• The fossil fuels - coal, oil and natural gas - are
simply ancient biomass. Over millions of years, the
earth has buried ages-old plant material and
converted it into fuels. But while fossil fuels
contain the same constituents - as those found in
fresh biomass, fossil fuels are not renewable
because they take such a long time to create.
Why Biofuels? …environmental impact
• Environmental impacts pose a distinction between
biomass and fossil fuels. When a plant decays, it
returns its chemical matter into the atmosphere
and is part of carbon cycle. Fossil fuels are carbon
locked away deep in the ground; when they are
burned on a large scale, fossil fuels overload the
earth’s atmosphere with added CO2,SO2, and NOx.
Why Biofuels? …creates rural jobs
• Biomass-energy systems can increase economic
development without contributing to the
greenhouse effect since biomass is not a net
emitter of CO2 to the atmosphere and it is
produced and used on sustainable basis.
• Growing biomass is a rural, labour-intensive
activity, and can, therefore, create jobs in rural
areas and help stem rural-to-urban migration
Why Biofuels? …Use Waste, No GHG
• Biofuel has lower sulphur and NOx emissions
and can help rehabilitate degraded lands.
• The use of biomass in larger commercial
systems based on sustainable, already
accumulated resources and residues [from
agro-industries] can help improve natural
Why Biofuels? …Technology developed
• Modern technology for using bio-fuels can
generate heat and electricity through direct
combustion substituting fossil fuels.
• Modern devices for bio-fuel combustion range
from very-small-scale domestic boilers to
multi-megawatt size power plants for
electricity (e.g. via gas turbines). New
developments are expected.
Transportation: Liquid Biofuels
• Liquid fuels for motor vehicles such as ethanol, or
other alcohol and bio-diesel can be made based
• With increases in population and per capita
demand, and depletion of fossil-fuel resources,
the demand for biomass is expected to increase
rapidly in developing countries.
Why Biofuels? …multi-uses approach
• Growing biomass provides convenient carriers to
help promote other rural industries.
• The "multi-uses" approach: how land can best be
used for sustainable development, what mixture
of land use and cropping patterns will make
optimum use of a particular plot to meet multiple
objectives of food, fuel, fodder, societal needs etc.
• This requires a full understanding of the
complexity of land use.
Current contribution- biofuels
• On a global basis, biomass contributes
about 14% of the world's energy (55EJ or
25 M barrels oil equivalent). This offsets
1.1 Pg C of net CO2 emissions annually.
• Biomass based energy in developing
About 90% in countries such as Nepal,
Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda
About 45% in India, 28% in China and
Current contribution - In European industrial
countries / EU /USA:
•It is 14% in Austria, 20% in Finland and 18% in
•It represents about 4% of the primary energy use
in both the EU and USA.
• In the EU this is equivalent to 2 EJ/year of the
estimated total consumption of 54 EJ. Estimates
show a likely potential in Europe in 2050 of 9.013.5 EJ depending on land areas, yields, and
recoverable residues, representing about 17-30%
of projected total energy
Share of bio-energy in primary
energy consumption in India
In India, the share of bio-energy was
estimated at around 36 % to 46 % of the
total primary energy consumption in 1991
[Ravindranath and Hall, 1995], and has come down
to around 27 % in 1997 [Ravindranath et al., 2000].
Rural India & bio-energy
• Before the advent of fossil fuels, energy needs for all
activities were met by renewable sources such as
solar, biomass, wind, animal and human muscle
• It is interesting to note that in rural India, traditional
renewables such as biomass and human and animal
energy continue to contribute 80 % of the energy
consumption [MNES, 2001].
Present problems in use of bio-fuels
Traditional biomass use is characterized by
• low efficiency of devices, scarcity of fuel
wood, drudgery associated with the devices
• environmental degradation (such as forest
degradation) and low quality of life.
Develop: Modern Bio Energy Technologies
•Modern ‘BET’ offer opportunities to
conserve biomass through efficiency
improvements, and for conversion to
electricity and liquid and gaseous fuels.
