About biomass for power


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Biomass production, processing, conversion and energy recovery as electric power.

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About biomass for power

  4. 4. At present, nuclear, wind andhydro are the non-fossil fuelsources of energy thatcontribute to electricitygeneration supplementingcoal, natural gas and oil. 4
  5. 5. Role of biomass in electricity Generation?• At present, nuclear, wind and hydro are the non-fossil fuel sources of energy that contribute to electricity generation supplementing coal, natural gas and oil.• Where cane sugar industry is thriving, with bagasse as fuel, electricity is produced along with process steam for the sugar industry.• Contribution of biomass gasification with combined cycle or micro-gas turbine for power is yet to be fully established. 5
  6. 6. 2002-2030 biomassThe social, economic and environmental benefits of biomasspower are accepted for long term sustainability. The technologiesare progressively getting upgraded, attaining maturity, andreaching commercialization. This is one of the renewable sources. 6
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  8. 8. The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)Reference book Chapters 12 to15 8
  9. 9. Another Reference book: Chapter 4 & 5Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Sources By G. N. Tiwari and M. K. Ghosal Narosa Publishing House, N.D. 2007Chapter 4: Biomass, Biofuels and Biogas Chapter 5: Biopower 9
  10. 10. Route From BIOMASS to ENERGY 10
  11. 11. What does it take to produce energy from biomass?• Input for producing biomass: Seed, Land with soil, water, N P K + minor nutrients, sunlight and manual + animal energy.• How to Make it a usable Fuel: Biomass Residue from other uses maybe used as biofuel for combustion [heat-> Engine] or may be converted by preparatory methods into derived S/L/G biofuel• End use conversion devices: Thermodynamic cycles, Stoves, kilns, furnaces, steam turbines, gas turbines, engines and electricity Generators. 11
  13. 13. Environment Impact Assessment scope 13
  14. 14. A set of factors explain the slow growth on thebiomass utilization . They include:1. High costs of production2. Limited potential for production3. Lack of sufficient data on energy transformations coefficients.4. Low energy efficiency5. Health hazard in producing and using biomass. 14
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  20. 20. Biomass conversion technologiesA number of modern biomass conversiontechnologies are now available, which allow forconversion of biomass to modern energy formssuch as electricity or gaseous (biogas, producergas), liquid (ethanol, methanol), and solid(briquette) fuels. Biomass conversiontechnologies can help in meeting different typesof energy needs, particularly electricity. Keytechnologies for power generation that have beenpromoted in India are gasification, combustion,cogeneration and biomethanation. 20
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  24. 24. What is Biomass?What are its sources and how are they classified?
  25. 25. BIOMASS• Biomass is material derived from plant and animal sources.• Products of Forestry, Agriculture, Urban and Industrial Waste Disposables are sources of biomass that may be converted into biofuels. 25
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  27. 27. Sources of biomass Primary: • Forestry-Dense, Open; • Social Forestry • Agriculture, • Animal Husbandry, • Marine Secondary: • Industry, • Municipal Waste 27
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  30. 30. Classification of biomass based on physicochemical properties:• WOODY,• NON-WOODY or AGRO RESIDUE (cultivated),• WET [AQUEOUS] ORGANIC WASTE (effluents) 30
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  32. 32. Forests Discuss forests as multifunctionalnatural resource that can also yield woody biofuel.
