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JNNSM- solar-pv-power-for-india


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JNNSM- solar-pv-power-for-india

  1. 1. PV-POWER IN INDIALarge-scale deployment of solar generated power for both gridconnected as well as distributed and decentralised off-gridprovision of commercial energy services is a golden dream. Breakthroughs are expected in next five years[2015].
  2. 2. What are the Benefits of PV Power?Considering the emission rate of 1.3 kg CO2per kWh for diesel –generated electricity,each 100 kWp mini-grid has the potential ofsaving about 180 tonnes of CO2 emissionsannually.There is no pollution through the use of a PVsystem – nor is there any heat or noisegenerated which could cause local discomfort 2
  3. 3. India Has a Lot of SunlightIn India, there are about 300 clearsunny days in a year and solar energyis widely available in most parts of thecountry, including rural areas.Cost is still a barrier, as is the potentialfor local manufacture, but there isenormous scope for widespreaddissemination of PV, a simple, robustsolar application. 3
  4. 4. Dissemination of use of PV technology in India There is a vast scope for and potential for theuse of PV technology in India.There are still over 90,000 villages in the countryto be electrified.Recognizing the importance of PV technology inthe Indian context, the Government has beenimplementing a comprehensive programmecovering R & D, demonstration, commercialisationand utilisation for more than 15 years. 4
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  6. 6. Three Laws of Energy Transition The law of stable long-term energy costs-to income ratio Growth in economic productivity requires better quality of energy services The law of growing energy productivity Bashmakov, I., 2007, Three Laws of Energy Transitions, Energy Policy, Vol. 35, pp. 3583-3594 6
  7. 7. Solar Radiation & Photovoltaics Some theory discussion
  8. 8. The nature and availability of solar radiationSolar radiation arrives on the In reality, the solar fluxsurface of the earth at a density (same as power density) varies betweenmaximum power density of 250 and 2500 kilowattapproximately 1 kilowatt per hours per meter squaredmeter squared (kWm-2). per year (kWhm-2 per year).The actual usable radiation As might be expectedcomponent varies depending the total solar radiationon geographical location, is highest at the equator,cloud cover, hours of especially in sunny,sunlight each day, etc. desert areas. 8
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  10. 10. SUN LIGHT→ELECTRICITYSolar cells are made of silicon(microelectronics/semiconductors)Treated to be positive on one side and negativeon the other.When light energy hits the cell, electrons areknocked loose from the atoms in thesemiconductor material.If electrical conductors are attached to thepositive and negative sides, forming an electricalcircuit, the electrons can be captured in the formof an electric 10
  11. 11. Photovoltaic system structuresSystems with fixed inclination - (fixed supportingstructure)Systems with active tracking - single/double axistracking systems (characterized by step by stepmotors and control electronics)Self contained systems or “stand alone”Network connected systems or “grid connected” 11
  12. 12. Module & Panel: Array Every single photovoltaic cell has small dimensions and generally produces a power between 1 and 3 watts and 0,5Volts. We connect several cells among themselves to create bigger units called modules. The modules are connected to constitute panels that produce the wanted power 12
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  14. 14. Types of solar cell modulesMono-crystalline cell modules. The highest cellefficiencies of around 15% are obtained withthese modules. The cells are cut from a mono-crystalline silicon crystal.Multi-crystalline cell modules. The cellmanufacturing process is lower in cost butcell efficiencies of only around 12% are achieved.A multi-crystalline cell is cut from a cast ingot ofmulti-crystalline silicon and is generally square inshape. 14
  15. 15. Types of solar cell modulesAmorphous silicon modules. These are made fromthin films of amorphous silicon where efficiency ismuch lower (6-9%) but the process uses lessmaterial.The potential for cost reduction is greatest forthis type and much work has been carried out inrecent years to develop amorphous silicontechnology. Unlike monocrystalline and multi-crystalline cells, with amorphous silicon there issome degradation of power over time. 15
  16. 16. Components in a solar power system contribute to the initial cost Solar modules, battery, inverter, chargecontroller, and other BOS (balance of system) /components. These four components incur more than two-thirds of the total cost.Capital cost of thermal generation is as low as 40000 rupees per kW. Compared to this,decentralized solar power generation is 285 000rupees per kW or 3.5 times higher. 16
