Anth103 Kinship


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Anth103 Kinship

  1. 1. FAMILIES & KINSHIP <ul><li>Variation in Family Form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrifocal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patrifocal </li></ul></ul>Karki Family - Matrifocal
  2. 2. Families, Kinship, and Descent <ul><li>Families </li></ul><ul><li>Descent </li></ul><ul><li>Kinship Calculation </li></ul><ul><li>Kinship Terminology </li></ul>
  3. 3. Families <ul><li>Nuclear family – consists of a married couple and their children, normally living together in same household </li></ul><ul><li>Extended family – consists of three or more generations </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding kinship system is essential part of anthropology </li></ul>
  4. 4. Families <ul><ul><li>Family of orientation – family in which one is born and grows up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family of procreation – formed when one marries and has children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In most societies, relations with nuclear family members take precedence over relations with other kin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear family widespread, but not universal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Descent groups – lineages and clans </li></ul>
  5. 5. Families <ul><li>In many societies, extended families are primary unit of social organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims of western Bosnia – nuclear families within large extended families called zadrugas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nayars – matrilineal society in which extended families live in compounds called tarawads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where nuclear family is important, it is primary arena for sexual, reproductive, economic, and enculturative functions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Industrialism and Family Organization <ul><ul><li>Neolocality – married couples may live hundreds of miles from parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended family household – expanded family household that includes 3 or more generations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within stratified nations, value systems and kinship vary from class to class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most prevalent residence pattern in U.S. is family of procreation living neolocally. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Changes in Family and Household Organization in the United States: 1970 versus 2004 <ul><ul><li>Sources: From U.S. Census data in J. M. Fields, “America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003,” Current Population Reports , P20-553, November 2004, , p. 4; J. M. Fields and L. M. Casper, “America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2000,” Current Population Reports , P20-557.pdf; U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2006 , Tables 55, 56, and 65. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Descent Groups <ul><li>Patrilineal descent – individuals automatically join father’s descent group when they are born </li></ul><ul><li>Unilineal descent – descent rule only uses one line </li></ul><ul><li>Matrilineal descent – individuals automatically join mother’s descent group when they are born </li></ul>
  9. 9. Descent Groups <ul><li>Clan – descent group who claims common descent from an apical ancestor but cannot demonstrate it (stipulated descent) </li></ul><ul><li>Lineage – descent group who can demonstrate their common descent from apical ancestor </li></ul>
  10. 10. Patrilineal Descent
  11. 11. Matrilineal Descent
  12. 12. Ambilineal Descent
  13. 13. Bilateral Descent <ul><li>Kin on both sides are important & recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Paining by John Holyfield (artist) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Functions of Descent Groups (Clans & Lineages) <ul><li>Regulate marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Make economic decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Political functions </li></ul><ul><li>Religious functions </li></ul>
  15. 15. Lineages, Clans, and Residence Rules <ul><li>Matrilocality – married couple lives with wife’s family; associated with matrilineal descent and less common than patrilocality </li></ul><ul><li>Patrilocality – married couple lives with husband’s family; associated with patrilineal descent and more common than matrilocality </li></ul>
  16. 16. Family versus Descent <ul><ul><li>Obligations to one may conflict with obligations to the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compared to patrilineal systems, matrilineal societies tend to have higher divorce rates and greater female promiscuity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many societies have both families and descent groups </li></ul>
  17. 17. Kinship Calculation <ul><ul><li>Kin terms – labels given in particular culture to different kinds of relatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological kin type – degree of actual genealogical relatedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilateral kinship – people tend to perceive kin links through males and females as being similar or equal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System by which people in a society reckon kin relationships </li></ul>
  18. 18. Kinship Symbols and Genealogical Kin Type Notation