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Mba iv-change -_knowledge_management__10_mba41_-solution

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Mba iv-change -_knowledge_management__10_mba41_-solution

  1. 1. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 1VTU Solved Question Papers1. Explain personal change process with a neat diagram? [VTU June09]THE PERSONAL CHANGE PROCESS:STEP-I:Ø Personal change with discovery which involves finding out more aboutyourself; how to do things, how you have been limiting your options.Ø Discovery involves willingness to learn.STEP-2:Ø Once the discovery phase is over the clearing phase starts which involves theprocess of realizing & rejecting the wrong answers.Ø These wrong answers are returned to the time, place and context her theybelong.Ø Clearing is a key element in personal change.STEP-3:Ø Clearing then leads to programming which is establishing useful ways of howto do thingsØ This may involve the discovery of how things are being done.Ø Once the programming phase is over the phase of processing starts.
  2. 2. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 22. Explain lewins model of change process briefly? [VTU Dec 09,June11]Lewin’s view on organizations• According to Kurt Lewin ,an issue is held in balance by the interaction of twoopposing sets of forces.• A. Driving Forces• B.Restraining Forces.A. Driving Forces:Forces seeking to promote to change.B.Restraining Forces: Forces attempting to maintain the status quo.• Lewin viewed organizations as systems in which the present situation was notstatic but dynamic• (Equilibrium)of forces working in opposite directions.• For any change to occur the driving forces must exceed the restraining forces, thusshifting the equilibrium.USE OF THE FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS METHOD• Investigate the balance of power involved in an issue.• Identify the most important stakeholders & target groups for a campaign on theissue.• Identify opponents & allies• Identify how you can influence each target group.STEPS IN A FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS:PROCESS1.Describe the Current Situation.2.Describe the desired situation.3.Identify where the current situation will go if no action is taken.4.List all the forces driving change toward the desired situation.5.List all the forces resisting change toward the desired situation6.Discuss& interrogate all the forces: Are they valid? Can they be changed? Whichare the critical ones?7.Allocate a score to each of the forces using a numerical scale
  3. 3. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 3Eg:1 is extremely weak &10 is extremely strong.8.Chart the forces.List the driving forces on the left.And list the restraining forces onthe right.9.Determine whether change is viable & progress can occur.10.Discuss how the change can be affected by decreasing the strength of therestraining forces or by increasing the strength of driving forces.3. What Is Organizational Culture? [VTU Dec 10,June11]Shared AssumptionsØ Underlying thoughts and feelings that members of a culture take for grantedand believe to be trueShared ValuesA value isØA basic belief about a conditionØThat has considerable importance and meaning to individualsØStable over timeA value system comprisesMultiple beliefs that are compatible and support one another Some Value Statementsfrom the Organizational Culture ProfileCHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTUREØ Observed behavioral RegularitiesØ NormsØ Dominant valuesØ PhilosophyØ RulesØ Organisational Climate.4. Explain Managerial options for implementing change (VTU Jan09)Managerial options for implementing the change process are:Ø Top –Down Approach.Ø Laissez-Faire Approach.Ø Collaborative Approach.TOP-DOWN APPROACH
  4. 4. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 4Ø In this approach the solutions or decisions are arrived at by the people at thetop.Ø They are passed down the formal channels of communication & control in aunilateral manner.Ø These changes focus on the tangibles.Two assumptions under this approach. To organizational change are:Ø The reasons for the existing behaviors in an organization (Low performance,high absenteeism, low productivity rate)Ø Can be traced to single tangible factor.Ø The overall system can be changed by changing these tangible causes ofexisting behaviors.Ø Thus if one changes the existing structures, systems,& procedures it leads tothe basic change sin the organization.Ø The second assumption is that change is a coercion-compliance phenomenoni.e. the change process is approached with the basic assumption that somepeople initiate changes while others get changed.AdvantagesØ A top down strategy of change is effective provided the change initiator hasconsiderable power (coercive, charismatic power)Ø The advantage of this strategy is that change is quick and speedy.Ø Last option for managers when other strategies don’t work.Ø People do not like to be coerced.Ø Changes in behavior are only superficial.Ø Moreover, in coercing people to change certain relevant change-relatedissues(interests of coalitions, fears of losing control over self) may get ignoredand may crate problems in the long run.LAISSEZ-FAIRE APPROACHAssumptionsØ Systems can change only when its members change.Ø People are primarily rational beings who follow their rational self interests.Ø They will change in a particular direction only when they realize that it isadvantageous to change.Ø Hence to bring about change we should provide enough information to makerational choices.Consequences
