monitoring catch numbers. There are two problems with how it works now. The first is that in reality the fish populations are ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 27. Regulating the Bluefin Tuna Fisheries Scientists are wondered how to remedy the situation of regulating the Bluefin Tuna Fisheries. [Therefore, scientists estimate that Eastern routine of adult Bluefin has had reduction by 80% since 1970s], _ (European Commission Fisheries http://ec.europa.eu 14/01/2013). In 2006, in International Commission for the conservation of Atlantic Bluefin tunas has been discussed, and has had a long–term plan so that there will strict rule for catching the Bluefin Tuna and implement this idea. However, this issue hasn't reached the solution. As a result, it has impact on other sections such as unemployment, and losing the species of the Bluefin Tuna. This paper states that there must be new rules for the prevention Bluefin Tuna by reporting different commission's helpful suggestions. For this issue, mostly, European Commission, countries such as Cyprus, Greece, Malta, Portugal, Spain, Italy and France, Gulf of Mexico, the U.S.A National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas and also Japan(as a country for importing Tuna for sushi)are involved in order to tackle this obstacle. One way to tackle the situation would be [prohibiting the fishing of endangered Bluefin tuna in the eastern Atlanta and Mediterranean for the rest of the year],_(European Commission Fisheries http://ec.europa.eu 14/01/2013). In the European Commission, this was conversed in order to reach a compromise for the issue. EU and International rules ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 29. The North Atlantic : Stopping Cod Stock Depletion Tragedy in the North Atlantic: Stopping Cod Stock Depletion Daniel Vaysburd ENGR 183EW – Discussion 1H Add in–text citations U.S. fishermen have been harvesting Atlantic cod since the 17th century; in fact, cod was one of the most lucrative products traded during colonial times. Unfortunately, due to high fishing pressure during the past couple of decades, U.S. stocks of Atlantic cod came close to a commercial collapse in the mid–1990s, so a major effort to rebuild these stocks was implemented. However, 2012 assessments have indicated that both the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank cod stocks are still seriously overfished and are not recovering as fast as expected. Overfishing of cod has led to the suffering of the entire North Atlantic ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Due to individual interests, individuals reproduce with little concern for the increased demand on the commons. A single person with this mentality is not the problem, each individual relying on the others to make a change means that the collective interest of controlling population size is neglected. Hardin claims that the only nontechnical solution is the sacrifice of individual rights and preferences. According to Hardin, "Freedom in a commons brings ruins to all." The freedom that Hardin is referring to is the right to breed. He believes that the inherent right to breed is flawed and that limitations need to be set and followed according to legislation. Therefore, a true solution is realized when the individual's inherent right to breed is forfeited. Although Hardin's belief in restricted breeding may be extreme, this frame of thought may be applied to the problem of cod stock depletion. Cod and marine life in general is considered a commons because the sea is freely accessible by all, and as a result it is difficult to establish property rights and assign ownership. It is clear that the interests of large fishing companies, small fisheries and independent fishermen constitute the individual interests, who hope that cod continue to be caught and sold. The collective interest in this case is that of the public, which desires a healthy ecology and a sustainable ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 31. Rational Choice Theory : The Canadian Federal Minster Of... In 1992 the Canadian Federal Minster of Fisheries and Oceans, John Crosbie, declared a moratorium on the Northern Cod Fishery. This momentous event had resulted in 40,000 job losses in 5 different Canadian provinces and had required a relief package worth several billion dollars which had been dispersed to the local coastal communities. Since then many economists have been providing various explanations and theories as to what has caused this huge collapse. One theory which can be associated and quite possible provide an explanation to this is Rational Choice Theory. Rational Choice Theory is a belief that states that individuals always make logical and rational decisions. These decisions provide people with the greatest benefit and are made in individuals own self–interest. It also assumes that all individuals try to actively maximize their gain in any situation and therefore consistently aim to reduce their losses. This theory is based on the idea that all humans base their decisions on rational calculations, act with rationality when choosing and aim to increase either pleasure or profit. According to CanadianHistory "Many other countries, such as France, Spain and Portugal, joined in the fishing banks for the summer seasons and established summer bases to salt and process the fish". This is clearly evident that the fishermen at the time were aiming to maximise their fish catch in order to pursue their own self–interest. Although this may provide a short term gain for the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 33. Tragedy of the Commons: Overfishing the World’s Oceans Essay Introduction Economic activity and our environment have been closely linked since man first discovered the concept of trade. In the language of economics, the environment has itself, become an increasingly "scarce resource1". Since economics is about managing these scarce resources, it will be a useful tool when considering some of the environmental issues facing our planet. One of the major concerns confronting the environment today is the overfishing of the world's oceans, depleting some species to near extinction. With continued advances in technological and industrial proficiency, fishing vessels are able to fish across the globe, further exacerbating the effects of overfishing. Because the oceans are considered a shared or common ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This market failure exists because the market price for Bluefin Tuna undervalues the full social cost of unrestricted consumption of this once plentiful fish. When negative environmental externalities exist, the private equilibrium price and quantity, as determined by free market supply and demand, is not the same as the social equilibrium. Since social costs are not priced into the individual or organization decision making, when accounting for the intrinsic costs to society (see graph 1), the socially efficient quantity while decline and the socially efficient price will increase. Because overfishing is so widespread and pervasive, coordinated global intervention is necessary through a combination of market–based corrective policies in order to adequately address this market failure. Market Solutions One of the distinct features of any common resource is that it is a "non–excludable good1", meaning no one can be prevented from using what is available. As discussed, the consequence of this scenario is that it will produce a socially inefficient outcome. There are differing theories on how to achieve an economically feasible marginal cost and marginal social benefit equilibrium. The difficulty, of course, is to determine what the socially optimal supply level for Bluefin Tuna should be in relation to fish stock restoration and future sustainability as well as empowering the global community to act in unison. The discussion here ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35. The Pros And Cons Of Unemployment In Namibia Unemployment can either be described in a stringent manner or in the broad manner. Unemployment in a stringent manner refers to all persons within the working age group who are without work, but are available for work and actively seeking work (Bryne & Strobl, 2001). Unemployment in broad manner refers to all persons within the working age group, who are available for work irrespective of whether or not they are actively seeking work. The two definitions differ on whether an unemployed person is actively looking for work or not. There are a few different types of unemployment, such as the structural, frictional and cyclical unemployment. Structural unemployment is commonly a result of change in technology, the constant improvement and introduction of new devices in the business world. If we look at the farming industry, making use of human labor to work in the fields in the past but now because of technology most farmers make use of machines. This means that the only people who are really needed are the semi–skilled laborers who are able to operate machines. Frictional unemployment is common in all economies. It entails individuals having to look for work that fits the specific skills they have. This process requires time and energy since the person looking for a job has to find an employer ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... However, the rapid growth in proportion to the youth in the population has not been met by a corresponding growth in economic opportunities for the youth, thereby creating an equally historic number of unemployed youth. The economic growth has averaged between 4 % and 5%, in the National Planning Commission (NPC) (2015) however it has been a jobless growth. This is an indicator that the labor market is too small to absorb the unemployed youth of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 37. Factors Affecting The Environment Of The World's Fisheries Fisheries satisfy the conditions for being a common (public) good by being 'non–excludable' and 'rival.' No one can 'exclude' a person from fishing, but present–day intake of fish will reduce the amount available for other fisherman in the future ('rival'). Around 80% of the world's fisheries are being over–exploited leading to a devastating impact on aquatic communities as it destabilizes the food chain and destructs the natural habitats of many oceanic communities. Fish, however, are not the only stakeholders affected by these current threats. The different hazards to this industry also cause a socio–economic and financial loss. Oceans support the livelihood of over 520 million people involved in fishing and fish–related activities. (WWF) Various emerging economies around the world such as Bangladesh, Peru and Pakistan depend highly on the fishing industry for their national income. Additionally, seafood is a staple diet in many developing countries as it is a rich source of protein. With rising incomes in emerging economies, the global demand for fish is growing rapidly, affecting over 2.6 billion people. Due to the various threats, the overall economic position of many developing countries is under pressure. Furthermore, fisheries around the world are already working at or over capacity, causing overconsumption of seafood, leading to depletion in the amount of fish available for future generations. This impairment of fisheries is also coming from a number of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 39. Cuckoo's Nest Symbolism One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest Angus Dally Short Extended Questions 5. What does the Fog Machine symbolise for Bromden and for Kesey? –Conformity –Medicated state –Anonymity – Mechanical influence of the combine Chief Bromden believes that Nurse Ratched is able to turn on a fog machine that fills the whole ward with fog, obscuring his vision. Because of his schizophrenia, this fog is clearly shown to be a hallucination, but it carries great symbolic meaning. The fog machines in the ward are reminiscent of the Chief's time in the army, where fog machines were used to obscure the airfields. He says that while the fog machines were operating, "you couldn't see nothing but white" (p 131). The fog symbolises the anonymity that results from conforming to the rules of the ward, and the Chief uses this anonymity to protect himself from the punishments of Nurse Ratched. It also symbolises when he loses grip of reality, either as a result of his medication or out of fear. The rules and regulations of the ward and society, symbolised in part by the fog, are shown to be similar to castration, and the Chief realises this, saying that when he was immersed in the fog, he felt like "from the waist down, you were being dissolved by the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Control in this ward extends to even the smallest things, such as the quota of