• Bio-energy technologies based on
sustained biomass supply are carbon
neutral and lead to net CO2 emission
reduction if used to substitute fossil fuels.
SCOPE FOR DEVLOPMENT OF BIOMASS
•Biomass productivity can be improved
with good management, as in many
places now it is low, being much less
than 5 t / ha / year for woody species.
•Increased productivity is the key to
both providing competitive costs and
•better utilization of available land.
•Advances have included the
identification of fast-growing species,
breeding successes and
•multiple species opportunities.
•Advances have included from new
physiological knowledge of plant growth
• manipulation of plants through
biotechnology applications, which could
raise productivity 5 to 10 times over
natural growth rates in plants or trees.
Sources of biomass
Primary and secondary sources,
Characteristics, categories, properties of
biomass based bio-fuels
Sources of bio-fuels
• Forestry-Dense, Open; Social Forestry
• Agriculture, Animal Husbandry,
• Industrial process byproducts, effluents,
• Municipal Waste
Primary biomass resources are produced directly by
photosynthesis and are taken directly from the land. They
include perennial short-rotation woody crops and
herbaceous crops, the seeds of oil crops, and residues
resulting from the harvesting of agricultural crops and forest
trees (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover, and the tops, limbs,
and bark from trees).
Secondary biomass resources result from the processing of
primary biomass resources either physically (e.g., the
production of sawdust in mills), chemically (e.g., black
liquor from pulping processes), or biologically (e.g., manure
production by animals).
Tertiary biomass resources are post-consumer residue
streams including animal fats and greases, used vegetable
oils, packaging wastes, and construction and demolition
Classification of biomass based on
• NON-WOODY (Agro-residues, cultivated),
• WET [AQUEOUS] ORGANIC WASTE
• PLANTATIONS (MULTI- PURPOSE TREES)
• TREES FROM VILLAGE COMMON LANDS
• HYDROCARBON PLANTS
• TREES BEARING NONEDIBLE OIL SEEDS
Microalgae and Seaweeds
• Algae have potentially greater productivity growing in
water, thus avoiding water and nutrient limitations, as
well as their potential for continuous cultivation at near
maximal productivity compared to plants. Further, algae
have few nonproductive parts such as roots or stems.
Thus, although algae do not have an inherently more
efficient photosynthetic process and some vascular
plants (e.g., irrigated sugar cane in the tropics) can
approach the productivities reported for algae, they
certainly are among the most productive photosynthetic
• Liquid biofuels include pure plant oil,
biodiesel, and bioethanol. Biodiesel is based
on esterification of plant oils.
• Ethanol is primarily derived from sugar, maize,
and other starchy crops.
• Global production of biofuels consists
primarily of ethanol, followed by biodiesel
Physical Properties of Solid Bio-fuels
• Moisture Content,
• Particle Size and Size distribution
• Bulk Density & Specific gravity
• Higher Heating Value
Chemical Composition of Solid
Bio-fuels for combustion :
Total Ash %,
Solvent soluble %,
Water Soluble %,
• Wood is grouped as either hardwood or
• Softwoods have 40–45% cellulose, 24–37%
hemicellulose and 25–30% lignin.
• Hardwoods contain approximately 40–50%
cellulose and 22–40% hemicellulose.
Properties of Wet biomass for biomethanation process:
C O D value
B O D value
Total dissolved solids
Forestry, Energy Plantations and
Forestry, Agro-forestry, and Energy Plantations
Current practice in India and future
Forest resource base-India
• 1 % of World's forests on 2.47 % of world's
• Sustaining 16 % of the world's population and
15 % of its livestock population
• Forest area cover—63.3 mill. hectares, is
19.2% of the total geographical area of India.