  33. 33. Forest resource base-India• 1 % of Worlds forests on 2.47 % of worlds geographical area• Sustaining 16 % of the worlds population and 15 % of its livestock population• Forest area cover—63.3 mill. hectares, is 19.2% of the total geographical area of India. 33
  34. 34. Causes of tremendous pressure on Forest resource base• Exponential rise in human and livestock population• increasing demand on land allocation to alternative uses such as agriculture, pastures and development activities.• Insufficient availability, poor purchasing power of people in rural areas for commercial fuels like kerosene & LPG drives poor people to use firewood inefficiently as a cooking fuel. 34
  35. 35. The National Forest Policy• A minimum of 33 % of total land area underforest or tree cover from present 19.2%cover.•Recognize the requirements of local peoplefor timber, firewood, fodder and other non-timber forest produce-- as the first charge onthe forests,• The need for forest conservation on thebroad principles of sustainability andpeople’s participation. 35
  36. 36. Joint Forest Management system.15.5 m. ha of degraded forest land has natural rootstock available, which may regenerate given propermanagement under the JFM•Another 9.5 m. ha is partially degraded with somenatural rootstock, and another six m. ha is highlydegraded. These last two categories togetherconstitute another 15.5 m. ha, which requirestreatment through technology-based plantation offuel, fodder and timber species with substantialinvestment and technological inputs. 36
  37. 37. The emphasis will be on:• Fuelwood and fodder plantations to meetthe requirements of rural and urbanpopulations.•Plantations of economically importantspecies (through use of high-yielding clones)on refractory areas to meet the growingtimber requirement.• Supplementing the incomes of the tribalrural poor through management anddevelopment of non-timber forest products. 37
  38. 38. The emphasis will be on cont…• Developing and promoting pasture on suitabledegraded areas.• Promoting afforestation and development ofdegraded forests by adopting, through micro-planning, an integrated approach on a watershedbasis.• Suitable policy initiatives on rationalization of treefelling and transit rules, assured buy-backarrangements between industries and treegrowers, technology extension, and incentives likeeasy availability of institutional credit etc. 38
  39. 39. Forestry in the New Millenium:To sum up, tropical India, with its adequatesunlight, rainfall, land and labour,is ideally suitable for tree plantations.With the enhanced plan outlay forforestry sector and financial supportfrom donor agencies, the country willbe able to march ahead towards the targetof 33 percent forest cover. 39
  40. 40. What are agro-forestry, ‘trees- outside-forests [T o F]’ and Energy Plantation? Other than Forests we have thinner sources of trees. 40
  41. 41. Agro-forestryIntegrates trees with farming, such as linesof trees with crops growing between them(alley cropping), hedgerows, living fences,windbreaks, pasture trees, woodlots, andmany other farming patterns.Agro-forestry increases biodiversity,supports wildlife, provides firewood,fertilizer, forage, food and more, improvesthe soil, improves the water, benefits thefarmers, benefits everyone. 41
  42. 42. agroforestry - A dynamic, ecologically basednatural resources management system that,through the integration of trees in farmland andrangeland, diversifies and sustains production forincreased social, economic and environmentalbenefits for land users at all levels. Agroforestry,the intercropping of woody and non-woody plants,although age-old in practice, has now establisheditself as a new science. 42
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  44. 44. Energy Plantation: Growing trees for their fuel value• ‘Wasteland’-- not usable for agriculture and cash crops, useful for a social forestry activity• A plantation that is designed or managed and operated to provide substantial amounts of usable fuel continuously throughout the year at a reasonable cost-- energy plantation 44
  45. 45. Criteria for energy plantation-1• Wasteland‘--sufficient area, not usable for agriculture and cash crops, available for a social forestry activity• Tree species favorable to climate and soil conditions• Combination of harvest cycles and planting densities that will optimize the harvest of fuel and the operating cost--12000 to 24000 trees per hectare. 45
  46. 46. Criteria for energy plantation-2• Multipurpose tree species-fuel wood supply & improve soil condition• Trees that are capable of growing in deforested areas with degraded soils, and withstand exposure to wind and drought• Rapid growing legumes that fix atmospheric nitrogen to enrich soil 46
  47. 47. Criteria for energy plantation-3• Species that can be found in similar ecological zones• Produce wood of high calorific value that burn without sparks or smoke• Have other uses in addition to providing fuel - - multipurpose tree species most suited for bio-energy plantations or social forestry 47
  48. 48. Give examples of trees suitable for Indian climatic zones Fast growing nitrogen fixing trees that can withstand arid wasteland
  49. 49. Indian TREES / WOOD:• Leucaena leucocephala (Subabul)• Acacia nilotica (Babool)• Casurina sp• Derris indica (Pongam)• Eucalyptus sp• Sesbania sp• Prosopis juliflora• Azadiracta indica (Neem) 49
  50. 50. Leucaena leucocephala Crop Use:Forage legume = vegetable,• Regeneration of earthworm populations in adegraded soil by natural and planted fallows underhumid tropical conditions• Use of Leucaena leucocephala: Fodder, fuelwood, erosion control, nitrogen fixation, alley cropping, staking material• Ntrogen fixation legume: Due to Leucaena leucocephala crop wasteland is reclaimed 50
  51. 51. HYDROCARBON PLANTS, OIL PRODUCING SHRUBS:• Hydrocarbon-- Euphorbia group• & Euphorbia Lathyrus• OIL Shrubs-- Euphorbia Tirucali• Soyabean• Sunflower• Groundnut• Jatropa 51
  52. 52. DiscussProperties & characteristics of biomass Wood – Agro residue – aqueous Waste
  53. 53. Properties of Solid Biomass : 53
  54. 54. Chemical Composition of Solid Biomass :• Total Ash %,• Solvent soluble %,• Water Soluble %,• Lignin %,• Cellulose %,• Hemi-cellulose % 54
  55. 55. Elemental Composition:• Carbon• Hydrogen• Oxygen• Nitrogen• Sulphur 55
  56. 56. Properties of Wet and Biodegradable biomass:• C O D value• B O D value• Total dissolved solids• Volatile solids 56
  57. 57. What intervention is neededin traditional and primitive rural utilization of biomass as fuel? By overcoming poor purchasing powerfor LPG /Kerosene [to eliminate biofuel] and investing in Energy Plantations Make biofuel use economical and use efficient with new technology.