cigarettes given to patients, and the rigidity of the patient's daily schedule. Any displays of individuality and self– expression are severely punished, 'ratcheting' patients into conformity and submission to the Nurse's absolute power. This conformity is symbolised by the fog that the Chief tries to retreat into, which no matter how bad "it is, you can slip back in it and be safe" (p ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 41. The Miss En Scene Of National And International Fisheries Now that we have deconstructed the basic premises and their place in the miss en scène of national and international fisheries, let us move to a more detailed analysis of the text's subpoints examining the chapters for any underlying perspectives or evidence that significantly contribute to the arguments overall persuasiveness. The analysis that follows intends to capture each critical argument unfolding and developing itself, giving the reader a means to then discuss the contributions in regard to the circulation of wider discourse. Chapters 2–4: International regulation, political economy of regulation, and regulatory capture. We have already considered much of chapter 2 when regarding CPRs, the most important definition given by the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Environmental economics provides an appropriate set of analytical tools to understand CPRs even though most regulation draws largely on the logics of population biology (Barkin p. 37). The discussion continues to recognise scientific based secretariat rule proposals being undermined by states final decision making power, and how sovereign representatives avoid advice in favour of free rider benefits. The central argument of chapter 3 is a tension in the approaches to resource management; biologist (or anthropocentric view) are put premium on the value of ecosystems and biodiversity – sustainability perspective – while the econocentric view is focused on maximising present value of fishery resources without regard for the 'unmonetised' ecological utility. In a sense, multilateral cooperation finds a midpoint between these differing worldviews, but the former analysis of CPR enjoys privilege among stakeholders because it is more comfortably aligned with their interests – or perhaps until it is too late in which case ecological value has finally attained equal or greater economic status than the present value of fisheries. Applying these understandings to the overall argument that micro–regulation alone is insufficient, by considering the theoretical perspectives and various co–author studies as evidence, one finds ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 43. The Environmental Case Commons are resources that people have access to, and there is no payment required to use those resources. Examples of these types of resources are lakes, rivers, oceans, public green spaces, roads, ocean fisheries and many others. A tragedy of commons is when a person finds his share of cost of waste he discharges into common areas that other people use, is less than cost of purifying wastes before releasing them. Many people do not realize that some of their actions are affecting people more than they know. By adding to the tragedy of commons they are making resources less available for others. In Layzer's "The Environmental Case" gives a classic example of the tragedy of commons by discussing the Crisis and Recovery in the New England Fisheries. With this case it talks about how since there is no regulation on fishing people are fishing and taking such large amounts of fish it is affecting the amount of fish for other people and making the resources of certain types of fish scarce. According to Layzer " As more fishermen enter a fishery, each one eventually experiences declining yields for the same unit of effort (in this situation fish). As the profit margin ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... If all the fishermen worked together and agreed on a plan to not over fish than that would be a step in the right direction to fixing the problem. Dealing with a common problem is not something that can be solved by one person but it takes one person to start the movement to fixing the problem. In the Crisis and Recovery in the New England Fisheries one solution was to create property rights. To do this an ITQ or Individual Transferable Quotas need to be distributed to the fishermen. With an ITQ each individual fishermen or fishing enterprise would receive one and with that each person would get an exclusive rights to a fishery. They then would be allowed to take a certain amount of fish in that particular ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 45. The Issue of Overfishing In contemporary society, human society is progressing rapidly on various fronts. Nevertheless at the same time, the problem of overfishing is becoming increasingly worrisome and attract extensive attention of the society. In this essay, I will address overfishing and propose some possible causes of this phenomenon which can give contribution to some solutions. Introduction This issue of overfishing covers vast fields, such as science, humanity, economy, society and nature. The term "optimum", in regard to the yield from a fishery, is difficult to be defined, precisely and fixedly. Generally speaking, we can describe it as follows: (Niles E. Stople, January 2009, FishNet USA) Will provide maximum effectiveness benefit to the Nation, particularly in relation to food production and recreational opportunities, and giving consideration to the protection of marine ecosystems In case of an overfished fishery, provides for reconstructing to a level consistent with producing the maximum sustainable yield in such fishery Overfishing's status as the focus of public concern mainly results from its negligible but harmful influence on individuals, collective, and even the whole world. One of the world's significant fishery in the East China Sea is damage by overfishing and growing levels of contamination, recent research has shown, confirming the fear of fishermen and environmentalists. (Xinhua on GOV, Lu Hui, ed. 16 ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 47. Contract Law Vs Non Tort factory does not directly pay the additional cost to address any health issues or to assist maintain the cleanliness of the air or water. In some cases, on the other hand, the harmed parties can use legal measures to get