  5. 5. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 5Ø It delegates much responsibility for defining and acting upon problems to thesubordinates.Ø The common forms of this approach that takes in the organizations are:· Communication Meetings· Work Shops.· Conferences· Training Programmes· Decision Making Skills– Participants would be learning these skills,later would be using in concrete organizational situations.· Annual Conferences & Meetings· Meetings- In which executives can exchange information and clarifyissues ,with the assumption that it would improve overallorganizational performance.DrawbacksØ It is very slow process.Ø It is uneconomical.Ø It is a time consuming process.Ø It is applicable if the organization is large, with large number of people whoshould be affected to bring about change.COLLABORATIVE APPROACHØ The approach that deals with the superiors and the subordinates.Ø It involves sharing of the power b/w the superiors and subordinates in terms ofjointly defining the problems and developing the solutions.AssumptionsØ Organisational systems & structures, which need to be changed, are not meremechanical procedures, or exhibits, in the organizational chart. RatherØ They are defined by the patterns of behaviors & practices which are rooted bythe patterns of behaviors and practices, which are rooted in the socio-culturalnorms, values, & attitudes of the people.Ø The collaboration b/w the superiors and the subordinates is creating the changeØ The role of the superior and the subordinate are different.Role of a Superior.Ø To provide a broad perspective to guide the process and direction of change.Ø He will highlight the problems which require the organization attention.
  6. 6. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 6Ø Invites participation to solve problems.5. What is Knowledge Management Process.Explain? [VTU Dec 09,Jan12]Knowledge management is a conscious strategy of getting the right Knowledge to theright people at the right time and helping people share and organizes information intoaction in ways to improve organizational performance. It is a complex process thatmust be supported by a strong foundation of enablers, such as strategy, leadership,culture measurement and technology.Knowledge management processes involves several of the following stages or subprocesses1. Knowledge Creation2. Knowledge Identification3. Knowledge Collection4. Knowledge Sharing5. Knowledge Adaptation6. Knowledge Organization7. Knowledge UsageKnowledgeacquisitions &creationKnowledgestorage &ProcessingKnowledgesharing&DisseminationKnowledgeApplication
  7. 7. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 7The vision of an organization coupled with the knowledge processes andtechnology, which acts as an enabler, forms the three key components ofKnowledge management system. Three elements have to be in place beforeany knowledge based activity can be initiated with in any organization.1. People2. Process3. Technology6. Define knowledge worker and explain its types? [VTU Dec 09,June11]knowledge worker is a person who transforms business and personal experiences intoknowledge through capturing, assessing, applying, sharing and disseminating it withinthe organization to solve specific problems to create value.Types of knowledge WorkerThere are two types of Knowledge Worker1. Core knowledge workers are those in specific ‘knowledge Management‘roles.E.g.: Knowledge Managers, knowledge Analysts, Chief information officers2. Everyone Else constitutes all the other knowledge workers-doctors,nurses, managers and pharmacists. In short every one engaged in some formof ‘knowledge work’7.How to avoid pitfalls and obstacles during Knowledge ManagementImplementation:n Educate and communicaten When assessing an opportunity that requires people’s time give a plan of actionback designed to fix their problem and deliver on that plan by exceedingexpectations. (ROT) return on time. This builds creditability & trust. Peoplespread good news and bad news with the same enthusiasm.n Don’t become discouraged with push back. Exercise the 20 – 30 – 50 rule. 20 %of the culture will be willing to change; 30 % will resist change, and 50 % will beundecided. Focus on the 50 % undecided.