  58. 58. Problems in use of bio-fuelsTraditional biomass use is characterized by• low efficiency of devices, scarcity of fuelwood, drudgery associated with the devices used,• environmental degradation (such as forest degradation) and low quality of life. 58
  59. 59. • In the twenty-first century, energy is not as it always was.• Yesterday’s world was entirely dependent on biomass, particularly wood for heating and cooking.• A century ago biomass was eclipsed by fossil fuels. Biomass is generally viewed with disfavor as something associated with abject poverty.• Yet there is another side to biomass; there is now something of a resurgence going on. As fossil fuel prices increase, biomass promises (?) to play a more active role as a utility fuel, a motor vehicle fuel, and a supplement to natural gas. 59
  60. 60. Rural India & ‘bio-energy’• Before the advent of fossil fuels, energy needs for all activities were met by renewable sources such as solar, biomass, wind, animal and human muscle power.• In rural India, traditional renewables such as biomass and human and animal energy continue to contribute 80 % of the energy consumption [MNES, 2001]. 60
  61. 61. Share of bio-energy in primary energy consumption in India In India, the share of bio-energy was estimated ataround 36 % to 46 % of the total primary energyconsumption in 1991 [Ravindranath and Hall, 1995], and hascome down to around 27 % in 1997 [Ravindranath et al.,2000].For cooking, water heating and village industry,use of firewood may have been substituted by LPG,kerosene and diesel. Though availability has improved,now prices are increasing. Improved cook stoves? 61
  62. 62. Eliminate excess use of fuel wood as rural Heating andcooking Fuel: Fuelwood accounts for 60% of the total fuelin the rural areas. In urban areas, the consumption patternis changing fast due to increased availability of commercialfuel (LPG, kerosene, and electricity). During 1983–1999, theconsumption of traditional fuel declined from 49% to 24%and LPG connection to households increased from 10% to44%. Developments in the petroleum sector facilitate theavailability of (subsidized) LPG and kerosene, the two mostimportant forms of energy preferred as substitutes forfuelwood in households for cooking. 62
  63. 63. Commercial fuel =(LPG, kerosene, andelectricity). 63
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  66. 66. What are modern bioenergytechnologies, barriers to their development and what programmes are needed? Biomass conversion to usable fuels and the end use devices are to be developed and marketed
  67. 67. India has over two decades of experience of implementingbioenergy programmes. The Ministry of Non-conventionalEnergy Sources (MNES or MNRE), the prime mover of theprogrammes in India, has now responded with acomprehensive renewable energy policy to give afurther fillip to the evolving sector. The need for climatechange mitigation provides an opportunity for promotingthe renewable energy (RE) sector. This calls for anassessment of the policy barriers to the spread ofbioenergy technologies (BETs) in India. 67
  68. 68. • The experience shows that despite several financial incentives and favourable policy measures, the rate of spread of BETs is low because of the existence of institutional, technical, market and credit barriers.• These barriers are by and large known, but what still remains to be understood is the type and size of barriers from the stakeholders’ perspective, which varies for a given technology and the stakeholder.• Policy options suggested to overcome such barriers include: 68
  69. 69. Bioenergy technologies : Remove Barriers:(1) rational energy pricing: Explain the withdrawal of subsidy to Oil & Gas products from economic & environmental point of view.(2) Incentives for bioenergy to promote private sector participation,(3) institutions to empower and enable community participation,(4) financial support for large-scale demonstration programmes and forfocused research and development on bioenergy technologies(BETs) for cost reduction and efficiency improvement, and finally,(5) favourable land tenurial arrangements to promote sustainedbiomass supply.The global mechanisms for addressing climate change such as theClean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Global EnvironmentFacility (GEF) provide additional incentives to promote BETs. 69