compensation for damages (Frank, 343). A positive externality, on the other hand, is an unpaid benefit that expands beyond those directly initiate the activity. One instance, would be a neighborhood resident who creates a private garden, the aesthetic beauty of which payback other people in the community. Also, when a group voluntarily chooses to create an advantage, such as a community park, others might benefit without contributing to the project. Any individuals or groups that gain additional benefits without contributing are known as free riders (Ronald, 13). A lot of economists believe that placing Pigovian taxes on pollution is a much more efficient way ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... These rules are not only a definition. They are linked with a lot more practical issues than this. These rules also provide protection to rationality in taking decisions in terms of property rules and liability rules. Liability rules and property rules deal with non–Tort applications as well. Law of Tort deals with the losses people face at work place due to some carelessness or negligence. Non–Tort applications of property rules and liability rules are also common. The implementation originates from Calabresi–Melamed taxonomy. Contract law suggests that creditor has a promise from the debtor. The entitlement is confirmed by the contract law. To enforce this law through the help of property law, one needs to have specific performance from the creditor. If this entitlement however is to be protected only by liability rule, specific performance will not rely on the creditor. The only promise will be to offer to pay damages and that too by a third party. In many cases there are risks associated with this kind of deals (Coleman, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 49. Return From Fishing By Sorolla An element that shaped Spanish culture during the nineteenth century was the rise of the Bourgeoisie. The Bourgeoisie was middle and upper class citizens that were enveloped in liberal ideas including education, industrialization and capitalism. The term Bourgeoisie was first used by French intellectuals who defined it as, "the new social class linked to changes of modernity" (CITATION). The Bourgeoisies culture was centered around consumption, and their collection included many luxurious items. Although the Bourgeoisie strived for progress and modernity, their vast consumerism was often critiqued. The term embougeiosement was used as a negative connotation or social critique for an individual that was BLANK in consumption (CITATION). This ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The painting Return From Fishing is roughly three feet by three and half feet. It is of average size and it was most likely created as a private commission. The viewer can easily imagine the painting being hung inside someone's home. First the size makes it suitable to be placed inside a family or dining room. Secondly, the idolization and beauty of the composition makes it suitable for placement inside of someone's home. When the owners are guests observe this painting, they see it as a pretty picture that captures the beauty of life on the Mediterranean. In contrast, the painting And they still the say the price of fish are expensive is much larger. This painting is roughly five feet by six and half feet. The pure size of the composition allows it capture the viewer's attention. Unlike the other painting, this one would be placed in a salon or exhibition because of the large size. It is much to large to placed inside of someone's home. Secondly, the scene that is depicted is not meant to be on display for enjoyment and admiration. No one would like to stare at a painting depicting a gruesome injury when they are eating dinner inside their ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 51. Why And How Should We Regulate Coastal Fisheries Why and how should we regulate coastal fisheries Coastal fisheries of the UK offer a vast amount of importance to us for things like food and medications, but after decades of over fishing and destructive fishing methods our fish stocks have been left severly depleted. Across the UK there has been a lot of initiatives towards managing our coastal fisheries to meet both environmental and economic goals. The need for regulating coastal fisheries is not a new idea, it has been used for several hundred years. Currently there is 207 protected marine protected areas implemented by the British government, one of the main ways we can regulate coastal fisheries is by creating more marine conservation zones, these zones create a safe place for ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Across the UK there has been a lot of initiatives towards managing our coastal fisheries to meet both environmental and economic goals. However, even though numerous pieces of legislation targeted at improving the state of our marine environments, governments and businesses are giving far too little priority to . There is now a large and growing gap between what is immediately needed and the rate of progress that is being pursued. We are overfishing in our oceans. The commercial fish stocks of our coastal waters are fully exploited or overexploited. The over–exploitation and mismanagement of fisheries leads to collapses in the fish stocks, for example the failure of the cod fishery off Newfoundland, Canada, in 1992, leading to the loss of some 40,000 jobs in the industry. History of regulations within coastal fisheries The need for regulating coastal fisheries is not a new idea, it has been used for several hundred years. Residents of New Zealand had regulations in place that meant fisherman could only catch and take back what could be ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 53. Shark Conservation Essay Shark Conservation Abstract Arising over 350 million years ago, the shark species has been labeled as a human devourer. Now, with the increase in human population, the demand for shark meat, fins, and cartilage are at an all time high; therefore, the existence of the shark is becoming a concern (Budker 1971). Individuals are conditioned to think of sharks as a negative aspect to the environment, which is prolonging the effort to save shark species from becoming extinct. With that in mind, some private as well as national organizations have accepted the challenge of educating and informing people about the existence of the shark