  17. 17. Stand-alone system: Stand-alone systems are virtually self sufficient and not interacted with grid. Such system may have some backup/storage system to run during the no sun or low sun hour. PV system without storage battery (Direct coupled PV system) DC system with storage battery DC systems powering AC load (with or without storage) 17
  18. 18. Direct coupled PV systems: This is the simplest and least expensive photovoltaic system designed to be used only during daytime. Here the electricity generated is directly and simultaneously used by the appliances. Through out the day, the insolation level is changing continuously and so the output. Examples of direct use systems include: Remote water pumping with a storage tank. Stand alone solar powered appliances such as calculators and toys. 18
  19. 19. Simple intermittent dc load When solar radiation strikes the PV module, DC (direct current) electricity is generated. During generation, power can be used in any DC load directly. But the generation exists till sun shines. 19
  20. 20. DC Systems With Storage Batteries-1:Basic components of this system includea photovoltaic module, a chargecontroller, storage batteries andappliances that represent the systemselectrical load.But here the type of loads used shouldbe of DC load as battery is capable ofrunning DC load only. 20
  21. 21. DC Systems With Storage Batteries-2:Batteries are used to store the electricalenergy generated by the photovoltaicmodules.Power can be drawn from the batterieswhenever required- during the day or night,continuously or intermittently.In addition, a battery bank has the capacityto supply high surge currents for a short time.This gives the system the flexibility to startlarge motors or to perform other high powertasks. 21
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  23. 23. PV with AC Loads :Photovoltaic modules produce direct current (DC)electrical power and batteries store DC energy. Howevermany common appliances require alternating current(AC) power.Direct current systems which power AC loads must usean inverter. Inverters provide convenience and flexibilityin a photovoltaic system but also add complexity andcost. It is also possible to power the AC load without batterybut in that case it would be confined only to daytimewhen solar radiation is sufficient to generate requiredelectricity. 23
  24. 24. Storage device and inverter• Storage device is needed to run the system at night or in low sunshine hour; to run any AC (alternating current) load, an inverter has to be used to convert DC into AC. 24
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  26. 26. PV power: Cost considerations for India Case studies
  27. 27. Energy Cost and Risk ManagementSolar energy technologies are low-to-no-risktechnologies –No price volatility for inputs – Lowrisk of government environmental regulationsAdding solar to energy portfolio reducesportfolio risk –Photovoltaic (PV) devices generate electricity viaan electronic process – “Electricity from yourroof,” windows, dress, backpack 27
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  31. 31. The SPV (solar photovoltaic) plant 25 kWp Each 25 kWp plant can cater to 150 serviceconnections with an average load of 80 wattseach to fulfil the domestic requirement and80–100 watts for shops for illumination,photocopying, battery charging, etc.A consumer pays 500 rupees (11 dollars) or 1000rupees (22 dollars) as security deposit with amonthly charge of 100–125 rupees (4–5.5 dollars)based on the demand for load. 31
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  35. 35. The following figure shows PV system withstorage battery, powering AC load. It is also possible to power the AC load without battery but in that case it would be confined only to daytime when solar radiation is sufficient to generate required electricity 35
  36. 36. Utility grid interconnected system:A utility grid interactive photovoltaic system isconnected to the utility grid.A specially designed inverter is used to transformthe PV generated DC electricity to the gridelectricity (which is of AC) at the grid voltage.The main advantage of this system is that powercan be drawn from the utility grid and whenpower is not available PV can supplement thatpower.But again such grid interactive system is designedwith battery or without battery storage. 36
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  38. 38. Hybrid SystemsSystem with more than one source of power is calledHybrid system. Since the supply of solar is veryunpredictable, it is often desirable to design a system withadditional source of power.The most common type of hybrid system contains a gas ordiesel powered engine generator. Another hybrid approach is a PV/Wind system. Adding awind turbine to a PV system provides complementarypower generation.The wind often continues to blow at night and during lowsun conditions. For even greater reliability and flexibility,an engine generator can be included in a PV/Wind system. 38