  70. 70. Modern Bio Energy Technologies•Offer opportunities to conserve biomassthrough efficiency improvements, and forconversion to electricity and liquid andgaseous fuels.• Bio-energy technologies based onsustained biomass supply are carbonneutral and lead to net CO2 emissionreduction if used to substitute fossil fuels. 70
  71. 71. Bio Energy Technologies and their products 71
  72. 72. How can biomass supplementcoal as a feedstock for power plants? For decentralised small / medium scale power plants Biomass Power Programmes are available
  73. 73. Biomass energy is not necessarily the ‘poor man’sfuel’, its role is rapidly changing for a combination ofenvironmental, energy, climatic, social andeconomic reasons. It is increasingly becoming thefuel of the environmentally-conscious, rich society.The use of biomass energy has many pros andcons. One of the major barriers confrontingrenewable energy is that the conventional fuels donot take into account the external costs of energy,such as environmental costs. 73
  74. 74. It is important to create a new situation in which allsources of energy are put on a more ‘equal footing’.For biomass energy, which has little or noenvironmental costs, the internalisation of the costof energy could be a major determinant for its large-scale implementation. This, together withagricultural productivity and technological advances,could be a key determinant in ensuring greatercompetitiveness with fossil fuels. 74
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  76. 76. The Biomass Power Programme of India has reached the take offstage, after dedicated and sustained efforts over the last decade.The total potential is about 19,500 MW, including 3,500 MW ofexportable surplus power from bagasse-based co-generation insugar mills, and 16,000 MW of grid quality power from otherbiomass resources. 76
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  79. 79. The Program could CONSISTS OF the following Components:· Interest Subsidy for Bagasse/Biomass Co-generation projects, including IPP mode projects;· Interest Subsidy for Biomass Power Projects, including captive power projects;· Grants to MW-scale projects with 100% producer gas engines, and Advanced Biomass Gasification projects;· Promotion of Industrial Co-generation projects in core industry sector for surplus power generation;· Promotional Incentives for awareness creation, training and preparation of Detailed Project Reports; and· Grants for Biomass Resource Assessment Studies. 79
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  85. 85. Briquetting: Briquettingimproves the energy density ofloose biomass, which is eithercharred and compacted ordirectly compacted in the formof briquettes.Biomass briquettes madethrough manual processes canbe used as cooking fuel inhomes. Briquettes producedthrough mechanical processescan be used in boilers andfurnaces. 85
  86. 86. What is Biomass Briquetting?Fuel derived from compacting the biomass intodense block is known as Briquette. It is cheaperand requires no other raw material and produceheat equivalent to other fuel. Now a daysbiomass briquetting is used by the sameindustries where the low-density biomass isproduced. Jute waste, groundnut shell, coffeehusk, coir pith and rice husk is used forBriquetting. 86
  87. 87. biomass briquettes in Malawi.• The briquette evaluation was made in terms of physical and chemical characteristics (like material content, size, weight, energy content), costs for the fuel and usability in household cooking stoves. The feasibility of the production method for each briquette type was also evaluated.• The briquettes were compared with the characteristics of firewood and charcoal. 87
  88. 88. Agro-residues and agro-industry residues-1• Agricultural or agro-industrial biomass is generally difficult to handle because of its bulky and scattered nature, low thermal efficiency and copious liberation of smoke during burning. It will be useful to compress them into manageable and compact pieces, which have a high thermal value per unit weight. 88
  89. 89. Agro-residues and agro-industry residues-2• Biomass residues and by products are available in abundance at the agro processing centres (rice husk, bagasse, molasses, coconut shell, groundnut shell, maize cobs, potato waste, coffee waste, whey), farms (rice straw, cotton sticks, jute sticks). 89