specie and its importance to the sea. Introduction Portrayed as the beast of the sea, the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Shark mating rituals vary from the size of the shark and its specie. In smaller, more flexible species, the male coils around the female, while the male of the larger specie orients himself parallel and head–to–head with the female (Woums & Demski 1993). Some species mating rituals also consists of males biting females on the pectoral fins or the middle of the back to hold on to them (Woums & Demski 1993). The female will often bear scars or marks, after the ordeal. Due to the fact that sharks are cold blooded animals, there is no precise gestation time. The development of the embryo will depend solely on the temperature of the water, however, the gestation period can last anywhere from 2 months to 2 years (Woums & Demski 1993). Within shark species there are two methods of reproduction. In some cases a female shark will lay eggs in a coastal nursery where the presence of other sharks are absent. And in other cases, usually in the larger sharks, females give birth to live offspring (Wourms & Demski 1993). In which case the young are born fully developed, and once they are born they shoot away fast or they risk being eaten. Adapted for a wide range of aquatic habitats, various shark species inhabit shallow coastal habitats, deep–water ocean floor habitats, and the open ocean. With a wide selection to feed off of, as a whole the shark species feed on just about everything. Their diet consists of fish, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 55. Majed Almehmadi Overfishing Overfishing refers to the act of overexploiting fish such that they reduce to unacceptable limits. The problem occurs if humans harvest large fish quantities than they can be replaced via natural reproduction in a given water body. Although catching large amounts of fish appear profitable, it has dire social and economic consequences. Overfishing interrupts balance of the marine ecosystem. Similarly, majority of the coastal population depends on fishing as their source of livelihood. This implies that the overpopulation causes an economic crisis to both the people who rely on fishing occupation; as well as several people who rely on fish diets. For many centuries, the oceans have been a reliable source of fish diets that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In poor countries where employment opportunities are limited, overfishing may result in a massive migration. Major cities and businesses in regions that are affected by fishing restrictions often collapse or develop at very slow rate (Newell, 2007). Overfishing dilemma Since there is no country that owns fish in the oceans, the developed countries with advanced technologies catch big fish quantities than developing nations with poor or no large fishing vessels. As a result, the developing countries with limited capital to invest in the fishing industry have resolved in selling fishing rights to international fishing services. On the same note, many countries have extensive patrols intended to protect unlicensed international fishing vessels from catching waters in other outcries territorial waters. Fishing vessels that are caught catching fish in restricted territorial waters are often subjected to heavy fines. Restrictive policies In various international waters, overfishing is a major problem such that it has made countries affected by the problem to develop various policies aimed at restricting individual vessels from overexploitation of fish. Examples of some of the latest restriction policies that countries have made to prevent overfishing include total allowable catch limits (TAC), season–length restrictions, vessel power ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 57. The World Of The Human Race Essay Since the beginning of the human race, the ocean has been a major source of food. People near the shores have been taking of advantage of the ocean's rich and diverse source of nourishment for centuries, both as a source of food and a livelihood. However, since the dawn of the industrial age, humans have begun to take from the ocean more that it can give. As a result, the ocean can no longer provide the human race with the abundance that it once did. As technology rapidly advances, populations skyrocket, and global warming spreads havoc, the ocean's biodiversity and once abundant supply of fish is dwindling, calling marine scientists and experts to race to find solutions that will restore the oceans health while battling world hunger. If one were to describe what he or she thought of when thinking of the earliest humans, thousands of years ago, chances are that the cliché image of a big–game hunter or cave man, running across a savanna, chasing down wooly methods and saber tooth tigers would come to mind. And while this hyperbolized scenario may hold some truth to it, a large component of human history is negated from it. The first known interaction between humans and the sea dates back to nearly 160,000 years ago. Archeologists have discovered remnants of shellfish littering the floors of caves that were occupied by the earliest known humans. Shellfish were gathered by early humans and were essential in provided essential omega–3 fatty acids for necessary brain development ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 59. The Social And Environmental Effects Associated With... The Social and environmental effects associated with commodifying nature By Danielle Finestone The commodification of nature refers to transformation of natural resources to something generically valued for exchange within the market, this therefore leads to these common pool resources like freshwater being reconceptualised as a commercial resource. Natural goods and services become defined as tangible objects which can be privatized and managed under market rules (Gómez–Baggethun& Ruiz–Pérez, 2011), as opposed to something which is valued intrinsically and managed by social norms. The rise of neoliberal thinking has helped to facilitate the commodification nature, however it is important to recognize that this only one of the driving factors. There are many clear examples of the commodification of nature with one major example being the commodifying of water resources. The shift toward the commodification represents a fundamental change in views and use of natural resources which have many