Ts 1 dr-cj-howe-cambridge

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Learn about research in Algal biofuels from Cr Howe.

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Ts 1 dr-cj-howe-cambridge

  1. 1. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE Algal Biofuels and the Algal Bioenergy Consortium Professor Christopher Howe Department of Biochemistry University of Cambridge, UK
  2. 2. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Topics • Energy Biosciences Research in Cambridge • Algal Biofuels • Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  3. 3. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Cambridge as a Centre for Energy Biosciences Broad research base - fundamental strengths in: plant science and photosynthesis biochemistry genetics biotechnology process engineering (bio and non-bio) and chemistry physics and properties of plant materials engineering performance and design of engines and gas turbines modelling of complex systems: high level economic and sustainability models social aspects of changes in land use Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  4. 4. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Cambridge as a Centre for Energy Biosciences Broad research base Ability to attract: Students, staff Research funding (£204M in research grants/contracts in 2005-6) Intellectual capital: eg Sanger Centre/ European Bioinformatics Institute Investment: eg Microsoft Research Environment for innovation (e.g. Cambridge Science Park) Global outreach (e.g. Cambridge Programme for Industry) Record of delivery Access to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), academic institutes and industry John Innes Centre National Institute for Agricultural Botany (NIAB) Sainsbury laboratory (£150M from Gatsby Foundation) Rothamsted Research ADAS (science-based rural and environmental consultancy) Monsanto Nickersons Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  5. 5. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Plant cell wall engineering Plants engineered to contain decreased or increased quantities of hemicelluloses. Figure shows a stem section with the different biomass components cellulose, xylan and mannan labelled in different colours. Dr Paul Dupree - http://www.bio.cam.ac.uk/~dupree/ Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  6. 6. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Algal biofuels Advantages of algae as biofuels do not require use of agriculturally productive or environmentally sensitive land marine sites also possible high yields possible (>100 tonnes/ha/yr achieved; theoretical max, for local light levels (Mumbai) >500 tonnes/ha/yr) some strains directly secrete hydrocarbons can be coupled to other industrial processes (e.g. sequestration of CO2 from flue gases, removal of nitrates/phosphates from waste water) growth can be linked to generation of high-value products (nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals - e.g. carotenoids, phycobiliproteins) Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  7. 7. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Algal biofuels Previous studies include: US Department of Energy Aquatic Species program: Biodiesel from Algae (Program 1978-1996; Close-out report July 1998) Collection of oil-producing microalgae (Hawaii) Oil production per cell higher under stress - but lower overall Some progress in algal molecular biology/transformation Open ponds demonstrated High cost prohibitive, but land considerations favourable Biofixation of CO2 and greenhouse gas abatement with microalgae technology roadmap (Benemann JR, 2003) Restrict to open ponds, because of cost Integrate with wastewater treatment and high-value co-products Closed reactors for inoculum production Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  8. 8. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Algal biofuels Major developments since those reports include: Recognition of “social” cost of carbon $65 US to $905 US per tonne CO2 (5-95% confidence range, PAGE 2002 model, Stern report assumptions) Improvements in understanding of photosynthesis biochemistry Breakthroughs in technology for molecular biology of algae (e.g. systems for genetic modification) Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  9. 9. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Algal Bioenergy Consortium (ABC) ABC Large multidisciplinary group, based in Cambridge, but with links elsewhere including outside UK Brings together molecular biologists, physiologists, engineers and economic analysts to work towards optimising algal bioenergy for commercial exploitation Actively seeking partners with whom to collaborate to develop & test our ideas Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  10. 10. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Members of the ABC Biology & Energy Futures Lab Prof Peter Nixon Biochemistry Chemical Engineering Engineering Judge Business School Plant Sciences Biosciences Dr John Love Other Collaborators include: H+ Energy Ltd Prof Sue Harrison (UCT, South Africa) Biology Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Dr Saul Purton Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  11. 11. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Algal Bioenergy Consortium (Cambridge members) Biochemistry Prof Chris Howe Dr Derek Bendall Dr Beatrix Schlarb-Ridley Expertise in photosynthesis biochemistry, algal molecular biology Chemical Engineering Mr Paolo Bombelli Dr John Dennis Dr Adrian Fisher Dr Stuart Scott Expertise in novel techniques for carbon capture, large scale fermentation, combustion, electrochemistry Engineering Judge Business School Dr Chris Hope Expertise in policy analysis of climate change; developer of PAGE model used in impact calculations in Stern Report Plant Sciences Prof Alison Smith Dr Martin Croft Expertise in algal metabolism, algal molecular biology Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  12. 12. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Strategic Aims of the Algal Bioenergy Consortium Develop algae as a source of biofuels 3 priority areas Production of biomass and/or biodiesel, CO2 sequestration Conversion of light energy into hydrogen using biophotovoltaic panels “Metabolic” hydrogen production Assessment of economic feasibility Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  13. 13. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Strategic Aims of the Algal Bioenergy Consortium Develop algae as a source of biofuels 3 priority areas Production of biomass and/or biodiesel, CO2 sequestration Conversion of light energy into hydrogen using biophotovoltaic panels “Metabolic” hydrogen production Today’s presentation Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  14. 14. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Algal biomass Light CO2 from power stations/other industries Algal biomass Waste water from industry Different components can be extracted from the biomass Biomass can be burnt directly Carbohydrate Lipids and hydrocarbons Bioethanol / biobutanol Biodiesel Different algal strains will have different properties and will be suited to different end products Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  15. 15. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents R&D focus areas A. Efficiency of light capture B. Photobioreactor design C. Choice of algal strain D. Economic modelling Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  16. 16. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Modifying photosynthetic antenna size Cells with reduced antenna size Rate of photosynthesis Increased efficiency Wild type cells Light intensity Smaller antenna Greater efficiency Reducing the antenna size would increase the light conversion efficiency of algal cultures, particularly under high light conditions Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Focus area A B C D Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  17. 17. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Lab-scale photobioreactors - possible configurations • Need to be flexible, transportable and cheap • Should be closed, consider ‘air-lift’ for circulation • Easy to modularize for scaling up ~ 0.01m Flat plate or bank of tubes ~ 0.5 m ~ 1m Flue gases Flue gases Removable baffles and/or differential sparging to allow operation as bubble column or circulating “air lift” reactor Bioenergy Research Cambridge External air lift to circulate reactor contents, when tilted Algal Biofuels Use of oscillatory flow to promote turbulence at low power consumption Focus area A B C D Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  18. 18. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Lab-scale photobioreactor – Version 0.9 0.03 m 0.5 m • Located on roof of the Engineering Department, Cambridge. • Flat panel, bubble column reactor. • Sequestering carbon from a simulated flue gas. • Growing a “model” algae (Chlamydomonas) 1m Prototype reactor to allow experience to be gained growing algae out of the lab. 15 % CO2 in air Bioenergy Research Cambridge Aim to produce enough algal biomass to investigate harvesting and downstream processing. Algal Biofuels Focus area A B C D Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  19. 19. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Choice of Algal Species Temperature high temperatures reduce the need for flue gas cooling Growth rate should be fast to maximize CO2uptake pH low pH reduces problems caused by CO2 acidification, and helps avoid Spectrum of contamination growth characteristics to consider Growth medium should be simple and cheap A range of species is available satisfying different sets of these criteria. Salinity halotolerance may allow use of seawater Cell Composition low N levels to reduce NOx emissions Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Focus area A B C D Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  20. 20. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Economic modelling - the cost of carbon Social cost of carbon from PAGE2002 with Stern review assumptions 2000 - 2200 $US (2000) per tonne 5% C as CO 2 mean 95% 65 340 905 Source: 10000 PAGE2002 model runs using Bioenergy Research Cambridge Stern review assumptions Algal Biofuels Focus area A B C D Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  21. 21. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Questions to address Algal strain • Nutrient requirements • Freshwater/marine • Ability to withstand pH, temperature changes • Response to light quality/quantity • Products and yields required • Acceptability of genetically modified strains • Single species or mixture • Response to predators (especially if open raceways used) Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  22. 22. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Questions to address Reactor design/location Simple design for cost effectiveness Need to avoid a large parasitic power requirement CO2 introduction and circulation via air lift, turbulence or oscillatory flow Harvesting Batch filtration and drying with available low-grade heat Mechanical dewatering (e.g. continuous decanter centrifuge) with drying Exact configuration depends on outcomes, plus cost/operability analysis Fate of spent medium Characteristics of chosen site Water availability, light quality/quantity, temperature, (flue gas composition) A large area must be covered to absorb a significant amount of CO2 Several large reactors versus banks of modular reactors Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  23. 23. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Strategic Aims of the Algal Bioenergy Consortium (ABC) ABC Develop algae as a source of biofuels 3 priority areas Production of biomass and/or biodiesel, CO2 sequestration Bioenergy Research Cambridge Conversion of light energy into hydrogen using biophotovoltaic panels Algal Biofuels “Metabolic” hydrogen production Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  24. 24. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Photosynthetic light reactions H+ ADP + Pi NADP+ ATP NADPH FD FNR PQH2 PSII 2H2O PQ PSI Cyt b6f 4H+ + O2 ATPase PC H+ Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  25. 25. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Photosynthetic light reactions Platinum electrode -1.5 hγ ν PSI -1.0 -0.5 2H+ PSII 0.0 H2 -480 mV -420 mV 840 mV Fe(CN)6 0.5 +420 mV e1.0 2H2O 4H+ + O2 Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  26. 26. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Semi-biological device (biophotovoltaic) Bioenergy Research Cambridge Algal Biofuels Algal Bioenergy Consortium
  27. 27. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents Conclusions • Exploitation of algae for bioenergy must be considered seriously • Long lead-in time, e.g. in strain development, so R&D should not be delayed • Medium term: prospects for biofuels/biomass • Carbon capture/high value co-products makes technology more attractive • Longer term: prospects for hydrogen generation (biophotovoltaics, metabolic)
  28. 28. Click Here & Upgrade PDF Complete Expanded Features Unlimited Pages Documents

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