  8. 8. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 8n Don’t become discouraged with push back. Exercise the 20 – 30 – 50 rule. 20 %of the culture will be willing to change; 30 % will resist change, and 50 % will beundecided. Focus on the 50 % undecided.n Give rave recognition to the 20% that are participating and the 50 % will soonfollow. After 70% of the organization has crossed over the 30% will stand so faroutside the circle they will be obligated to join or lose creditability.7.Explain the Action Research Process? [VTU Dec 09,June11]Action Research refers to a change process based on the systematic collection ofdata & then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate.It provides scientific methodology for managing the planned change.PROCESS OF ACTION RESEARCHThe Process consists of 5 steps:vDiagnosis.vAnalysis.vFeedback.vAction.vEvaluation.DIAGNOSISü The research is actually carried out by a change agent-who is generally an outsideconsultant.ü He gathers information about problems ,concerns,& needed changes from membersof the org.ü The change agent Asks questions,interviews employees,reviews records,& listensto the concerns of employees.ANALYSISüDiagnosis is followed by analysis.üIt deals with what problems do people key in on?üWhat patterns do these problems seem to take?üThe change agent synthesize this information into primary concerns ,problemareas, 7possible actionsFEEDBACK
  9. 9. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 9üIt requires sharing with employees what has found from steps one & two.üThe employees with the help of the change agent, develop action plans for bringingabout any needed change.ACTIONüThe employees & the change agent carry out the specific actions to correct theproblems that have been identified.EVALUATIONüEvaluation of the action plan is done in order to determine its effectiveness.üUsing the initial date gathered as a benchmark, any subsequent changes can becompared & evaluated.7. EExxppllaaiinn tthhee Seven stage Model? [VTU June11]Ronald Lippit,Jeanne watson,and Bruce Westley,expanded 3 stage model into… 7stage Model representing the consulting process.The Seven Phases are as follows……….Phase1:Developing a need for change. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s unfreezingphase.Phase2:Establishing a change relationship. In this phase a client system in need ofhelp & a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship.Phase3:clarifying or diagnosing the client system’s problemPhase4:Examing Alternative routes & goals, establishing & intentions of actions.Phase5:Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. Phase 3,4,&5 correspondto Lewins moving phase
  10. 10. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 10Phase6:Generalizing & stabilizing change. This phase corresponds to LewinsRefreezing PhasePhase7:Achieving a terminal relationship, that is terminating the client-consultantrelationship.9.Explain the Change Process? [VTU Dec 09,June11]Factors in Managing Change:l Confusion :A mental state characterized by disorientation regarding time,place, or lack of orderly thoughtl Anxiety :Anxiety is a multi system response to a perceived threat or Changel Resistance: A force that tends to oppose or retard motion.l Frustration : Refers to the state of someone who denies himself, or who isdenied,
  11. 11. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 11l Treadmill: A monotonous task or set of tasks seeming to have no end.l Inertia : The tendency of resisting acceleration.9.Describe John P Kotters eight steps to Successful to change? [VTU Dec09,June10]l Increase urgency - inspire people to move, make objectives real and relevant.l Build the guiding team - get the right people in place with the right emotionalcommitment, and the right mix of skills and levels.l Get the vision right - get the team to establish a simple vision and strategyfocus on emotional and creative aspects necessary to drive service andefficiency.l Communicate for buy-in - Involve as many people as possible, communicatethe essentials, simply, and to appeal and respond to peoples needs. De-cluttercommunications - make technology work for you rather than against.l Empower actions - Remove obstacles, enable constructive feedback and lotsof support from leaders - reward and recognize progress and achievements.l Create short-term wins - Set aims that are easy to achieve - in bite-sizechunks. Manageable numbers of initiatives. Finish current stages beforestarting new ones.l Dont let up - Foster and encourage determination and persistence - ongoingchange - encourage ongoing progress reporting - highlight achieved and futuremilestones.l Make change stick - Reinforce the value of successful change viarecruitment, promotion, new change leaders. Weave change into culture.1100..EExxppllaaiinn MANAGERIAL OPTIONS FOR IMPLEMENTING CHANGE?[VTU June11]Managerial options for implementing the change process are:Ø Top –Down Approach.Ø Laissez-Faire Approach.Ø Collaborative Approach.
