Sustain bioenergy india


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Biomass utilization in a sustainable way is environmentally beneficial.

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Sustain bioenergy india

  2. 2. Biomass materials meet myriad human needs including energy. Sources of biomass energy are trees, crops and animal waste. Thermo and Bio Conversion technologies would make efficient bioenergy end use available. With rapid increase in fossil fuel use, the share of biomass in total energy declined steadily through substitution by coal in the nineteenth century and later by refined oil and gas during the twentieth century. 2
  3. 3. Oil & Gas: The twentieth century ushered in oil which developed into one of the most vibrant global energy for agriculture, transport and industries including electric power. One hundred years later, this industry has reached its zenith with the panorama of entering its twilight years in the second half of this twenty-first century. How far in the future can the happening of this event be deferred depends on how much we can decelerate a runaway demand and how expeditiously we can implement specialized renewable technologies. These measures will give us more breathing space to develop alternate energy forms, non hydrocarbon fuels like biomass. 3
  4. 4. With a rapidly growing economy and rising population, India is the fifth largest and one of the fastest growing petroleum oil consumers in the world. With limited domestic crude oil reserves, India meets over 72 per cent of its crude oil and petroleum products (diesel, aviation fuel, etc.) requirement through imports. Energy demand in the transport sector is growing relatively high due to the growing economy and rising private vehicle ownership, particularly four-wheelers. Due to rising oil consumption and relatively flat domestic production, India is increasingly dependent on imports to meet its petroleum demand. 4
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  6. 6. • What is Bioenergy? • What is Sustainability? • What are the connections between them in India? • Goals of bioenergy technologies • Strategies to address these goals • What is happening towards this strategy implementation? • Way Forward 6
  7. 7. • What is bioenergy? – Energy from trees, plants, crops or from human, animal, municipal and industrial wastes – Woody and Non Woody Biomass. • Woody - derived from forests, plantations and forestry residues • Non Woody - comprises agricultural and agro industrial residues, algae, and animal, municipal and industrial wastes. 7
  8. 8. In a social, economic, legal and political setting What is Sustainability? 8
  9. 9. Bioenergy- In a social, economic, legal and political setting 9
  10. 10. Power, Lighting, Heating, Operation of Kilns, Transportation, Milling, Motor Usages, Cooking. • Solid biomass combustion and gasification for electricity • Slurry biomethanation for electricity and cooking energy (gas) • Efficient wood-burning devices for cooking • Liquid biofuels for local usages and transportation 10
  11. 11. MATURE TECHNOLOGIES:  Biofuel stoves for home & institutional cooking  Biogas digesters for cooking & lighting  Briquetting for producing ‘biocoke’ from particulate agro residues  Thermal gasification system to generate producer gas for diesel substitution in stationary engines for water pumping and rural industry. 11
  12. 12. What are the connections between Bioenergy and Sustainability in India? To meet sustainability goals – social, environmental domains 12
  13. 13. GOALS OF BIOENERGY TECHNOLOGIES In India, policies aim to promote modernization and commercialization of biomass production, combustion, densification, and electricity generation. A long-term techno-economic analysis using the MARKAL model shows that biomass electricity technologies have significant potential to penetrate Indian market under a fair competition with the fossil technologies. Under an optimal greenhouse gas mitigation regime, biomass electricity penetration can be reached in next thirty years. 13
  14. 14. 14 Myriad economic, social, technological and institutional barriers remain to be overcome. The future prospects of biomass technologies depend considerably on removing these barriers. The key issue before the Indian policy makers is to develop the market for biomass energy services by ensuring reliable and enhanced biomass supply, removing the tariff distortions favouring fossil fuels and producing energy services reliably with modern biomass technologies at competitive cost.
  15. 15. RESOURCES FOR BIOFUELS IN INDIA  India's biofuel strategy continues to focus on use of non-food sources for producton of biofuels: sugar molasses for production of ethanol for blending with gasoline, and non-edible oilseeds for production of biodiesel for blending with petro-diesel.  The government's current target of five per cent blending of ethanol with petrol has been partially successful in years of surplus sugar production, but falters when sugar production declines. 15
  16. 16. • The cornerstone of India's energy security strategy is to focus efforts toward energy self-reliance and developing renewable energy options like biofuels vis-à-vis fossil fuels. • Adoption of environmentally friendly biofuels to meet improved vehicle emission norms. • Developing an alternative usage for crops like sugarcane and its byproducts as feedstock for biofuels to support farm income. • Improve utilization of wastelands and other unproductive land for cultivation of biofuel feed stock. • Enhance rural employment and livelihood opportunities by promoting production and marketing of biofuel feed stocks 16
  17. 17. POTENTIAL SOURCES FOR BIOMASS o Agricultural Residues  Forest Waste - forest, forest tree twigs,  Crops – Rice, Maize, Cotton, Sugarcane  Dung – Cattle, Buffalo - cattle dung, leaf litter  Oil bearing seeds, crops - Jatropha curcas, Neem, Mahua, Wild Species, Sweet Sorghum, Rice Bran, Neem, Sal, Karanja 17
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  19. 19. Energy forms which are available – – gaseous (biogas, producer gas) – liquid (ethanol, methanol, biofuels) – solid (briquette) fuels Penetration of bioenergy technologies has been marginal in comparison to the target inspite of large number of programmes 19
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  25. 25. 25 Lignocellulosic ethanol technologies by biochemical conversion using enzymes are the focus of a considerable amount of research, notably in the United States. Thermochemical conversion, by gasification and the Fischer Tropsch synthesis of the gases into petroleum substitutes, is also under evaluation at a demonstration scale. There is no clear consensus about when lignocellulosic technologies will be commercially competitive.
  26. 26. 26 The National Programme for Improved Cook stoves (NPIC) was launched to disseminate mud based improved cook stoves, equipped with chimneys, and portable metallic stoves to increase the fuel use efficiency and to reduce indoor air pollution. ƒThe National Project on Biogas Development (NPBD), to set up family type biogas plants. ƒThe Village Energy Security Programme (VESP) was started by the MNRE with an objective to provide total energy requirement of villages_ lighting, cooking, and motive power with the involvement of local community.
  27. 27. 27 Biomass based power systems come under the purview of the Electricity Act. Further, the Rural Electrification Policy (2006), National Electricity Policy (2005) and the Integrated Energy Policy (2005) provided the required enabling environment for the promotion of electrification to the entire country. The National Policy on Biofuels was approved by the Government of India (GOI) on December 24, 2009.
  28. 28. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS alternative use of biomass as fodder or industrial raw material collection efficiency actual availability of so-called waste lands, forest lands and other types of lands availability of water, geographical and weather conditions 28
  29. 29. 29 The most vital issue for biomass energy in India is the development of market for biomass energy services. Two broad responses to this are: i) ensuring reliable and enhanced biomass supply, and ii) provide energy services reliably with biomass technologies at competitive cost.
  30. 30. WAY FORWARD  Training programmes for creating pool of skilled personnel  Entrepreneurship Development  Effective Monitoring and Evaluation for quality control  Economic/Financial Viability by means of pilot projects, transparent feasibility studies, prototype business plans  Coordinated R&D policies  Incentives for private sector participation  Development of information package in technologies and subsequent dissemination to entrepreneurs, end- users, policy makers, manufacturers 30