EDUCATION OFCHILDREN IN INDIA
JOINING HANDS                           IN THE INTEREST                             OF CHILDRENElementary education is a f...
   Kapil Sibal is the Union Minister for Ministry    of Human Resource Development in the    Government of India.   He a...
Learning is the greatest Ornament   xÉÑlSUÉåÌmÉ xÉÑzÉÏsÉÉãÌmÉ MÑüsÉÏlÉÉãÌmÉ qÉWûÉkÉlÉç: |   zÉÉãpÉiÉå lÉ ÌoÉlÉÉ ÌuɱÉÇ Ì...
Constitutional recognition on RTE   The Supreme Court _ case                 In the year 2009, the state    (1993): righ...
6
Elementary education consists of eight             years of education.   Free and compulsory                The 86th con...
Elementary education is a FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTWhat does it mean?   Parent / Guardian / Community should be conscious    that...
Free & Compulsory Education:What does it mean?   Depending on need of the parent / guardian, exemption of fees    and pro...
Literacy Rate in India 1951-2001                                   10
United Nations World Declaration onEducation for All, (EFA) 1990   India is a signatory to the 1990 United Nations    Wor...
The Right of Children to       Free and Compulsory Education Act                   (RTE Act)   Passed by the Indian parli...
The Story of RTE started with: National Policy of    Education (1986) and revised Programme of Action                     ...
RTE Act –What does it specify?   The Act makes education a fundamental right of    every child between the ages of 6 to 1...
RTE Act –What does it offer?It offers a framework   for ensuring quality education,   for creating infrastructure,   fo...
Criticism of RTE-Act (2009):   Will it remain on paper or become a reality? It is the    adult society which has to act o...
Universalisation of elementary education      poses a formidable challenge to India:   The numbers of children dropping o...
A major concern:   To improve the skills and motivation of    teachers,   promoting the participation of communities in ...
The Optimist’s View   India´s elite educational institutions have been    producing the first-rate scientists, engineers,...
What India has accomplished is no small feat   What India has accomplished is no small feat — especially given    that it...
We are on the move…   Given the momentum built up over the years, India    will, in all likelihood, meet the education Mi...
National Commission for Protection of           Child Rights   The act also provides that, no child shall be held    back...
RTE – 2009: fund provision   Other provisions regarding improvement of school    infrastructure, teacher-student ratio an...
RTE – 2009: fund provision   The central and State governments are     to share the financial requirement for    implemen...
The amount for the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is Rs.25,555 crores for 2012-13,short of the recommendedfinancial requirement of ...
With progress in increasing enrollment thenational average now is at 98.3 percent (2009-2010) according to official statis...
Struggle for universalizingelementary education: Right or Duty?   But it wont be enough to approach free and    compulsor...
Struggle for universalizingelementary education   Everybody acknowledges the value of    education in the overall develop...
Administrators focus on   Enrolment   Availability of schools within walking    distance   Provisioning for infrastruct...
Educationists: are concerned aboutWhat is Learnt, how is it presented?   Whether or how children learn, and the   Burden...
• Development professionals discuss   The impact of years of schooling, for example    on   the age of marriage and   f...
Economists                talk about the economic                 returns on Investment in                 education; ban...
Parents  have expectations from the education system     that it should equip their children for gainful      employment,...
Fulfill goals of      universal elementary education   The enforcement of fundamental    right to education provides us a...
Implementation of      RIGHT TO EDUCATION ACTprovides for all children the benefit of free and compulsory   admission,  ...
In India, since we gained freedom of self               governance,   Undoubtedly, much progress has    occurred since th...
37
Dropped out, child labourers   There are ‗invisible‘ children_ children    bonded to work with an employer,   young boys...
Extremely vulnerable ones   Many others such as migrant and    street children, who live in    extremely vulnerable condi...
Enrol, attend, learn,                        and            Be empowered by education   Providing universal access itself...
Why are they not attending,       drop-out in a few months?   Focus must be on the factors that    prevent children from ...
To check drop-out rate   Creating parental awareness   Community mobilization   Economic incentives   Minimum Levels o...
Reservation of 25% seats in privateschools for children from poor families   The school may be            Social, econom...
The RTE, Act, 2009 clause, 12 (1) (c) mandates forprivate schools to admit quarter of their classstrength from weaker sect...
In response to the Supreme Court order, HRD ministerKapil Sibal said, ―I am very happy that the court has set all controve...
Good education is empowering   विद्याविधधविहीनेन ककिं कऱीनेन दे हहनाम ् ।                            ु    अकऱीनोऽवऩ विद्य...
From labour mode to learning mode   It is the duty of the state, parents and    guardians, and the community to ensure th...
Primary-School & No of Teachers                                  48
Free, compulsory and of high quality   The right to education is free, compulsory    and it includes good quality educati...
Good teacher’s company enables.   य् ऩठति सऱखति ऩश्यति ऩररऩच्छिी ऩन्डििान ्                                ृ    उऩाश्रयवऩ...