far reaching environmental and social effects. The commodification of water is driven by fears of water scarcity, accessibility and cleanliness. Water is recognized a basic human "the human right to water entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic uses" (UN, 2002). But despite this it estimated approximately a billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. The reconceptualising of water was ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 61. Market Mechanism Can Save Fish But Can They Save Climate? Market Mechanisms Can Save Fish... but can they Save Climate? Introduction The 2007 Reauthorization of the Magnuson Stevens Act (MSA) implemented market mechanisms, such as catch shares and individual transferable quotas (ITQs) to keep fishing at a sustainable level, as determined by the best available science. These mechanisms are comparable to the cap–and–trade mechanisms that successfully regulate sulfur dioxide and ozone emissions, as well as the cap–and– trade mechanisms that have been proposed and minimally implemented in the U.S. to regulate and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which originate from the fossil industry. The new MSA reauthorization occurred while other cap–and–trade policies, particularly those regulating GHGs ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... History of the Magnuson Stevens Act At the end of World War II, fishing became exacerbated as fishing technology improved; technology allowed for more catch, at a quicker rate, at an increasing distance from near shore waters. Fishing became a larger portion of the world's food supply and economy. However, fish abundance was short lived. The United States, along with the rest of the world, found itself in a conundrum. By the 1960's, fish stocks exhibited dramatic decline and major fisheries around the U.S. were overfished. 2 Legislation was needed for better regulation, and in 1976 the first comprehensive bill was passed to protect fishing areas farther offshore and prevent further decline. The Magnuson–Stevens Act (MSA) promoted the U.S fishing industry's optimal exploitation of coastal fisheries by consolidating control over territorial waters through the establishment of eight regional councils to manage fish stocks, which are controlled largely by industry representatives.3, 4 The ultimate focus was, and is to this day, to protect the fishing industry, while also protecting fish stock. 1,5,6 The MSA helped to prevent foreign fisherman from fishing inside U.S. waters. Other nations developed similar laws and management practices.2 While the original MSA set limits on fisheries each fishing season, the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 63. Persuasive Essay On Cod Fishing Save the Cod, Save the Fishing Industry Dating back to the 1600s, Cod fishing has been a major industry in the New England area, with a 5 feet long "Sacred Cod" hanging inside the Massachusetts State House signifying its importance. However, fishermen are now facing an unprecedented low stock of Atlantic cod in the Gulf of Maine, directly impacting marine ecosystem as well as the annual cod landing. In November 2014, regulators from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) were forced to impose a temporary ban on cod fishing and discuss possible solutions. Otherwise, the extinction of cod in the Gulf of Maine will damage the ecosystem irreversibly and the entire cod fishing industry will collapse. Tackling the problem of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Examples of forage fish include sardines, anchovies and herrings. Scientists have shown that catching forage fish instead of cod is a more sustainable approach. According to research from the University of British Columbia Fisheries Center, the forage fish population has more than doubled in the past century (Christensen, 2014). A main cause for the population growth is that human beings are overfishing forage fish's predators like cod and tuna. When overfishing of cod occurs, herring population increases naturally due to the reduced effect of trophic cascade. Herrings are very abundant in the Gulf of Maine and they are not overfished. Furthermore, fishing herring and cod both use mid–water trawling (NOAA, 2015), so fishermen can easily adapt to fishing herring instead of cod, and the bycatch of other species can be significantly reduced with modified fishing gears (Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch, 2015). However, even though herrings are very abundant, we should only fish them sustainably. Strict regulations based on scientific research need to be implemented in order to avoid overfishing herring, which can be harmful to the recovery of the cod ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 65. A Short Note On The Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Thunnus Thynnus, or the Atlantic Bluefin Tuna, is one of the largest species of tuna, weighing in at over 600 kilograms and four meters in length. It is known for its speed and takes the shape of a torpedo. In its environment, the Atlantic Bluefin Tuna acts as one of the top predators. It preys on smaller fish, such as herring, mackerel and eels. The Atlantic Bluefin Tuna is separated into two main populations, Eastern and Western. Although located in different geographical areas they are not isolated and individuals migrate between the two populations allowing gene flow. The Atlantic Bluefin Tuna's population ranges all through the pelagic zone of the Atlantic. The Western Atlantic population spawns in the Gulf of Mexico, and the Eastern Atlantic population spawns in the Mediterranean Sea. In the fishing industry it is highly coveted for sports fishing, especially in the United States and Canada, and in the sashimi market for high–end sushi. As a result of the high demands for the Tuna it is being heavily overfished causing the population to decline dramatically. The low supply and high demand for the Tuna has made them extremely valuable; a single fish in Tokyo 's Tsukiji fish market sold for 1.76 million dollar (Bluefin, 2013). This high value of the Atlantic Bluefin Tuna has resulted in illegal pirate fishing causing more harm to the population. If the illegal pirate fishing and overfishing of the Atlantic Bluefin Tuna continues, the species will become extinct resulting ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 67. A Brief Note On Fisheries And Its Effects