Rural demand for Fuelwood for cooking
• Use of dung and agricultural waste is
widespread in agriculturally prosperous
regions with fertile soils and controlled
irrigation, such as the Punjab, Haryana, Uttar
Pradesh and northern Bihar, but wood
continues to be the main domestic fuel in less
endowed and poorer regions.
•Price Changes: Fuelwood prices in India
increased fast between 1970 and 1985.
•But fuelwood prices have since stabilized.
•The rise in fuelwood prices during the period
1989– 97 was slightly less than the rise in the
wholesale price index (WPI).
Causes of tremendous pressure on
Forest resource base
• Exponential rise in human and livestock
• increasing demand on land allocation to
alternative uses such as agriculture, pastures
and development activities.
• Insufficient availability, poor purchasing power
of people in rural areas for commercial fuels
like kerosene & LPG
The National Forest Policy
• Achieve a minimum of 33 % of total land
area under forest or tree cover from present
•Recognize the requirements of local people
for timber, firewood, fodder and other nontimber forest produce-- as the first charge on
• The need for forest conservation on the
broad principles of sustainability and
Joint Forest Management system.
•In total, 15.5 m. hectare of degraded forest
land has natural root stock available, which
may regenerate given proper management
under the JFM
• 9.5 m. hectare is partially degraded with
some natural rootstock, and another 6 m. ha
is highly degraded.
•These last two categories together constitute
15.5 m. hectare,
• which requires treatment through
• plantation of fuel, fodder and timber species
• substantial investment and technological
JFM-2:The emphasis will be on:
• Fuel-wood and fodder plantations to meet
the requirements of rural and urban
•Plantations of economically important
species (through use of high-yielding clones)
on refractory areas to meet the growing
• Supplementing the incomes of the tribal
rural poor through management and
development of non-timber forest products.
JFM-3: The emphasis will be on cont…
• Develop and promoting pasture on suitable
• Promote development of degraded forests
by adopting, through micro-planning, an
integrated approach on a watershed basis.
JFM-4: The emphasis will be on cont…
• Suitable policy initiatives on rationalization of tree
felling and transit rules, assured buy-back
arrangements between industries and tree
growers, technology extension, and incentives like
easy availability of institutional credit etc.
Forestry in the New Millennium:
To sum up, tropical India, with its adequate
sunlight, rainfall, land and labour,
is ideally suitable for tree plantations.
With the enhanced plan outlay for
forestry sector and financial support
from donor agencies, the country will
be able to march ahead towards the target
of 33 percent forest cover.
Integrates trees with farming, such as lines
of trees with crops growing between them
(alley cropping), hedgerows, living fences,
windbreaks, pasture trees, woodlots, and
many other farming patterns.
Agro-forestry increases biodiversity,
supports wildlife, provides firewood,
fertilizer, forage, food and more, improves
the soil, improves the water, benefits the
farmers, benefits everyone.
Energy Plantation: Growing trees for their fuel
• A plantation that is designed or managed and
operated to provide substantial amounts of
usable fuel continuously throughout the year
at a reasonable cost is called an 'energy
• ‘Wasteland’-- not usable for agriculture and
cash crops, is used for this activity
Criteria for energy plantation
• Sufficient area of 'Wasteland‘, not usable for
agriculture and cash crops, be made available for this
social forestry activity
• Tree species favorable to climate and soil conditions
• Combination of harvest cycles and planting densities
that will optimize the harvest of fuel and the
operating cost--12000 to 24000 trees per hectare.