Education Depts of State & Union Governments   have direct responsibility, trusts have supporting                         ...
On the part of the whole Govts:   The factors that contribute to the    achievement of the overall goal of    universaliz...
Timely & appropriate financial allocations,redesign school spaces   The Finance Department to release    funds at all lev...
Provide Social & Location Mapping of schools,             Water & sanitation facilities The Dept. of Science & Technology...
55
ROLE OF CIVIL SOCEITY in RTE   Above all, people‘s groups, civil society    organizations & voluntary agencies will play ...
ROLE OF CIVIL SOCEITY   A VIBRANT CIVIL SOCEITY MOVEMENT    CAN ENSURE THAT THE PARENT / CHILD    FROM WEAKER OR DISADVAN...
Prime Minister    Manmohan Singh:"We are committed to ensuring that allchildren, irrespective of gender andsocial category...
The 86th constitutional amendment (2002),And the RTE Act (2009), have given us thetools to provide quality education to al...
RTE, Act 2009 upheld by SC   On 12 April 2012, in its historical decision the Supreme    Court (SC) of India threw its we...
India’s Age: YOUNG INDIA   0-14 years: 31.1% (male 190,000,000 /female                                172,890,000)   15-...
You can’t give a cold shoulder to Kapilji!   Kapil Sibal led the first Indian expedition to the Arctic    and was respons...
Then _ So few people, NOW Too many !Panic not, we are the human resource andeducation makes it so.                        ...
Education brings out meritऩरुषमवऩ गुरूिािं बुवद्धबोधाथामुक्ििंिचनमनुसरतयाति सशष्यो महत्तत्तिम ्।खतनिऱगिरत्तनिं श्रेष्ठमप्य...
66
67
Age structure of School going children                                     68
Role of Central & State Governments   The primary responsibility for school education is    borne by the state government...
In India, the main types of schools are thosecontrolled by:   The state government Boards like SSLC, in    which the vast...
SUPPORTORGANISATIONSOf Union Department of Education:•Central Institute of Education Technology•Central Tibetan Schools Ad...
National Council of Educational Research                 and Training (NCERT).   The NCERT was established in 1961. It   ...
Central Institute of Education Technology (CIET)   CIET is an important unit of NCERT which is    engaged in the producti...
Central Board of Secondary Education               (CBSE)    CBSE was initially called as ‗The Board of    High School an...
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)   Major Activities and Objectives: To prescribe    conditions of examinations...
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)   Board today has 8979 schools [on 31-03-    2007] including    141 schools ...
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)    The CBSE, the Headquarter of which is in    Delhi from 1962, subscribes to...
The prime focus of the CBSE is on   Innovations in teaching-learning methodologies by    devising students friendly and s...
Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan   The Government approved the scheme of Kendriya    Vidyalaya Sangathan in 1962.   Initiall...
Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti   Navodaya Vidyalayas are located all over the    country including Lakshadweep and A & N    Is...
Central Tibetan Schools Administration   Central Tibetan Schools administration is an autonomous    organization under MH...
The National Literacy Mission           (NLM)The Community Education Centre           (CEC)   NLM was based on the 1986 Na...
India – Moving towards a lifelong learning                    approach    National Literacy Mission was set up with the a...
National Literacy Mission: Literacy       as an active and potent instrument of change    The N L M conceived literacy as...
Functional literacy was also aimed at:    adopting the values of   national integration,   environmental conservation, ...
The revised National Policy on Education:                      1992   NLM combined Post- Literacy and Continuing Educatio...
National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)   The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) formerly    known as Nation...
Adult Illiteracy   Implementation of this functional and instrumental    concept of literacy varied greatly and often vee...
The Community Education Centre (CEC)   The Community Education Centre (CEC), the    main delivery point of CE programmes,...
Key stakeholders of         the Community Education Centre   The participants are neo-literates, mostly women,    and the...
Vocational And Life Enrichment Education   A District Resource Unit (DRU), located in the    District Institute of Educat...
Districts with low education level   About a quarter of India‘s 600 districts which have a    low education level now eac...
Remedy for low education level   It is in the same states that the national programme for    primary education, Sarva Shi...
Expansion of functional literacy in India   National Knowledge Commission (2008) stressed a    focus on expanding functio...
GE, NLM, Then, there is                 vocational Education    The Indian Constitution resolves to provide    quality ed...