  12. 12. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 12TOP-DOWN APPROACHØ In this approach the solutions or decisions are arrived at by the people at thetop.Ø They are passed down the formal channels of communication & control in aunilateral manner.Ø These changes focus on the tangibles.Two assumptions under this approach. To organizational change are:Ø The reasons for the existing behaviors in an organization (Low performance,high absenteeism, low productivity rate)Ø Can be traced to single tangible factor.Ø The overall system can be changed by changing these tangible causes ofexisting behaviors.Ø Thus if one changes the existing structures, systems, & procedures it leads tothe basic change sin the organization.Ø The second assumption is that change is a coercion-compliance phenomenoni.e. the change process is approached with the basic assumption that somepeople initiate changes while others get changed.AdvantagesØ A top down strategy of change is effective provided the change initiator hasconsiderable power (coercive, charismatic power)Ø The advantage of this strategy is that change is quick and speedy.Ø Last option for managers when other strategies don’t work.Ø People do not like to be coerced.Ø Changes in behavior are only superficial.Ø Moreover, in coercing people to change certain relevant change-relatedissues(interests of coalitions, fears of losing control over self) may get ignoredand may crate problems in the long run.LAISSEZ-FAIRE APPROACHAssumptionsØ Systems can change only when its members change.Ø People are primarily rational beings who follow their rational self interests.Ø They will change in a particular direction only when they realize that it isadvantageous to change.Ø Hence to bring about change we should provide enough information to makerational choices.ConsequencesØ It delegates much responsibility for defining and acting upon problems to thesubordinates.Ø The common forms of this approach that takes in the organizations are:
  13. 13. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 13· Communication Meetings· Work Shops.· Conferences· Training Programmes· Decision Making Skills– Participants would be learning these skills,later would be using in concrete organizational situations.· Annual Conferences & Meetings· Meetings- In which executives can exchange information and clarifyissues ,with the assumption that it would improve overallorganizational performance.DrawbacksØ It is very slow process.Ø It is uneconomical.Ø It is a time consuming process.Ø It is applicable if the organization is large, with large number of people whoshould be affected to bring about change.COLLABORATIVE APPROACHØ The approach that deals with the superiors and the subordinates.Ø It involves sharing of the power b/w the superiors and subordinates in terms ofjointly defining the problems and developing the solutions.AssumptionsØ Organisational systems & structures, which need to be changed, are not meremechanical procedures, or exhibits, in the organizational chart. RatherØ They are defined by the patterns of behaviors & practices which are rooted bythe patterns of behaviors and practices, which are rooted in the socio-culturalnorms, values, & attitudes of the people.Ø The collaboration b/w the superiors and the subordinates is creating the changeØ The role of the superior and the subordinate are different.Role of a Superior.Ø To provide a broad perspective to guide the process and direction of change.Ø He will highlight the problems which require the organization attention.Ø Invites participation to solve problems.AdvantagesØ It increases the commitment of people to change.Ø It provides the opportunity for bringing out and working on these underlyingfactors which are likely to cause resistance of changeØ The change in this approach cannot be brought by force but but can beachieved only when people feel secure, motivated and empowered enough to
  14. 14. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 14review and question the existing practices, experiment evolve and developcommitment, with the new onesØ They have an active role in the design, direction and implementation of thechange process.Ø Research Evidence on an organizational change reveal that collaborativeapproach is more successful than the other two.Ø OD approaches to planned organizational change are primarily based on theprinciple of collaborative approach.Disadvantages/DemeritsØ It is time consuming process.Ø It is expensive approach to change.Ø More emphasis on collaboration and sharing can also deter the organizationfrom its primary economic goals.Ø This approach requires sophisticated social and behavioral process skills fromthe managers.10.Explain The Guidelines for facilitating change? [VTU Dec09]I. Unfreezing the systemII. Facilitating the movementIII. Re-establishing the equilibriumI. Unfreezing the systemStrategies those are useful in creating the conditions for change Process:A. Creating Dissonance:Ø People should be aware about “What is" and “what should be”Ø If organization is highlighting the deficiencies in its performance, then it willstimulate people to start questioning the present ways of functioning.Ex: In sales and Promotion, Customer complaints and perceptions, findings ofSatisfaction surveys, stimulates people to start questioning the presentways ofFunctioning.B. Sharing informationØ According to Jan Carlzon”An individual without information cannot takeresponsibility; and the individual who is given information cannot help buttake responsibility.Ø Giving information makes people aware of the problems, feel more secure,source of empowerment.