On Aquatic... By 2050, we could effectively be out of fish." (United Nations, 2010) In the 21st century, fisheries are facing a crisis along with some other public goods. Fisheries satisfy the conditions for being a common (public) good by being 'non–excludable' and 'rival.' No one can 'exclude' a person from fishing, but present–day intake of fish will reduce the amount available for other fisherman in the future ('rival'). Around 80% of the world's fisheries are being over–exploited leading to a devastating impact on aquatic communities as it destabilizes the food chain and destructs the natural habitats of many oceanic communities. Fish, however, are not the only stakeholders affected by these current threats. The different hazards to this industry also cause a socio–economic and financial loss. Oceans support the livelihood of over 520 million people involved in fishing and fish–related activities. (WWF) Various emerging economies around the world such as Bangladesh, Peru and Pakistan depend highly on the fishing industry for their national income. Additionally, seafood is a staple diet in many developing countries as it is a rich source of protein. With rising incomes in emerging economies, the global demand for fish is growing rapidly, affecting over 2.6 billion people. Due to the various threats, the overall economic position of many developing countries is under pressure. Furthermore, fisheries around the world are already working at or over capacity, causing overconsumption of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 69. Atlantic Cod : Evolutionary Selection For Small Bodied... Jessica Hnizdo ENS 311 3/13/2017 Atlantic cod: Evolutionary selection for small bodied fish and recovery of fisheries By 1993, the north Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stock had decreased to less than 5% of what it once was. Unsustainable fishing practices have disrupted Atlantic cods natural physical/biological processes, abundance, and food web. Thus, Atlantic cod have evolved smaller body size in response to fishery–induced evolution, the question arises of whether this evolved trait may affect the recovery of the cod fishery; and if this trait may, in fact, be reversible. During the 1960 's, catches of northern cod peaked at 800,000 ton; which declined to 140,000 ton by 1978. In 1977, Canada expanded its exclusive economic zone, thus ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Fisheries–induced evolution generates selection that affects phenotypic variation such as fecundity, growth rate, and maturation rate. [4] Despite strict fishing restrictions, cod stocks have failed to recover at the rate that was once predicted. Factors such as decreased body size, increased natural mortality, and continued fishing in directed fisheries/ bycatch pose challenges in the recovering populations. As identified in the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, "Twelve cod (Gadus morhua) stocks are recognized for management purposes in the Northwest Atlantic, distributed from the shelf off northern Labrador, south to Georges Bank and Gulf of Maine: (1) northern Labrador, (2) southern Labrador – northern Grand Bank, (3) southern Grand Bank, (4) Flemish Cap, (5) St. Pierre Bank, (6) northern Gulf of St. Lawrence, (7) southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, (8) Sydney Bight, (9) eastern Scotian Shelf, (10) southern Scotian Shelf –Bay of Fundy, (11) Georges Bank, and (12) Gulf of Maine." Nine of the twelve cod stocks (1–9) in the northwest were protected by the moratorium, yet only four stocks (5 and 10–12) have shown any evidence of recovery and one of those four (5) showed substantial recovery. In response to an almost 90% decline, cod were pushed to evolve smaller body sizes and earlier maturation. Although early maturation increases the probability of such fish to reproduce in their lifetime ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 71. Impact Of Overfishing On Marine Ecosystems And Human Culture Introduction Overfishing occurs when fish are being caught faster than they can reproduce and replace themselves (Lee and Safina, 1995, pg.5). It greatly affects biodiversity of marine ecosystems and human culture. Impacts of Overfishing Overfishing can impact marine ecosystems and communities that rely heavily on marine mammals. Large reductions in population sizes of marketable fish species caught yearly may significantly create economic stress within fishing communities, especially if they mainly rely on fish for income or food, such as 3rd world countries. If marketable fish population numbers drop too low fishermen and even whole communities may be forced to give up their way of life, which has been passed down from generation to generation, and find jobs elsewhere (Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 2009). Loss of income and jobs is caused from decreased population sizes, which lower productive fish stocks, and results in business closures and lowered economic status (Lee and Safina, 1995). Food security is also affected by overfishing. Many coastal communities depend on fish as their main food source. When consumable fish populations decrease the food supplies and food availability also decrease, resulting in shortages to occur and fish becoming an unreliable source of food (World Wildlife Fund, 2016). Overfishing significantly impacts biodiversity within ecosystems. Marine life imbalance is produced when fishing of top predators disrupts communities within the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 73. The Effects Of Overfishing Overfishing has been a problem that we have faced for centuries. The thought that modern fishing technology was what had done damage turns out to be completely wrong. It explains as to why many types of sea animals have come close to extinction and why some have already become extinct. The practice of overfishing destroys the environments of marine life and causes an abrupt change within the food chain. Constantly fishing for particular species means soon that kind of fish will be extinct. Because of this, there must be measures put in place to allow fishes to re–populate. Though there have been some improvements made throughout the recent years, overfishing is still drastically growing. Sustaining the amount of fishing being done will ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Fishing is the principal livelihood for millions of people. Overfishing