96
Data during the period:   1993 - 2002                                        97
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Education of children
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Education of children

  1. 1. EDUCATION OFCHILDREN IN INDIA
  2. 2. JOINING HANDS IN THE INTEREST OF CHILDRENElementary education is a fundamental right, andwith the RTE Act (2009) which describes themodalities of the provision, let us provide qualityeducation to all our children.KAPIL SIBAL
  3. 3.  Kapil Sibal is the Union Minister for Ministry of Human Resource Development in the Government of India. He also held the two ministries Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Earth Sciences in the First Manmohan Singh Cabinet. He led the first Indian expedition to the Arctic and was responsible for setting up an Indian Research Station ‗Himadri‘ there in July, 2008. 3
  4. 4. Learning is the greatest Ornament xÉÑlSUÉåÌmÉ xÉÑzÉÏsÉÉãÌmÉ MÑüsÉÏlÉÉãÌmÉ qÉWûÉkÉlÉç: | zÉÉãpÉiÉå lÉ ÌoÉlÉÉ ÌuɱÉÇ ÌuÉ±É xÉuÉïxuÉ pÉÔwÉhÉqÉç || Though beautiful, of good character, born wealthy, one does not shine without learning. Learning is the greatest ornament. 4
  5. 5. Constitutional recognition on RTE The Supreme Court _ case  In the year 2009, the state (1993): right to education is a introduced the Right to fundamental right that flows Education bill, seeking to effect the 86th Constitutional from the right to life in Article 21. amendment The 86th Constitution Amendment Act, 2002 added Article 21A, "The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.―; Article 45, which now reads "The State shall endeavor to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of 6 years." 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. Elementary education consists of eight years of education. Free and compulsory  The 86th constitutional education for all children amendment (2002), has until they complete the age made elementary education of14 years was one a fundamental right for the of the Directive Principles children between the age of State Policy intended group- 6 to 14. to be implemented within  After 60 years, with the 10 years of the Right of Children to Free commencement of the and Compulsory Education Indian Constitution. Act (2009), the entitlement Not being justiciable, this to education has become directive failed to prod the enforceable. It offers a Indian state into any kind of framework for ensuring concrete action. quality education. 7
  8. 8. Elementary education is a FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTWhat does it mean? Parent / Guardian / Community should be conscious that a child needs to grow in an atmosphere that facilitates its physical, mental and social development and with the help of the government, they should seek to provide this environment by accepting it as an important duty. Providing good school facility is now recognized as a fundamental duty of our society / Govt. ‗ An education that enables them to acquire the skills, knowledge, values and attitudes necessary to become responsible and active citizens of India is our commitment.‘_ Manmohan Singh, PM 8
  9. 9. Free & Compulsory Education:What does it mean? Depending on need of the parent / guardian, exemption of fees and provision of books, mid day meal, etc. may be made through grant of funds by Trust / State . Poverty of a parent should not be an excuse to stop schooling and practice child labour. No person shall prevent a child from participating in elementary education. No person shall employ or engage a child in a manner that renders him / her a working child. It is the responsibility of every parent/guardian to enroll his child / ward, who has attained the age of 6 years and above in a school and facilitate her completion of elementary education (till Grade VIII). Compulsion is on the parent / guardian to enroll the child and synergise with the school to ensure its progress. It is a persuasion by civil society; it seeks to make parents aware of the importance of education. 9
  10. 10. Literacy Rate in India 1951-2001 10
  11. 11. United Nations World Declaration onEducation for All, (EFA) 1990 India is a signatory to the 1990 United Nations World Declaration on Education for All, (EFA). It reaffirmed the rights of all children including children with disabilities to access education in regular school settings. Also, India is signatory to to the Biwako Millenium Framework for Action towards an inclusive ,barrier free and rights based society for persons with disability ,the Declaration on the Full Participation and Equality of People with Disabilities in the Asia Pacific Region. 11
  12. 12. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (RTE Act) Passed by the Indian parliament on 4 August 2009. It describes the modalities of the provision of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 in India under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution. India became one of the few countries to make education a fundamental right of every child when the act came into force on April 1, 2010. 12
  13. 13. The Story of RTE started with: National Policy of Education (1986) and revised Programme of Action (1992)Some of the initiatives were District Primary Education Programme (1994), the Mid Day Meal Scheme (1995) and the Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (2001) have led some positive impact in elementary education, specifically in rural areas. The 86th Amendment of the Indian constitution (2002) makes education a fundamental right for all children aged 6-14 years. 13
  14. 14. RTE Act –What does it specify? The Act makes education a fundamental right of every child between the ages of 6 to 14 and specifies the minimum norms in government schools. It specifies reservation of 25% seats in private schools for children from poor families. It prohibits the practice of unrecognized schools, and makes provisions to avoid donation or capitation fee and an interview of the child or parent for the admission. 14
  15. 15. RTE Act –What does it offer?It offers a framework for ensuring quality education, for creating infrastructure, for making available a sufficient number of trained teachers, and for extending government funding to private schools. 15