  15. 15. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 15Ø People tend to look at themselves as proactive agents of change, and notmerely the recipients of the impact of change.C. Creating Contacts with external worldØ Information from outside world provides comparisons around which peoplecan focus their problem –sensing/solving energies.Ex: Depute their executives to external conferences & training courses, inviteoutsideExperts from various fields to share their experiences .D. Enlisting Top management supportØ Commitment of Corporate leaders increases the sense of comfort with changeamong the people.Ø Strong people can increase the pressure within the organization.Ø Expectations for change by leaders have a determining influence on theoutcomes of change.E. Reward For change effortsØ Change looks more attractive if it is rewarded.Ø It is useful to build rewards for change efforts put in by the employees. (Eg:Suggestions, Proposals)Ø Rewards are viewed as a formal recognition of efforts by theØ It is not necessary to give tangible rewards even the intangible ones have anencouraging impact.Ø They also give credibility to the organizations resolve to change.II. Facilitating the MovementMangers may find the following strategies useful in managing the transitionA. Establishing clear Goals.Ø Goals give the direction for change efforts.Ø People change only when there is a clear purpose for changing.Ø Goals should be defined in a manner which specifies the broad direction ofchange without insisting on a specific solution.B. Involving people in change.Ø Broad vision, greater participation from people – greater is the commitmentfor change.Ø By encouraging people to participate in the process of diagnosing &discovering solutions to problems, not only empowers the people, but alsohelps them to surface and work through the cultural and political fallouts ofchange.
  16. 16. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 16C. Focusing on the total system.Ø Change in one subsystem affects the entire system.Ø Manger has to focus his /her efforts on the total organization.Ø Ex: Change in technologyØ It is necessary to integrate the consequent changes which are likely to occur inroles, & structure, culture, relationships, informal power hierarchy.D. Developing Support Systems.Ø Systems should be created so that people could feel comfortable bothpsychologically and professionally, feel at ease with the changes.Ø It is also necessary to develop competencies for dealing with the changeprocess.Ex: Development of various skills, opening of multiple channels of two-waycommunication, counselingIII. Re establishing the EquilibriumA. Rewarding/celebrating desired behaviorØReinforce desired behaviors.ØIgnore/discourage undesirable behaviors.B. Planning for incremental success.Ø Organization wide change occurs in incremental small steps.Ø The initial success of change in some units/departments can become a“developmental laboratory” for other units.Merits:üMinimizes the cost.üLow failures.üBetter control.C. Creating Social BondsØ Most of the organizational changes have the potential of disrupting theexisting patterns of group dynamics.Ø Changes in Structure, location, shifts reporting relationships etc do change theexisting nature of social relationships which can create a sense of discomfortwith the new set up.Ø Team building (exercises, increased social interaction parties) can be usefulfor building and strengthening the social bonds.D. Institutionalizing the changeØ Formalization of the new practices & processes into stable systems..Ø It is essential to structure the changes that are initiated through informal means.
  17. 17. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 17Ø Formalization & institutionalization are the end products of the change process.11.What do you mean by Resistance to change? [VTU Dec 10,June11]Resistance is not all bad. Resistance:· Forces management to check and recheck the proposals.· Helps identify specific problem areas where change is likely to causedifficulty.· Gives management information about the intensity of employee emotions onthe issues.· Provides a means of release of emotions. This causes employees to think andtalk more about the changes.Ø “The trouble with the future is that it usually arrives before we’re ready for it.”12.Why People Resist Change? [VTU Dec 09,June11]Ø Habits – We are creatures of habit.Ø Fear of the unknown.Ø Security – The higher the need for security, the stronger the resistance.Ø Economic factors.Ø Selective information processing – We all have our own ideas of what is right.13.Why Do Organizations Resist Change? [VTU Dec 09,June11]Ø Group inertia – Peer pressure, group norms.Ø Security.Ø Threat to established power relationships.Ø Threat to established resource allocations.Ø Limited focus of change – Change affects others in the organization.Ø Poor communication.Ø Threat to expertise.14.Explain the Forms of Resistance to Change? [VTU ,June12]Ø Overt and immediate• Voicing complaints, engaging in job actionsØ Implicit and deferred• Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased errors or mistakes,increased absenteeism
  18. 18. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 1815. Explain the types of Resistance to Change? [VTU Dec 09,June11]Resistance to change is of 2 types namelyØ Individual resistanceØ Organisational resistanceIndividual resistance• Individual sources of resistance to change reside in human characteristics such asperceptions, personalities, & needs.Five reasons why individuals resist change:Ø Habit· To cope up with the complexity, we all rely on habits or programmedresponses· When confronted with change this tendency to respond in our accustomedways becomes our source of resistance.Ø Security· People with high need of security are likely to resist change because itthreatens their feelings of safety.E.g.: When companies introduce new technology, many employees atthesefirms may fear that they may lose the jobs.Ø Economic Factors· People have fear that changes will lower one’s income· Changes in jobs tasks or established work routines arouse economic fearsif people are concerned that they wont be able to perform the new tasks totheir previous stds· When pay is closely tied to productivity the fear is greater..Ø Selective information Processing· Individuals shape their world through their perceptions· Individuals are selective in nature.· They accept the information what they need & ignore the information thatis not needed.Organisational resistanceØ Structural Inertia· Orgs have built in mechanisms to produce stability.· Eg: 1.Selection Process– systematically selects certain people in & out.· Eg 2.Training & Socialization techniques– reinforce specific requirements& skills.