therefore threatens the jobs of many fishermen and if not stopped, fishing businesses' will also start going to waste and will not only reduce the amount of jobs but will also reduce the amount of seafood that society will be able to consume. Seafood has substantial benefits to the human body, but this does not allow for excessive fishing. Society must begin to work towards reducing the amount of fishing being done; though what individuals can do is only minimal; each individual can announce to everyone the current situation involving the effects of overfishing (Overfishing – A global disaster, 2012). After informing society, choosing a different type of fish to eat would also support reducing the extinction of current sea animals which will allow that species to have time to begin to repopulate (Overfishing – A global disaster, 2012). A monitoring system would also be effective, but must be worked on as a society. By simply monitoring the catching rate on docks, and making sure they are only fishing in open areas will greatly help with reducing overfishing. (Safina, 2003) The ocean covers nearly 70% of the plant's surface and despite that, society is still able to make overfishing a problem and also leading sea animals towards extinction. This is vital ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 75. Evolution Of The Declining Salmon Populations Researchers believe that the declining salmon populations are mainly the result of the four H's, harvesting habits, hydropower, habitat loss, and hatchery fish (Ruckelshaus et al., 2002, pp. 679). Harvesting habits refers to the impact overfishing has on the salon populations (Ruckelshaus et al., 2002, pp. 679). Every year, around 385,000 metric tons of Pacific salmon are caught by commercial fisherman and with weak stock conditions, the natural life cycle of these fish cannot keep up (Knapp, 2007). Hydropower refers to the dams that currently block many rivers in the Pacific Northwest that prevent salmon from reaching or returning from their native spawning grounds (Gore and Doerr, 2000, pp. 40–41). This means that salmon cannot breed as ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The second is the human management of salmon, including the harvesting and the hatchery fish. Both these areas may require technical and non–technical solutions, as described by Hardin. Technical solutions, which Hardin claims do not solve tragedy of commons by themselves, currently exist and are ever improving to mitigate environmental issues surrounding the depletion of commercial salmon stocks. For example, new methods of allowing salmon to bypass dams are being developed. Fish ladders and similar structure have been problematic in the past, sometimes killing more fish than are allowed to pass (Waldman, 2013). Some methods try to more closely mimic a natural river, while others involve modifications to existing dams to influence the movement of fish (Schilt, 2007, pp. 307–315). However, the most beneficial course of action would be to remove the dam entirely (Schilt, 2007, pp. 316–317). This, however, falls into the trap the Hardin describes with the self–defeating appeal to the conscience. Not using the river for hydropower would be foolish since it is a source of power that is readily available, while continuing to use river only aggravates the problem. The issues with habitat loss can also be partially solved through technical solutions. Deforestation of surrounding areas can be reduced through turning to other sources of lumber. Run– off and other sources of contamination can be treated ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 77. Cod Chapter Summary I chose the book Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World. As the title suggests, and the author, Mark Kurlansky, explores, a simple fish, more specifically, cod, has an importance that has been proven throughout history. The prologue is set in Petty Harbour, a town in Newfoundland and tells a story of three experienced fishermen, Sam, Leonard, and Bernard. They are participating in the Sentinel Fishery which was an attempt to help scientists and fishermen work together to measure the supply of cod. Their boat was to catch as many cod as they could and measure and tag them. A second boat was to catch exactly 100 cod and open them to identify their age and sex. For three men who fishing was their life hobby, you would think this would ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... As outlined in this assignment, a hazard is defined as an object, condition, or process that threatens individuals and society in terms of production or reproduction. I would like to suggest that the process of overfishing is a hazard that this book unfolds throughout history. Overfishing is simply when cod are caught at a faster rate than they can naturally reproduce. The author suggests that man is part of the natural world and the two can't separate themselves, and in this case the activity of overfishing is driven by man. Cod provided a source of protein and a financial stability to many nations. As populations increased, the demand for cod increased, and consequently the industry became competitive in nature. Because of this, fishing for the Atlantic cod became commercialized, and although nations modernized at different speeds, the goal for all was to catch more. As early as 1815, the French used the technique of longlining. Although it was expensive because of the amount of bait that was used, it was the first advancement from handlining and allowed for numerous fish to be caught at once. From there, bottom dragging became popular and although it was an effective method of catching a lot of cod at once, it was also damaging to other fish that got caught in the net. In addition to improved techniques, curing methods advanced and freezing methods were developed. Technology advancements included the chronometer and telegraph which both improved navigation, and sonors and spotter aircraft aided in spotting cod schools. Fishing boats advanced from oars and sails to steam powered to motorships. All of these advancements aided in the overfishing, and consequently became a hazard. Scientists argue that you can't predict nature and there is no way to tell if and when, as well as, how long it will take to replenish the codstock. For this reason, I suggest overfishing to be a hazard. The depletion of cod has ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...