  16. 16. Criticism of RTE-Act (2009): Will it remain on paper or become a reality? It is the adult society which has to act on behalf of the child. Will our cultural prejudice against educating the girl child be overcome? Pre-school education is not covered and a vision of systematic reforms leading to a decent common school system is yet to be offered. A gap exists between elite private schools and schools run by State governments. Joke is that you can bring the former down to the standards of the latter, in our society of Aam Aadmi (common man)! 16
  17. 17. Universalisation of elementary education poses a formidable challenge to India: The numbers of children dropping out, not attending school regularly and never enrolled are immense. Quality of education is poor in many schools. Teachers are inadequately trained and have lack of motivation. The priority concerns for the country remain particularly with improving the quality of education and making education effective, enjoyable and relevant to the children. 17
  18. 18. A major concern: To improve the skills and motivation of teachers, promoting the participation of communities in the running of schools and Enrolling / retaining girls / working children of urban poor and children with special needs in schools. 18
  19. 19. The Optimist’s View India´s elite educational institutions have been producing the first-rate scientists, engineers, and managers who helped India´s information technology sector take off during the 1990s. Far less visible is the more recent, quiet revolution in India´s elementary education that, if successful, will equip an entire younger generation with skills to improve productivity and reduce the burden of disease, high birth rates, hunger, and poverty, while changing societal attitudes toward gender, caste, tribe, and disability. 19
  20. 20. What India has accomplished is no small feat What India has accomplished is no small feat — especially given that its population grew from about 840 million to nearly one billion between 1991 and 2001, with the number of children age 6 to 14 rising by 35 million to 205 million. Over roughly the same period, the gross enrollment ratio (GER) in primary education (grades 1) rose from 82 percent to 95 percent, and in upper primary education (grades 6) from 54 percent to 61 percent (see table). Available government data suggest that in that age group, the number of children not in school fell sharply from about 60 million in the early 1990s to 25 million in 2002, and this decline is continuing. While specific numbers in such a large federal system may be viewed with caution, the rough magnitude of the progress appears to be in little doubt. 20
  21. 21. We are on the move… Given the momentum built up over the years, India will, in all likelihood, meet the education Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education—which calls for all children of primary school age to participate in the school system and complete primary school. Between 1993 and 2002, total public spending on education rose steadily from 3.6 to 4.1 percent of GDP, higher than the average spending of 3 percent of GDP among low-income countries. Elementary education expenditure rose from 1.7 to 2.1 percent of GDP, accounting for over 60 percent of the growth in public expenditure on education in this period. 21
  22. 22. National Commission for Protection of Child Rights The act also provides that, no child shall be held back, expelled, or required to pass a board examination until completion of elementary education. Provision for special training of school drop-outs to bring them at-par with the students of the same age. Right to Education of Person with Disabilities till 18 years of age has been made a Fundamental Right. The act provides for establishment of the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights and State Commissions for supervising of proper implementation of the act, looking after the complaints and protection of Child Rights. 22
  23. 23. RTE – 2009: fund provision Other provisions regarding improvement of school infrastructure, teacher-student ratio and faculty have also been provided in the act. A committee set up to study the funds requirement and funding estimated that Rs 1.71 lakh crore would be required in the next five years for implementing the Act. The government agreed to sharing of funds in the ratio of 65 to 35 between the Centre and the states for implementing the law, with a ratio of 90 to 10 for the north-eastern states. 23
  24. 24. RTE – 2009: fund provision The central and State governments are to share the financial requirement for implementing the Act in the ratio of 55:45, and the Finance Commission has given Rs.25,000 crore to the States. An outlay of Rs.15,000 crore was approved for 2010-11 by the central government. 24
  25. 25. The amount for the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is Rs.25,555 crores for 2012-13,short of the recommendedfinancial requirement of Rs 1.82 lakh crore. Fromwhere will the rest of amount come?More than 90 percent of households will have toenroll their wards in government schools. Thesewards will have poor access to education; if at all theyare enrolled in schools, as the quality of education ingovernment schools is a matter of serious concern. 25
  26. 26. With progress in increasing enrollment thenational average now is at 98.3 percent (2009-2010) according to official statistics.However, the attendance of pupils in class roomshas declined.In 2007, 73.4 percent students enrolled forStandards I-IV/V were present in class, which hasfallen to 70.9 percent by 2011 (EPW, 2012). 26
  27. 27. Struggle for universalizingelementary education: Right or Duty? But it wont be enough to approach free and compulsory education up to the age of l4 as an entitlement, especially for the millions of children who are left out in the cold. Accessing this right meaningfully and in full measure will require, aside from the investment of huge resources, financial and human, a lot of work to be done on the ground. Key to this is seeing free and compulsory education for children not just as a right but as a duty. (Child‘s Right, Society‘s Duty.) 27