  19. 19. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 19· Eg 3.Formalization– provides job descriptions, rules,& procedures foremployees to follow.· People who are hired into an org are chosen for fit; they are then chosenfor fit, they are then shaped & directed to behave in certain ways· When an organisation is confronted with change this structural inertia actsas a counterbalance to sustain stability.Ø Limited Focus of Change· Organizations are made up of a number of interdependent subsystems.· It is difficult t change one subsystem without affect in the others.· Eg:If management changes the technological processes without changingthe org structure, change in technology is not accepted.· So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the largersubsystem.Ø Group inertia· Even individuals want to change their behavior; group norms may act as aconstraint.· E.g.: An individual union member, may be willing to change to acceptchanges in his job suggested by the management. But if union normsdictate resist in any change made by management, he is likely to resist.Ø Threat to expertise· Changes in organisational patterns may threaten the expertise ofspecialised groups· Introduction of decentralised personal computers ,which allow formanagers to gain access to information directly from a companymainframe.Because decentralised end user computing was a threat tospecialised skills held by those in the centralized information departments.Ø Threat to Established Power Relationships· Any redistribution of decision making authority can threaten longestablished power relationships within the org.· Eg:Participative decision making & self managed work teams is a kind ofchange that is often threatening by supervisors & middle managers.Ø Threat to establish Resource Relationships· Benefit from the current allocation of resources often feel threatened bychanges that may affect future allocation15. Describe the Techniques for Developing Support and Reducing Resistance?[VTUJune11]Ø Education and communicationØ Participation and involvementØ Facilitative support
  20. 20. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 20Ø Emotional supportØ IncentivesØ Manipulation and co-optationØ Coercion16. Describe the Techniques for Overcoming Resistance to Change? (VTU June12)Education & CommunicationØ Information on the changeØ When the change will be introducedØ How the change will be introducedØ Why the change is necessaryØ Logic behind the changeØ Objectives that the change is expected to accomplishParticipation & InvolvementØ Help define needØ Help define objectivesØ Help define changeØ Help define change processØ Help lead change processØ Participate in trialsFacilitative SupportØ TimeØ Skills trainingØ FundingØ ConsultationØ HardwareØ SoftwareØ InfrastructureØ OtherEmotional SupportØ Information on common reactionsØ Reasonable goalsØ Expectation of and support for anxietyØ UnderstandingØ Formal programsIncentives and RewardsØ ResponsibilityØ ChallengeØ Growth opportunityØ Visibility
  21. 21. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 21Ø Intrinsic rewardsØ Financial rewardsØ RecognitionØ PromotionManipulation & Co-optationØ Manipulation of information provided to make change look promisingØ False promises of supportØ Incentives that become bribesØ Figurehead roles to co-opt resistanceCoercionØ Support change or lose pay opportunitiesØ Support change or lose jobØ Support change or not get promotedØ Support change or be embarrassedØ Participants have expertise to make a meaningful contribution.Ø Involvement can reduce resistance, obtain commitment,& increase the qualityof change decision.Facilitation & SupportØ Change agents can offer a range of supportive efforts to reduce resistance.Ø When employees fear & anxiety are high, employee counseling ,new skillstraining may facilitate adjustments.NegotiationØ Another way for the change agent to deal with potential resistance to change isexchange something of valve for a lessening of the resistance.Manipulation & Co optation:Ø It refers to covert influence attempts.Ø Eg:1.Twisting & distorting facts to make them appear more attractive.Ø Eg 2.Withholding the informationØ Co optation– is a forma of both manipulation & participation It seeks to buy offthe leaders of a resistance group by giving them a role in the change decision..16. Define Coercion? [VTU Dec 09,June11]Coercion refers to the application of direct threats or force on the resisters.Eg: Threats of transfer, loss of promotions, negative performance.17. What is Politics of change? [VTU Dec 10,June12]
