The Rise AboveJim CrowBy: Janay Kelly, Kevin Akpan, Taylor Johnson, & Kendra CarterApril13, 2013English 003/ Diaz
BackgroundThe name Jim Crow is often used to describe thesegregation laws, rules, and customs which arose afterReconstruction in the United States ended andcontinued until the mid-1960s. The separationsbetween black and white people were most evidentduring the enactment of Jim Crow laws. Betweenthe years 1876 and 1965, the racism was clear asblack people were forced to use differentbathrooms, water fountains, and dine in differentareas.
The Research• “Homer Plessy v. John H. Ferguson 163 U.S. 537 (1896)sanctioned racial segregation and discrimination with thedoctrine of “separate but equal,” arguing that the FourteenthAmendment “could not have been intended to abolishdistinctions based upon color, or to enforce social, asdistinguished from political equality, or a commingling of thetwo races upon terms unsatisfactory to either.””• “Oliver Brown, et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka, et al.387 U.S. 483 (1954) outlawed racial segregation in publicschools arguing that “separate educational facilities areinherently unequal.” Brown opened the door to question andto challenge other forms of racial inequity.”
The ClaimJim Crow Laws put white people atan advantage over black people.
Steady Going UpIn the short story, "Steady Going Up," by Maya Angelou showsdiscrimination toward the main character, Robert. He was a victim ofracial violence because of his skin color. Jim Crow laws put the whitemen that assaulted him at an advantage because they knew that thecrime would be overlooked. Jim Crow Laws made it impossible for themajority of black people to do anything but remain disadvantaged,uneducated and poor as they’d always been. Although, in the shortstory, Robert never gave up and even though the Jim Crow lawsattempted to cripple black people, black people still strive for successand steady going up.
Opposing Views“Separate But Equal”Supporter of Jim Crow argued that segregation wasconstitutional because the separate facilities and services wereequal although facilitates reserved for African Americans werealmost always in extremely poor condition and low quality.“It was legal.”In 1883, the Supreme Court restricted the CivilRights Act of 1875 to actions by state and localgovernment. It ruled Congress could not controlprivate persons or corporations. Segregation wasapproved by the courts.
The RebuttalThe fact that Jim Crow was an official law did notmake it right to discriminate against black people.The facilities that the government and publicrequired for the colored people were very poorquality. This was unfair and unjust to the blackcommunity.
The Rebuttal Cont.Smoking cigarettes is legal in most states in theU.S. this does not make smoking cigarettes right.In this case beating, discriminating black peoplebecause the white community got away with itdid not make it right nor constitutional.
ConclusionDuring the Jim Crowperiod AfricanAmericans were alwaysat a disadvantage. TheJim Crow laws made itso it was certain thatblacks and whites wereseparated and wouldnot have to encounterunless necessary. Asstated in 1930, in thelaw in Alabama, “Itshall be unlawful for anegro and white personto play together or incompany with eachother in any game ofcards or dice, dominoesand etc."Jim Crow Laws endedin 1968, but there arething still today thatare still oppressingthe black community;such as the votingrequirement thateffect the poor blacks.Things such as thishave made it hard forblack people toovercome manydifferent obstacles.…black people still strive for success and are steady going up.From a psychologist point of view, blackpeople were severely traumatized fromslavery, discrimination and racism. Thishas also be scientifically proven.
Sources• "American History." Seperate Is Not Equal. N.p., n.d. Web.http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/1-segregated/jim-crow.html• "Jim Crow Laws." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Oct. 2013. Web. 10 Apr.2013. Facilities, Toilet. National Parks Service. National Parks Service, 21 Mar. 2013.Web. 10 Apr. 2013. PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.• "Remembering Jim Crow : Presented by American RadioWorks." Remembering JimCrow : Presented by American RadioWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.• Warren, Robert Penn. Segregation, the Inner Conflict in the South. New York:Random House, 1956. Print.• Wormser, Richard. The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow. New York: St. Martins, 2003. Print• "American History." Seperate Is Not Equal. N.p., n.d.Web.http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/1-segregated/jim-crow.html "JimCrow Laws." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Oct. 2013. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.• Facilities, Toilet. National Parks Service. National Parks Service, 21 Mar. 2013. Web.10 Apr. 2013.PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.• "Remembering Jim Crow : Presented by American RadioWorks." Remembering JimCrow : Presented by American RadioWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.• http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Jim_Crow_laws.aspx