History of ’Nano’
• The term "nanotechnology" was defined
by Tokyo Science University professor
Norio Taniguchi in a 1974 paper.
• In the 1980s the basic idea of this
definition was explored in much more
depth by Dr. Eric Drexler, who promoted
the technological significance of nanoscale phenomena and devices through
speeches and the books
Nanotechnology is any technology which
exploits phenomena and structures that
can only occur at the nanometer scale,
which is the scale of single atoms and
• The United States National
Nanotechnology Initiative website
defines it as follows: "Nanotechnology is
the understanding and control of matter
at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100
nanometers, where unique phenomena
enable novel applications."
What phenomena are involved?
• Such phenomena include ‘quantum
confinement’ -- which can result in
different electromagnetic and optical
properties of a material between nanoparticles and the bulk material.
• Such phenomena include the Gibbs-
Thomson effect --which is the lowering
of the melting point of a material when it
is nanometers in size, and such
structures including Carbon nanotubes.
Which Sci & Eng Departments
worry about NT?
• Nanoscience and nanotechnology are an
extension of the field of materials science,
and materials science departments in
conjunction with physics, mechanical
engineering, bioengineering, and chemical
engineering departments are leading the
breakthroughs in nanotechnology.
Say more about Nano Sci & Eng
• These interdisciplinary fields of science
are devoted to the study of nano-scale
phenomena employed in nanotechnology.
This is the world of atoms, molecules,
macromolecules, quantum dots, and
macromolecular assemblies, and…
…Say more Nano Sci & Eng ?
• It is dominated by surface effects
such as Van der Waals force
attraction, hydrogen bonding,
electronic charge, ionic bonding,
covalent bonding, hydrophobicity,
hydrophilicity, and quantum
…Say more Nano Sci & Eng?
• to the virtual exclusion of macroscale effects such as turbulence and
inertia. For example, the vastly
increased ratio of surface area to
volume opens new possibilities in
surface-based science, such as
What are nanodevices & their
• One fundamental characteristic:
• Scanning probe microscopy is an
important technique both for
characterization and synthesis of
• Atomic force microscopes and scanning
tunneling microscopes can be used to look
at surfaces and to move atoms around.
…nanodevices & their
• By designing different tips for these
microscopes, they can be used for
carving out structures on surfaces and to
help guide self-assembling structures.
Atoms can be moved around on a
surface with scanning probe microscopy
techniques, that can be used for things
like helping to guide self-assembling
How are atoms, molecules
assembled into devices that
• Supramolecular chemistry is here a very
important tool. Supramolecular
chemistry is the chemistry beyond the
molecule, and molecules are being
designed to self-assemble into larger
Biology is a place to find inspiration: cells
and their pieces are made from selfassembling biopolymers- proteins and protein
A synthesis of organic molecules by adding
them to the ends of complementary DNA
strands such as ---A and ----B, with
molecules A and B attached to the end; when
these are put together, the complementary
DNA strands hydrogen bonds into a double
helix ====AB, and the DNA molecule can be
removed to isolate the product AB.
What significance assembled
• Natural or man-made particles or
artifacts often have qualities and
capabilities quite different from their
macroscopic counterparts. Gold, for
example, which is chemically inert at
normal scales, can serve as a potent
chemical catalyst at nanoscales.
Top ten applications of NT
1.Energy storage, production and conversion;
2. Agricultural productivity enhancement;
3. Water treatment and remediation;
4. Disease diagnosis and screening;
5. Drug delivery systems ….
…Top ten applications of NT
6. Food processing and storage;
7. Air pollution and remediation;
9. Health monitoring;
10. Vector and pest detection and
Some Indian initiative in NT
• In 2000, government launched a USD
15 million fund for a five-year national
programme on Smart Materials.
• It is coordinated by 5 government
agencies involving10 research centres
• Focus is on Micro-Electro-Mechanical
Systems (MEMS) technology.
…. Indian initiative in NT
• MEMS is the integration of mechanical
elements, sensors, actuators, and
electronics on a common silicon
substrate through microfabrication
• The Nanomaterials topics include
nanostructure synthesis and
characterizations, DNA chips,
nanoelectronics, and nanomaterials.
In 2002, the Department of Science and
Technology launched the National
Nanotech Programme with total funding of
USD 10 million committed over the
next 3 years. The Indian Institute of Science
(IISc), known as Knowledge Hub of
India, was awarded USD 1.0 million for its
Nanoscience Research Centre.
What is ’IndiaNano’ ?
• IndiaNano, a platform recently
established by the US and Indian US
Community in the Silicon Valley
together with Indian R&D community,
IndiaNano, a platform ….
• trying to coordinate the Indian
academic, corporate, government,
and private labs, entrepreneurs, earlystage companies, investors, IP, joint
ventures, service providers, start-up
ventures, and strategic alliances.
IIT Bombay's Centre for Research in Nanotechnology &
Science (CRNTS) is expected to play a key role in the
country in the development of Nanotechnology
R&D. Indian nanoscience and technology covers a wide
spectrum of topics which include MEMS & NEMS,
Nanostructure synthesis and characterizations, Bio-chips or
lab-on-a chip concepts, Nanoelectronics (transistors,
quantum computing, optoelectronics.etc.) and
nanomaterials (CNT, nanoparticles, nanopowder,
Much work is funded and coordinated by DST, MCIT, DBT
and a few other government agencies. A recent effort has
been that of the National Programme on Smart Materials
(NPSM) in the area of MEMS and smart materials. This
programme has funded several industries, research labs
and academic institutions in various aspects of MEMS,
including materials, aerospace applications, design, and
biological applications. Two centres of excellence in
Nanoelectronics have also been sanctioned by the Govt.
of India at IIT Bombay and I I Sc Bangalore
Solar PV System for Electricity.
A solar photovoltaic cell (PV) is a device that converts solar
radiation energy into electricity. Solar cells were commonly
used to power small-sized items such as calculators and
watches. But solar PV system have a great future in
providing the electricity needs for rural communities, homes,
and businesses, when their cost is brought down and
energy efficiency in converting light to electricity can be
made high. Scientists found that quantum dots to can give
more efficient photovoltaic cells and research in nano-solar
cells along with battery may lead to an economic Solar PV
System in future.
Catalysts used in the petroleum industry like zeolites
(silicates and aluminosilicates), which are structured with
pores and channels having the ‘right’ dimensions to encase
selected molecules for catalytic activity (hence they may be
specific to certain chemicals). These materials may also be
used as molecular sieves and exchange ion catalysts. The
sol gel method has been shown to yield, under appropriate
conditions, a wide variety of nanoporous structures where
the dimensions of the pores may be varied depending on
the starting material and treatment conditions.