  28. 28. Struggle for universalizingelementary education Everybody acknowledges the value of education in the overall development of the children. Administrators Educationists Development professionals Economists Parents 28
  29. 29. Administrators focus on Enrolment Availability of schools within walking distance Provisioning for infrastructure Deployment of teachers. 29
  30. 30. Educationists: are concerned aboutWhat is Learnt, how is it presented? Whether or how children learn, and the Burden of syllabi, which is passed on to Tuition centres or Parents 30
  31. 31. • Development professionals discuss The impact of years of schooling, for example on the age of marriage and family size. Free and Compulsory Secondary Education brings the children to mainstream of the society for Sustainable Economic Development of India. 31
  32. 32. Economists  talk about the economic returns on Investment in education; bankers too.  Our economist PM says ‗ An education that enables them to acquire the skills, knowledge, values and attitudes necessary to become responsible and active citizens of India‘ is our commitment. 32
  33. 33. Parents have expectations from the education system  that it should equip their children for gainful employment, and  economic well being.  उद्यमेन हह ससद्धयन्ति कायााणि न मनोरथ् । न हह सुप्िस्य ससिंहस्य प्रविशन्ति मुखे मगा् ृ  Industrious work is necessary. Any work will not get accomplished just merely by desiring for its completion. A prey will not by itself come to the mouth of a sleeping lion. 33
  34. 34. Fulfill goals of universal elementary education The enforcement of fundamental right to education provides us a unique opportunity to mount a mission encompassing all the above discourses to fulfill our goal of universal elementary education. 34
  35. 35. Implementation of RIGHT TO EDUCATION ACTprovides for all children the benefit of free and compulsory admission, attendance and completionof elementary education. 35
  36. 36. In India, since we gained freedom of self governance, Undoubtedly, much progress has occurred since the last sixty years of our independence and many more children with a diverse background are accessing school. Yet.... 36
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. Dropped out, child labourers There are ‗invisible‘ children_ children bonded to work with an employer, young boys grazing cattle or working in a dhabha girls working in the fields or as domestic help or caring for younger siblings, and children being subjected to early marriage. Many of these children are formally enrolled in a school but have either dropped out or have never been there. 38
  39. 39. Extremely vulnerable ones Many others such as migrant and street children, who live in extremely vulnerable conditions; denying them education is against the universal nature of human rights. 39
  40. 40. Enrol, attend, learn, and Be empowered by education Providing universal access itself is no longer enough; making available school facility is essential but not sufficient. A monitoring mechanism is needed to ensure that all children attend school regularly and participate in the learning process. 40
  41. 41. Why are they not attending, drop-out in a few months? Focus must be on the factors that prevent children from regularly attending & completing elementary education. Children from weaker sections and disadvantaged groups, as also girls. SOCIAL,CULTURAL,ECONOMIC, LINGUISTIC AND PEDAGOGIC ISSUES 41
  42. 42. To check drop-out rate Creating parental awareness Community mobilization Economic incentives Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (Mid-day Meals Scheme) 42
  43. 43. Reservation of 25% seats in privateschools for children from poor families The school may be  Social, economic, there but students may cultural, linguistic, not attend, or drop out pedagogic issues after a few months.  Denial or violation of Through school & the right to elementary social mapping, many education process issues need to be requires to be addressed that prevent overcome with the a weak child from encouragement and completing the process enlightenment of the of education. weak & vulnerable. 43
  44. 44. The RTE, Act, 2009 clause, 12 (1) (c) mandates forprivate schools to admit quarter of their classstrength from weaker section and disadvantagedgroups .The constitutional validity of this clause waschallenged in the apex court of country; on 12, April2012, a bench of Chief Justice S .H. Kapadia, JusticeK. S Radhakrishnan and Swatanter Kumar upheldconstitutional validity of the Act. 44
  45. 45. In response to the Supreme Court order, HRD ministerKapil Sibal said, ―I am very happy that the court has set all controversies atrest. One of the biggest controversies was on whether the25 percent reservation applies to private schools or not…that controversy has been set to rest.The judgment makes it mandatory for the government,local authorities and private schools to reserve 25 percentof their seats for ‗weaker and disadvantaged sections‗ ofsociety. 45
  46. 46. Good education is empowering विद्याविधधविहीनेन ककिं कऱीनेन दे हहनाम ् । ु अकऱीनोऽवऩ विद्याढ्यो दििरवऩ ितद्यिे ु ॥ Of what use is nobility of family if a person is illiterate? [Akbar - the Great was an exception] A learned man is respected by Gods too though he does not belong to a noble family. 46
  47. 47. From labour mode to learning mode It is the duty of the state, parents and guardians, and the community to ensure that all children of school going age are in school. A substantial proportion of Indias poor children are; engaged in agricultural labour or petty trades, housework, and sibling care. Ending the morally and socially abhorrent practice of child labour, not ‗regulating‘ it must be taken up as a non-negotiable objective. 47
  48. 48. Primary-School & No of Teachers 48
  49. 49. Free, compulsory and of high quality The right to education is free, compulsory and it includes good quality education for all. A curriculum not only provides good reading and understanding of text books but also includes learning through activities, exploration and discovery. Comprehension, competence, competitiveness and creativity should be developed, not forgetting compassion. 49