  90. 90. briquetting or pelleting• The process is called • Briquetting consists of biomass briquetting or applying pressure to a pelleting. mass of particles with or• Compressed biomass without a binder and briquettes are usually converting it into cylindrical in shape with a compact aggregate. Ram diameter between 30 to type and screw type 90 mm and length varying machinery are used for between 100 to 400mm. the manufacture of briquettes. 90
  91. 91. Briquetting technology• Ram type consists of a plunger or rod which forces the material received from a hopper into a die, which is not usually heated by external means.• The screw type machine employs a screw auger which forces the material into a pipe heated by electricity.• The choice of the type of machinery depends on many factors. 91
  92. 92. Ram type [piston type] briquetting machine • Ram type consists of a plunger or rod which forces the material received from a hopper into a die, which is not usually heated by external means. 92
  93. 93. Ram type briquetting press• Common in India, alternate to screw type.• Material is compressed in horizontal press, made into a cylindrical continuous log; Cut to pellets later.• Log diameter is 50 mm for a 500 kg per hour machine and 90 mm for a 1500 kg / hr machine 93
  94. 94. Screw typebriquetting machine • The screw type machine employs a screw auger which forces the material into a pipe heated by electricity. 94
  95. 95. Screw type briquetting Press• The material is extruded under compression continuously in the form of a log, under screw.• These logs are partially carbonized and free of volatile compounds.• They can supplement charcoal / lignite as solid fuel for small scale uses.• Wear of screw is a problem and designers of machine have solved this. 95
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  97. 97. PELLETISING• Biomass material is compressed through many holes by giving very high pressure from rollers to the material. 97
  98. 98. Preparing biomass for pellet making 98
  99. 99. PELLETISING: High pressure, smaller size• In pelletising, the biomass material is compressed through many holes by giving very high pressure from rollers to the material.• The stick is continuous but the size of pellet is smaller (6-25 mm in diameter) than briquettes.• Pelletizing is more efficient and recognized as a good method because of low investment. 99
  100. 100. PELLETISING: Ring and Flat Die• Pelletizing, though introduced very recently, isconsidered to be most wanted method due to itshigh bulk density.• Ring and Flat Die are two types found in thiscategory.• The Ring die method is mostly used for makinganimal feed, which has high bulk density.• The flat die is used for low bulk density. 100
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  118. 118. Liquid Fuels from Biomass Ethanol & Biodiesel
  119. 119. Liquid and gaseous transport fuels derived from a range ofbiomass sources are technically feasible. They include• methanol,• ethanol,• dimethyl esters,• pyrolytic oil,• Fischer- Tropsch gasoline and distillate and• Biodiesel from (i) Jatropha , Pongamia pinnata, Salvadora persica, Madhuca longifolia and• ( ii) hydrocarbon from Euphorbia species. 119
  120. 120. Sugar cane, like other plants, absorbs carbon dioxide from theatmosphere during photosynthesis. Burning ethanol made fromsugar thus returns to the atmosphere what was recently there, ratherthan adding carbon that was previously underground. Unfortunately,turning sugar cane into ethanol uses more energy, and thus causesmore greenhouse-gas emission, than making petrol from crude oil.Nevertheless, says Lew Fulton of the International Energy Agency, asister body of the OECD, studies suggest that Brazils presentmethod of making ethanol fuel from sugar leads to net savings ofabout 50% in greenhouse-gas emissions per kilometre travelled,compared with running cars on petrol. 120
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  131. 131. Name a recently publishedReference book and point out the bioenergy related chapters in it. See the next three slides
  132. 132. The Energy and Resources InstituteReference book Chapters 12 to15 132 132
  133. 133. The promotion of energy using biomass availablein form of natural waste such as agriculturalresidue, sugarcane bagasse, banana stems,organic effluents, cattle dung, night soil, fuelwoodand twigs holds considerable promise. A NationalProgramme on Biomass Power/Cogeneration waslaunched to optimise the use of a variety offorestry-based and agro-based residues for powergeneration by the adoption of state-of-the-artconversion technologies. 133
  134. 134. Reference book from T. E. R. I. Chapters 12 to15 134