  39. 39. Components of PV system A PV system consists of following components. 1. Solar PV module 2. Battery 3. Charge controller 4. Inverter/converter 5. Mounting structure and tracking device 6. Interconnections and other devices 39
  40. 40. Components & configurationIn every configuration all thesecomponents are not used. Componentsused depend upon the type ofconfiguration, which in other waydepend upon the application. Forexample: Storage battery is not used incase of direct coupled PV system,inverter is not used in case of DC load. 40
  41. 41. Parameters influencing PVsystem operation Solar irradiation: Power of a solar cell changes with solar radiation. which is different for different geographical location, tilt and orientation.. The change of power is almost linear with the solar radiation. There is a very little change in open circuit voltage (Voc) of the solar cell, but the short circuit current (Isc) varies almost linearly with the solar intensity. 41
  42. 42. Parameters influencing PV system operationTemperature: Power This affects the power,decreases with increasing solar which decreases at a rate of about 0.45% percell temp. Voc decreases by a degree rise in temp.value of approximately 3mV/K The operatingfor each degree rise in temp. temperature of theA solar cell with Voc of 0.6 V at battery should be250C reaches a value of 0.45V nominal (25-35 degreeat 750C. Isc increases with rise C). Higher temperature may give a higherof temperature but the capacity of battery butreduction in voltage is much at the same time itgreater than the corresponding reduces the life of theincrease in current. battery. 42
  43. 43. Aging effect: Solar cells, which are properly encapsulated, have a very long life and power does not reduce in any significant manner. The effect of aging is more severe in amorphous Si solar cells. 43
  44. 44. Shading effect:Shading has a very bad impact on the performance of thePV system.Even a partial shading (on one or two cells) of the wholemodule can reduce the output drastically and if it persistsfor a longer period, it may damage the whole system.To protect the modules from such adverse effect, abypass diode is used.The effect is more prominent in crystalline silicon solarmodules.Amorphous silicon modules are less affected by shading. 44
  45. 45. Other effect: Mismatching of module in a string, resistance of wires and cables etc can drastically alter the performance of the PV system. Dust and dirt can reduce the PV output. 45
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  47. 47. LED lightingRecently solar PV are coupled with LightEmitting Diodes (LEDs) to give energy efficientlight.Recent advancements in LED technology haveled to the development of white light emittingdiodes (WLEDs).WLEDs provide a bright white light that’s idealfor domestic lighting.The advantage of using LEDs with solar PVsystems is that the LED requires a much lowerwattage (less than conventional high efficiencylight bulbs), therefore the size and the cost of the solar system ismuch reduced for each household. 47
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  49. 49. Solar home systems (SHS): Stand-alone electricalsystems.They consist of• a photovoltaic (PV) module;• a re-chargeable battery;• a charge controller, which prevents the batteryfrom being over-charged or deep-discharged;• fluorescent lamps rated from 6 to 11 W;• wiring and fixtures.• The PV modules, are rated at 20 to 80 Wp with50 Wp the most popular size. 49
  50. 50. Solar home systems (SHS)• A system based on a 20 Wp module can supply two or three 6 W lamps for about four hours per day: at the other end of the range, an 80Wp system can power four 8 W lamps and a black and white television set. 50
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  53. 53. Highlight of Indias solar energy plan_Dream incentives for production,installation and research and development
  54. 54. "National Solar Mission"Plan spread over 30 years aims to scaleup solar power generation from nothingat present to 20 GW by 2020.It is a three-phased plan that hopes togenerate 1-1.5 GW of solar power by2012, 6-7 GW by 2017 and the rest by2020. 54
  55. 55. India’s solar energy dreamSolar-powered equipment and applications will bemandatory for hospitals, hotels and governmentbuildings, and villages and small towns will beencouraged with micro financing.The plan also outlines a system of paying householdsfor any surplus power from solar panels fed back intothe grid. The target would be to provide access tolighting for 3 million households by 2012.India will promote solar heating systems and use 40-50 million sq meters of area to install solar collectorsin domestic, industrial and commercial sectors. 55