  50. 50. Good teacher’s company enables. य् ऩठति सऱखति ऩश्यति ऩररऩच्छिी ऩन्डििान ् ृ उऩाश्रयवऩ । िस्य हदिाकरककरि् नसऱनी दऱिं इि विस्िाररिा बवद्ध् ॥ ु One who reads, writes, sees, inquires, lives in the company of learned men, his intellect expands like the lotus leaf does because of the rays of sun. 50
  51. 51. Education Depts of State & Union Governments have direct responsibility, trusts have supporting role.To provide schools, infrastructure, trained teachers, curriculum and teaching-learning material, and mid-day meal.A well coordinated mechanism is needed forinter- sectoral collaboration & convergence. 51
  52. 52. On the part of the whole Govts: The factors that contribute to the achievement of the overall goal of universalizing elementary education as a fundamental right requires action on the part of the whole Governments.A well coordinated mechanism is needed forinter- sectoral collaboration & convergence. 52
  53. 53. Timely & appropriate financial allocations,redesign school spaces The Finance Department to release funds at all levels. The Public Works Dept. to re-conceive and redesign school spaces from the pedagogic perspective & Address issues of including disabled children through barrier free access. 53
  54. 54. Provide Social & Location Mapping of schools, Water & sanitation facilities The Dept. of Science & Technology to provide geo-spatial technology to perform at grass-root survey. Provision of access to sufficient safe drinking water Provision and access to adequate sanitation facilities, specially for girl child. 54
  55. 55. 55
  56. 56. ROLE OF CIVIL SOCEITY in RTE Above all, people‘s groups, civil society organizations & voluntary agencies will play an crucial role in the implementation of the RTE Act. This will help build a new perspective on inclusiveness, encompassing gender & social inclusion, & ensure that these become integral & crosscutting concerns informing different aspects like training, curriculum and classroom transaction. 56
  57. 57. ROLE OF CIVIL SOCEITY A VIBRANT CIVIL SOCEITY MOVEMENT CAN ENSURE THAT THE PARENT / CHILD FROM WEAKER OR DISADVANTAGED SECTIONS BECOME AWARE OF THE VALUE OF EXERCISING THE RIGHT TO ELEMENTARY EDUCATION AND PUT IN SERIOUS EFFORTS ON THEIR PART. NGO contribution of knowledge, ideas and solutions to the challenges are needed. 57
  58. 58. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh:"We are committed to ensuring that allchildren, irrespective of gender andsocial category, have access toeducation. An education that enablesthem to acquire the skills, knowledge,values and attitudes necessary tobecome responsible and active citizensof India‖ 58
  59. 59. The 86th constitutional amendment (2002),And the RTE Act (2009), have given us thetools to provide quality education to all ourchildren. It is now imperative that we thepeople of India join hands to ensure theimplementation of this law in its true spirit.The Government is committed to this taskthough real change will happen throughcollective action. 59
  60. 60. RTE, Act 2009 upheld by SC On 12 April 2012, in its historical decision the Supreme Court (SC) of India threw its weight behind the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009. The court upheld the constitutional validity of RTE Act that guarantees children free and compulsory education from the age of 6 to 14 years of age. The judgment makes it mandatory for the government, local authorities and private schools to reserve 25 percent of their seats for ‗weaker and disadvantaged sections‗ of society. The decision has wiped away many apprehensions regarding the future of the Act. 60
  61. 61. India’s Age: YOUNG INDIA 0-14 years: 31.1% (male 190,000,000 /female 172,890,000) 15-64 years: 63.6% India‘s Average: Total: 25 years Male: 25 years Female: 26 years 61
  62. 62. You can’t give a cold shoulder to Kapilji! Kapil Sibal led the first Indian expedition to the Arctic and was responsible for setting up an Indian Research Station ‗Himadri‘ there in July, 2008. Kapil Sibal was the first Indian Minister to have traveled to the icy continent of Antarctica and stayed at the Maitri base in sub-zero temperatures, for getting a first hand experience about the hardships being faced by the Indian scientists. Kapil Sibal announced an upgrading of Indias scientific facilities at the Maitri, besides augmenting the fleet strength of the Pisten Bully vehicles required to travel on ice. Kapil Sibal visited laboratories near Maitri, besides carrying out a final assessment on Indias proposed third permanent base. 62
  63. 63. Then _ So few people, NOW Too many !Panic not, we are the human resource andeducation makes it so. NOWTHEN:Nalanda University isconsidered "one of the firstgreat universities inrecorded history." It was thecenter of learning andresearch in the world from450–1193 CE. 63
  64. 64. Education brings out meritऩरुषमवऩ गुरूिािं बुवद्धबोधाथामुक्ििंिचनमनुसरतयाति सशष्यो महत्तत्तिम ्।खतनिऱगिरत्तनिं श्रेष्ठमप्यत्र शािो-त्तकषिमधधगििं िद्भाति मौऱौ नऩािाम ्। ृ A disciple attains prominence by carrying out educational instructions of his Guru. Even though a gem found in a mine might be precious, it needs to undergo the rigors of a grindstone, before it adorns the crown of monarchs. 64
  65. 65. 66
  66. 66. 67
  67. 67. Age structure of School going children 68
  68. 68. Role of Central & State Governments The primary responsibility for school education is borne by the state governments. Therefore any policy changes must be with the full participation and involvement of the States. However, positive changes in systems of schooling will require the active involvement of the Central Government as well as State Governments. This is not only in the matter of providing resources but also in promoting organizational and other changes. 69
  69. 69. In India, the main types of schools are thosecontrolled by: The state government Boards like SSLC, in which the vast majority of Indian school children are enrolled The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) board, The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) board, National Open School and "International schools." 70