  22. 22. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 22Ø Politics suggests that change is more likely to come from outside agents, newemployees in the org,or from managers removed from the main powerstructureØ Managers who have spent their entire careers in one org & eventually achievea senior position in the hierarchy are often impediments to the change process.Ø Power determines to a greater extent the speed & quality of change.18. Define Fear of unknown? [VTU Dec 09,June11]Ø Changes substitute ambiguity & uncertainty for the knownØ Employees in the org hold dislike for uncertaintyØ Eg: the introduction of quality management means production workers willhave to learn statistical process control techniques, some fear they’ll be unableto do so. Hence they develop negative attitude toward a quality managementprogram or behave dysfunctional if required to use statistical techniques.19.Explain OD Techniques Directed at Organizational Level? [VTUDec10,June11]Ø Confrontation meetingØ All managers meet to discuss whether goals are being effectively metØ Free and open discussion of the situationØ Change consultant divides managers into groups of 7-8 who discuss situation& report backØ Problems are categorizedØ Task forces are formedOOrrggaanniizzaattiioonnaall DDeevveellooppmmeennttØ Respect for peopleØ Trust and supportØ Power equalizationØ ConfrontationØ ParticipationOD Techniques directed at IndividualsØ Counseling- to improve acceptance of diversityØ Group training- on differences in perceptionsØ Trained consultants teach managers social skillsFFiivvee OODD IInntteerrvveennttiioonnssØ Intergroup developmentØ Process consultation
  23. 23. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 23Ø Sensitivity trainingØ Survey feedbackØ Team building20. Explain OD Techniques Directed at Groups? [VTU Dec 09,June11]Ø Intragroup trainingTeam building• Goal is to improve the way the group works together & establish task& role relationshipsØ Intergroup trainingMirroring• Team building between functions or divisions in order to increaselevels of cooperation• Each group voices grievances & perceptions & then task forces areestablished to deal with problems that surfacePeople focused interventionsOD has focused/emphasized 5 specific people focused interventionsØ Sensitivity TrainingØ Survey FeedbackØ Process ConsultationØ Team BuildingØ Intergroup Development21.What is Sensitivity training? [VTU Dec 09,June11]Ø Also called as sensitivity training, encounter groups or Tgroups(traininggroups).Ø It refers to the method of changing the behavior through unstructured groupinteraction.Ø The group is process oriented which means that individuals learn throughobserving & participating rather than being told.Ø Members are brought together in a free and open environment in whichparticipants discuss themselves & their interactive processes, loosely directedby a professional behavioural scientist.Ø The professional creates an opportunity to express their ideas, beliefs &attitudes.22.What are the Objectives of T Groups? [VTU Dec 09,June11]Ø The objectives of T groups are to provide the subjects with increasedawareness of their own behavior,& how others perceive them greater
  24. 24. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 24sensitivity to the behavior of others & increased understanding of groupprocesses.Ø Specific Results would include:· Increased ability to emphasize others.· Improved Listening Skills.· Greater Openness.Ø Increased tolerance of individual differences.Ø Improved Conflict Resolution Skills.Ø If individuals lack awareness of how others perceive them, then the successfulT –group can affect more realistic self perceptions, greater groupcohesiveness,& reduction in dysfunctional interpersonal conflicts.Ø It will ideally result in a better integration b/w the individual & theorganization.23.Explain Survey Feedback? [VTU June12]Ø One tool for assessing attitudes held by organisational members ,identifyingdiscrepancies among member perceptions ,& solving these differences is thesurvey feedback approach.Ø Everybody can participate in feedback Approach.Ø The key important factor is a organisational family---- consisting of a managerof any given unit & those employees who directly reporto him/her.Ø The questionnaire typically asks members for their perceptions & attitudes ona broad range odf topics including· Decision making Practices.· Communication Effectiveness.· Co-ordination b/w units.· Satisfaction with the organisation, job, peers & their immediatesupervisor.Ø Data from this questionnaire are tabulated with data pertaining to anindividuals specific “family” & to the entire organisation & distributed to theemployees.· These data then become the basis for identifying problems & clarifyingissues that may be creating difficulties for people.· Manger may be counseled by the external change agent.· Particular attention is given to the importance of encouragingdiscussions.· Discussions should focus on issues & ideas &n not on attackingindividuals.· Finally group discussion in the survey feedback approach should resultin members identifying possible implications of the questionnairesfindings.