Criteria for energy plantation-continued-2
• Multipurpose tree species-fuel wood supply &
improve soil condition
• Trees that are capable of growing in
deforested areas with degraded soils, and
withstand exposure to wind and drought
• Rapid growing legumes that fix atmospheric
nitrogen to enrich soil
Criteria for energy plantation-continued-3
• Species that can be found in similar ecological
• Produce wood of high calorific value that
burn without sparks or smoke
• Have other uses in addition to providing fuel - multipurpose tree species most suited for
bio-energy plantations or social forestry
Tree species for regions of India
Trees for energy plantations, their
selection basis and utility
HYDROCARBON PLANTS, OIL
• Hydrocarbon-- Euphorbia group
& Euphorbia Lathyrus
• OIL Shrubs-- Euphorbia Tirucali
Forage legume = vegetable,
• Regeneration of earthworm populations in a
degraded soil by natural and planted fallows under
humid tropical conditions
• Use of Leucaena leucocephala: Fodder,
fuelwood, erosion control, nitrogen fixation,
alley cropping, staking material
• Nitrogen fixation legume: Due to Leucaena
leucocephala crop wasteland is reclaimed
Leucaena leucocephala (Subabul)
• It makes good yields for green manure.
• Leucaena yields fuelwood.
• Leucaena has great potential for carbon
• Leucaena Fixes Nitrogen.
• Leucaena is a legume, a tree that fixes nitrogen from
the air. It is a fast growing nitrogen fixing tree
(FGNFT), which can be profitably grown and used by
both small and large farmers.
Can produce furniture
make paper and fibers for rayon-cellophane
make parquet flooring
make living fence posts
make small woodcraft items
make livestock feed
create shade for plants and banana crops
neem tree (Azadirachta indica)
• Tree used in windbreaks, fuelwood plantations, and silvo
-pastoral systems, for dry zones and infertile, rocky,
sandy or shallow soils. The leaves, bark, wood and fruit
of the neem tree either repel or discourage insect pests,
and these plant parts are incorporated into traditional
soil preparation, grain storage, and animal husbandry
• Several neem -based biological pest control (BPC)
products have been developed. The neem tree can
provide an inexpensive integrated pest management
(IPM) resource for farmers, the raw material for small
rural enterprises, or the development of neem-based
JATROPA CURCAS [PHYSIC NUT]
• Jatropha curcas [ physic nut], is unique among
biofuels. Jatropha is currently the first choice for
biodiesel. Able to tolerate arid climates, rapidly
growing, useful for a variety of products,
• Jatropha can yield up to two tons of biodiesel fuel
per year per hectare.
• Jatropha requires minimal inputs, stablizes or even
reverses desertification, and has use for a variety of
products after the biofuel is extracted.
• What makes Jatropha especially attractive to India
is that it is a drought-resistant and can grow in
saline, marginal and even otherwise infertile soil,
requiring little water and maintenance.
• It is hearty and easy to propagate-- a cutting taken
from a plant and simply pushed into the ground will
take root. It grows 5 to 10 feet high, and is capable
of stabilizing sand dunes, acting as a windbreak and
Jatropha projects are documented to be
carried out since 1991 with disappointing
However, there is now more experience,
better expertise about the strengths and
weaknesses and success factors in India
available, even though not yet well compiled.
As well, Jatropha efforts have a much better
Government backing now than ten years
Babul ( Acacia nilotica)
• In M.P., Babul ( Acacia nilotica) is the most sought
after wood species due to its high calorific value. The
next most popular are
• Dhaoda ( Anogcisum latifolia) and Satputa
• ( Dalbergia panniculata). These are
• cheaper than Babul but are inferior as fuels.
• The ideal girth class is 25 to 45 cm, at
• which size the logs can be used straight
• away. Logs of larger girth have to be split,
• demanding more time and expenditure,
• while thinner logs burn too quickly.
Acacia nilotica: babul
• A useful nitrogen fixing tree found wild in the
dry areas of tropical Africa and India
• plantations are managed on a 15-20 year
rotation for fuelwood and timber.
• calorific value of 4950 kcal/kg, making
excellent fuelwood and quality charcoal. It
burns slow with little smoke when dry
• The bark of ssp. indica has high levels of
A nitrogen fixing tree for oilseed
Also called as Derris indica, karanga,
Produces seeds containing 30-40% oil.
is a medium sized tree that generally attains a
height of about 8 m and a trunk diameter of
more than 50 cm
• natural distribution of pongam is along coasts
and river banks in India and Burma