  70. 70. SUPPORTORGANISATIONSOf Union Department of Education:•Central Institute of Education Technology•Central Tibetan Schools Administration (CTSA)•Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS)•Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS)•National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)•Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)•National Council of Educational Research andTraining 71
  71. 71. National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). The NCERT was established in 1961. It functions as a resource centre in the field of school education and teacher education. The NCERT undertakes programmes related to research, development and training extension and dissemination of educational innovations etc., through various constituent Departments at the headquarters in New Delhi and 11 Field Officers all over the country. Publication of school textbooks and other educational material like teachers‘ guides/manuals etc. are its major functions. 72
  72. 72. Central Institute of Education Technology (CIET) CIET is an important unit of NCERT which is engaged in the production of satellite based audio and video programmes for Elementary and Secondary levels which are aired on All India Radio, and Doordarshan. CIET also coordinates programme production activities of the six States Institute of Education Technology at Patna, Lucknow, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Pune and Bhubaneshwar 73
  73. 73. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) CBSE was initially called as ‗The Board of High School and Intermediate Education‘. It was established with a view to play a useful role in the field of Secondary Education, to raise the standard of Secondary Education, to make the services of the Board available to various educational institutions in the country and to meet the educational needs of those students who have to move from State to State. 74
  74. 74. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Major Activities and Objectives: To prescribe conditions of examinations and conduct public examination at the end of Class X and XII. To grant qualifying certificates to successful candidates of the affiliated schools. To fulfill the educational requirements of those students whose parents were employed in transferable jobs. To prescribe and update the course of instructions of examinations To affiliate institutions for the purpose of examination and raise the academic standards of the country. 75
  75. 75. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Board today has 8979 schools [on 31-03- 2007] including 141 schools in 21 countries. There are 897 Kendriya Vidyalayas, 1761 Government Schools, 5827 Independent Schools, 480 Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas and 14 Central Tibetean Schools. 76
  76. 76. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) The CBSE, the Headquarter of which is in Delhi from 1962, subscribes to a diverse, mass participative education system with a broader base of access that provides the benefits of uniformity, flexibility and diversity as envisaged in the National Policy of Education; the services of the Board are available to various educational institutions in the country and to meet the educational needs of those students who have to move from State to State. 77
  77. 77. The prime focus of the CBSE is on Innovations in teaching-learning methodologies by devising students friendly and students centered paradigms. Reforms in examinations and evaluation practices. Skill learning by adding job-oriented and job-linked inputs. Regularly updating the pedagogical skills of the teachers and administrators by conducting in service training programmes, workshops etc. 78
  78. 78. Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan The Government approved the scheme of Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan in 1962. Initially, 20 regimental schools in different States were taken over as Central Schools. In 1965, Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan was established with the primary objective of setting-up and monitoring Kendriya Vidyalaya to cater to the educational needs of the children of transferable Central Government Employees including Defense Personnel and Para- Military forces by providing common programme of education. At present, there are 931 Kendriya Vidyalayas (as on 17 June 2005). All Kendriya Vidyalayas follow a uniform syllabus. 79
  79. 79. Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti Navodaya Vidyalayas are located all over the country including Lakshadweep and A & N Islands except the State of Tamilnadu. To provide good quality modern education to the talented children predominently from the rural areas, without regard to their familys socio-economic condition. Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas are co-educational residential schools. 80
  80. 80. Central Tibetan Schools Administration Central Tibetan Schools administration is an autonomous organization under MHRD, established in 1961 with the objective to establish, manage and assist schools in India for the education of Tibetan Children living in India while preserving and promoting their culture and heritage. The administration is running 71 schools spread all over India in the area of concentration of Tibetan population. About 10,000 students are on roll from pre-primary to class XII with 554 Teaching and 239 sanctioned Non Teaching Staff. The schools are affiliated to CBSE and follow NCERT curriculums. The medium of instruction is Tibetan and English. The classes and Labs are well equipped and all efforts are made for overall development of Children by giving them opportunities of participating in various co-curricular activities viz. sports/cultural/art and adventure activities. 81
  81. 81. The National Literacy Mission (NLM)The Community Education Centre (CEC) NLM was based on the 1986 National Policy on Education; set up with the aim of imparting functional literacy to adults in the 15-35 age group by 1988--1995.