  25. 25. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 25Implications of the questionnaire’s findingsØ Are people listening?Ø Are new ideas being generated?Ø Can decision making ,interpersonal relations ,or job assignments be improved?Ø The answers to these findings would be solutions to the problems.24.Explain Process Consultation? [VTU Dec 11,June11]Ø The Purpose of process consultation is for an outside consultant to assist a client,usually a manger to perceive ,understand and act on process events with whichhe/she must deal.Ø Process events such as:1. Work Flow2. Informal relationships.3. Formal Communication Channels.Assumption of the process ConsultationØ Organisational effectiveness can be improved by dealing with interpersonalproblems,Ø Its emphasis is on involvement.Ø Process Consultation is more task Oriented than sensitivity training.Ø PC is handled by the consultants.25. What are the Roles of a consultant? [VTU June11]Ø It gives the clients into what is going on around them, within them, & b/wthem & other peopleØ They do not solve organization problems.Ø Rather the consultant is a guide or coach who advises on the process to helpthe clients solve their own problems.Ø The consultant works with the client in jointly diagnosing what processes needimprovement.Ø The emphasis is on jointly, because the client develops a skill at analyzingprocess.Ø The client actively participates in both the diagnosis & development ofalternativesØ This will give greater understanding of the process & less resistance to theaction plan.
  26. 26. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 2626.State the Skills of a Process Consultant? [VTU Dec 09,June11]Ø Need not be an expert in solving the particular problem that is identifiedØ The consultants’ expertise lies in diagnosis & developing a helpingrelationship.27. What do we need to succeed in changing our organizations? [VTU Dec09,June11]• Leadership• Articulated Purpose• Focus on Service Quality• Implement SIPOC Process• Use Multidimensional Strategic Framework – planning, scorecard• Understand the place & value of assessment• Closing the Assessment Loop (act on)28. Culture of Assessment – can it change organizational culture? [VTU Dec09,June11]• Catalyst• Force for change• Enhances customer focus• Needs to be part of a framework – SIPOC, Balanced Scorecard, organizationalplanning• Helps organizational learning• Be part of a visible decision making loop• Essential - without assessment how do we know what is needed & where we aregoing?29. What Is Organizational Culture? [VTU Dec 09,June11]Shared AssumptionsØ Underlying thoughts and feelings that members of a culture take for grantedand believe to be trueShared ValuesA value is
  27. 27. Change and Knowledge Management 10MBA41Dept of MBA,SJBIT 27ØA basic belief about a conditionØThat has considerable importance and meaning to individualsØStable over timeA value system comprisesMultiple beliefs that are compatible and support one another Some Value Statementsfrom the Organizational Culture Profile30. Explain The Functions of Culture? [VTU Dec 10June11]Ø Culture provides patterns of cognitive perceptions or understanding about thevalues or beliefs held by the organization.Ø It also provides shared patterns of feelings to the organizational members tomake them know what they are expected to value and feel.Ø It provides a boundary that creates distinctions b/w one organization & other.Ø Culture facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger thanone’s individual self interest.Ø It enhances the social stability by holding the organizational members togetherby providing them appropriate standards for which the member should standfor.Ø It serves as a control mechanism that guides and shapes the attitudes andbehavior of organizational members.Ø Culture finally ensures that everyone is pointed in the same direction.

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