  56. 56. India’s PV dreamIt is aimed to cut down production costs of solarpanels and spur domestic manufacturing.Money will be spent on incentives for production,installation and research and development.The plan has a "near term" target of 100megawatts, and 100 GW by 2030, or 10-12 percentof total power generation capacity estimated forthat year. 56
  57. 57. Among the elements of the action plan are the following aims: Deployment of 400,000 solar lanterns as asubstitute for kerosene lanterns rural electrificationthrough PV systems covering 400 villages / hamlets a special programme on water pumping systemsintensified R & D on technologies which can lead toa reduction in costcommercialisation of PV systems for applications bygiving a market orientation to the programme andpromoting manufacturing and related activitiesAs a result of these measures India is among theleading countries in the world in the developmentand use of PV technology. 57
  58. 58. PV power systems Rural and remote areas applications
  59. 59. Lessons learned and applied inwide-scale dissemination project design originating from participatory assessment of the energy needs and present energy expenses; establishment of rural credit mechanisms; establishment of infrastructure for distribution, installation, maintenance and repair of PV systems; training of solar technicians and solar dealers/micro-enterprises. 59
  60. 60. Rural electrification farms, schools, mountain refuge huts) - low wattage fluorescent lighting is recommended power supplies for remote villages street lighting individual house systems battery charging mini grids 60
  61. 61. Rural water pumpingapplications 61
  62. 62. Application for small powerpack 62
  63. 63. Communicationsradio repeatersremote TV and radio receiversremote weather measuringmobile radiosrural telephone kiosksdata acquisition and transmission (forexample, river levels and seismographs) 63
  64. 64. Transport aids road sign lighting railway crossings and signals hazard and warning lights navigation buoys road markers 64
  65. 65. Security systems & Miscellaneoussecurity lighting solar water heaterremote alarm system circulation pumpselectric fences boat / ship powerventilation systems vehicle battery tricklecalculators chargerspumping and earthquakeautomated feeding monitoring systemssystems on fish farms emergency power for disaster relief 65
  66. 66. Manufacture in developing countriesIn India, Central Electronics of Ghaziabad isnot only the nation’s largest PV producer,but are the fifth largest producer ofmonocrystalline silicon solar cells in theworld (D.V.Gupta cited in Garg et al, 1997).There are over 60 companies in India aloneproducing solar cells, modules and systems. 66
  68. 68. PV Manufacturers of INDIAIndia’s primary solar PV producer is Tata BPsolar, which expanded production capacityfrom 8 MW in 2001 to 38 MW in 2004.Central Electronics, Bharat Heavy Electrical,and WEBEL Solar are other leading solarcell/module manufacturers in India. 68
  69. 69. Thin films & multi-junction cells and building integrated PV modulesPhotovoltaic technologies have seensignificant advances in thin films and multi-junction cells.Building integrated photovoltaic likephotovoltaic window glass or roof shingles.The rate of deployment of PVs in general isincreasing at a significant annual rateworldwide. 69
  70. 70. Sometime in the future....Development in photovoltaics, keepimproving the efficiencies and reducing thecosts. Sometime in the future, maybe inthe next 10-15 years, the costs will be lowenough that you will not need anyincentives for people to use PV. That willhappen because of the thin film and multi-junction developments. 70
  71. 71. Text books on Solar Energy Engineering1. D. Yogi Goswami, Frank Kreith, Jan. F. Kreider, “Principles of Solar Engineering”, 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis, 2000, Indian reprint, 20032. Edward E. Anderson, “Fundamentals for solar energy conversion”, Addison Wesley Publ. Co., 1983.3. G. N. Tiwari and M. K. Ghosal, “Fundamentals of Renewable energy Sources”, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, 2007 71
  72. 72. Text books on Solar Energy Engineering4. Mukund. R. Patel, Wind and Solar Power Systems, 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis, 20015. Roger Messenger and Jerry Ventre, Photovoltaic Systems Engineering, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, 2003 72
  73. 73. Acknowledgements This presentation is an edited and collected version of already available info on the web. It is published for the benefit of those who wish to educate themselves. Thanks to the original source providers. 73