  82. 82. India – Moving towards a lifelong learning approach National Literacy Mission was set up with the aim of imparting functional literacy to 80 million adults in the 15-35 age group by 1988 --1995. It started with a mass campaign approach: the Total Literacy Campaign (TLC), but has evolved into a programme of adult education. Literacy for youth and adults still remains its core, but it is developing elements of lifelong learning for increasingly large and diverse groups of participants. 83
  83. 83. National Literacy Mission: Literacy as an active and potent instrument of change The N L M conceived literacy as an active and potent instrument of change and for the creation of a learning society. Functional literacy was defined as: • Achieving self-reliance in literacy and numeracy; • Becoming aware of the causes of their own deprivation and ways of overcoming their condition through organization, and participation in the process of development ; Acquiring skills to improve economic status and general well-being. 84
  84. 84. Functional literacy was also aimed at: adopting the values of national integration, environmental conservation, women‘s equality and observance of small-family norms. 85
  85. 85. The revised National Policy on Education: 1992 NLM combined Post- Literacy and Continuing Education (PL & CE) activities in order to consolidate and improve functional literacy skills of neo-literates. The Post-Literacy Campaigns had three broad learning objectives – remediation, continuation and application. A new scheme of Continuing Education, distinct from the previous PL & CE, was launched by NLM in 1997. The aim was to provide learning opportunities to neo-literates on a continuing basis and to reinforce and widen the literacy skills for personal, social and economic improvement. 86
  86. 86. National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) formerly known as National Open School (NOS) was established in November,1989 as an autonomous organization in pursuance of National Policy on Education 1986 by the MHRD. NIOS is providing a number of Vocational, Life Enrichment and community oriented courses besides General and Academic Courses at Secondary and Senior Secondary level. It also offers Elementary level Courses for 14+ age group through its Open Basic Education Programmes (OBE). Government of India through a gazette notification vested NIOS with the authority to examine and certify learners registered with it upto pre degree level courses. 87
  87. 87. Adult Illiteracy Implementation of this functional and instrumental concept of literacy varied greatly and often veered towards a conventional approach that focused more on the mechanics of recognizing alphabets at a rudimentary level, rather than self-sufficiency in acquiring the tools for further learning and developing critical consciousness. With over 300 million adults in illiteracy, India accounted for about 40 per cent of the world’s adult illiteracy. 88
  88. 88. The Community Education Centre (CEC) The Community Education Centre (CEC), the main delivery point of CE programmes, looked after by a Prerak (Animator), is meant to be a community-based centre with a library and reading room. It plans and carries out activities in training, information, culture, sports, communication and discussion forums for the communities it serves. The CEC is seen as a permanent institution, located in a public place, open to all, and run with close community involvement. 89
  89. 89. Key stakeholders of the Community Education Centre The participants are neo-literates, mostly women, and the Panchayats (elected local self-government bodies) are regarded as key stakeholders of the CEC. At district level the programme implementing agency is the Zila Shaksharta Samiti ( ZSS or District Literacy Society). A registered society with a General Council and an Executive Committee, under the leadership of the district head of administration. It receives funds from the government and disburses funds to CECs on the basis of approved plans. 90
  90. 90. Vocational And Life Enrichment Education A District Resource Unit (DRU), located in the District Institute of Education and Training (DIET), and the State Resource Centre provide technical and academic support to the programme. The Jan Shikshan Sansthan (People‘s Training Organisation), a district-level institution, often managed by an NGO, works with the ZSS to provide vocational and life enrichment education. It offers courses based on local market demands. 91
  91. 91. Districts with low education level About a quarter of India‘s 600 districts which have a low education level now each have a district literacy society and a functioning adult education programme under its auspices. Although the NLM objectives and programmes are conceptually linked to a broader approach to adult and lifelong learning, the heavy burden of illiteracy compels India to remain focused on narrow literacy objectives, especially in seven of the 28 states which account for 65 per cent of the total illiterate population. 92
  92. 92. Remedy for low education level It is in the same states that the national programme for primary education, Sarva Shisksha Abhiyan (Education for all Campaign), is weak and, therefore, continues to feed the pool of illiteracy. This is so much so that the primary schools have been described as maintaining a system of ‗institutionalised sub-literacy.‘ (The Statesman, editorial, 22 August, 2006). Other challenges relate to finding effective pathways to address the multiple disadvantages of educationally- deprived populations who are living in extreme poverty, are largely low-caste or ethnic minorities, often in poor health, and women. 93
  93. 93. Expansion of functional literacy in India National Knowledge Commission (2008) stressed a focus on expanding functional literacy among the population. Illiteracy remains a major problem, even among the age-group 15-35 years. Therefore literacy programmes must be expanded rather than reduced, and given a different focus that is directed towards improving life skills and meeting felt needs, especially (but not only) among the youth. 94
  94. 94. GE, NLM, Then, there is vocational Education The Indian Constitution resolves to provide quality education to all. The educational needs of the country differs specifically for the diverse societies and cultures of the country and hence the government has chalked out different educational categories: Elementary education, Secondary education, Higher education, Adult education, Technical and Vocational education. 95
  95. 95. 96
  96. 96. Data during the period: 1993 - 2002 97
  97. 97. 98

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