Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Anth1 Culture


Published on

anthropology, concepts of culture

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Anth1 Culture

  1. 1. The Concept of Culture Traditional Potter Caste Work in Rural Nepal, 1989. J. Fortier
  2. 2. If you wish to access the on-line materials, go to: <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Copies of powerpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion Board for students </li></ul><ul><li>Extra reading materials </li></ul><ul><li>Study Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Study materials </li></ul><ul><li>Not required to visit the site </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Concept of Culture <ul><li>What Is Culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Universality, Generality, and Particularity </li></ul><ul><li>Me chanisms of Cultural Change </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Is Culture? <ul><li>Culture is “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom...” p. 43 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Culture Is Learned <ul><li>Cultural learning unique to humans </li></ul>
  6. 6. Culture Is Shared Culture located and transmitted in groups
  7. 7. Culture can be shared through Diffusion <ul><li>Cultural practices and artifacts are transmitted through diffusion </li></ul>Courtesy
  8. 8. Culture Is Symbolic <ul><li>Symbolic though unique and crucial to cultural learning </li></ul>Performing a Hindu Ritual
  9. 9. Culture and Nature <ul><li>Humans interact with cultural constructions of nature rather than directly with nature itself </li></ul><ul><li>Culture:Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Male:Female </li></ul>
  10. 10. Culture Is All-Encompassing <ul><ul><li>Everyone is cultured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To understand North American culture, one must consider both traditional & popular cultures: movies, fast-food restaurants, sports and games </li></ul></ul>The Bourne Ultimatum ; courtesy
  11. 11. Culture Is Integrated <ul><ul><li>Changes in one aspect will likely generate changes in other aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core values – sets of ideas, attitudes, and beliefs that are basic in that they provide an organizational logic for the rest of the culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture is a system </li></ul>
  12. 12. Culture Can Be Adaptive and Maladaptive <ul><ul><li>What’s good for individual isn’t necessarily good for group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining whether cultural practice is adaptive or maladaptive frequently requires viewing results of that practice from several perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humans have biological and cultural ways of coping with environmental stress </li></ul>
  13. 13. Theories of Culture <ul><li>Cultural Materialists </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic Theories of Culture </li></ul>
  14. 14. Materialist principles <ul><ul><ul><li>Cultures adapt humans to environment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environment shapes cultures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture change is a process of adaptation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultures change towards equilibrium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology & economy are central elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary cultural elements - religion, ritual, world view, myth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marvin Harris, Julian Steward, Elman Service </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Materialist views of cannibalism <ul><li>Brings protein to population </li></ul><ul><li>Endo vs Exo cannibalism </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive strategy to starvation </li></ul><ul><li>Created protection from radical prions </li></ul><ul><li>Strikes fear into enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Allows political control & expansion </li></ul>
  16. 16. Symbolic principles of The Culture Concept <ul><li>Culture is a system of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>etic/emic knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>rules of appropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Competence & performance </li></ul><ul><li>Ideologies & practices </li></ul><ul><li>Universals of human cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Binary oppositions </li></ul><ul><li>Claude Levi-Strauss: “Universal structures of the human mind” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Claude L évi-Strauss & Binary Oppositions <ul><li>Universal structures of human mind use binary coding </li></ul><ul><li>Binary codes use marked, mediating features </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing cultures involves knowing those structures particular to a given culture </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cultures as Symbolic Systems <ul><li>Culture is a system of shared meanings and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>“ Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight” </li></ul><ul><li>Clifford & Hildred Geertz - Interpretive Anthropology </li></ul>
  19. 19. Cannibalism as part of a Symbolic System <ul><li>For é people of New Guinea </li></ul><ul><li>Sorcerers cause illness (Kuru) </li></ul><ul><li>Endo-cannibalism incorporates kin </li></ul><ul><li>~ Mad Cow Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Shirley Lindembaum </li></ul><ul><li>Cannibalism part of a belief system </li></ul>
  20. 20. Culture and the Individual: Agency and Practice <ul><li>People use their culture actively and creatively, rather than blindly following its dictates </li></ul>Courtesy:
  21. 21. Culture and the Individual: Agency and Practice <ul><ul><li>Practice Theory – recognizes that individuals within a society or culture have diverse motives and intentions and different degrees of power and influence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture is both public and individual </li></ul>Pierre Bourdieu 1930-2002; courtesy
  22. 22. “ Distinctions” in Cultural Practice <ul><li>Cultural Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Social Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Vendor </li></ul><ul><li>Plumber </li></ul><ul><li>Daycare worker </li></ul><ul><li>Violinist </li></ul><ul><li>Driver </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Business owner </li></ul><ul><li>House painter </li></ul><ul><li>Public mural artist </li></ul>Fruit vendor (selling aciote ) in South America
  23. 23. Distinctions: Examples of Different Types of Capital <ul><li>cultural capital : went to grad school, got a degree in Public Health </li></ul><ul><li>social capital : get a good job after friends give you tips on new openings/networks </li></ul><ul><li>econ capital - make 100K </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic capital : bought a mercedes benz </li></ul><ul><li>Where do class “distinctions” place you in the “field” of society? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Problems w/ Culture Concept <ul><li>Overgeneralizations </li></ul><ul><li>Bicultural oscillations </li></ul><ul><li>Intersections of race, class, gender </li></ul><ul><li>Borders </li></ul>
  25. 25. Levels of Culture <ul><li>International culture – practices common to identifiable group extending beyond boundaries of one culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcultures – identifiable cultural patterns existing within a larger culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National culture – experiences, beliefs, learned behavior patterns, and values shared by citizens of the same nation </li></ul>
  26. 26. Levels of Culture, with Examples from Sports and Foods
  27. 27. Ethnocentrism & Cultural Relativism <ul><li>Viewing your own culture as superior </li></ul><ul><li>Applying your own values to other cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to social solidarity </li></ul><ul><li>Universal </li></ul><ul><li>Each culture’s behavior is judged oni ts own merits </li></ul><ul><li>Universal human rights exist which supercede cultural morals </li></ul><ul><li>Not moral position, a methodological position </li></ul>
  28. 28. Human & Cultural Rights <ul><li>Cultural rights –a group’s ability to preserve its cultural tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights – vested in individuals; the right to speak freely, </li></ul><ul><li>hold religious beliefs without persecution </li></ul><ul><li>not be murdered, injured, enslaved, or imprisoned without charge. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Universality, Generality, and Particularity <ul><ul><li>traits that distinguish Homo sapiens from other species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Universals </li></ul>People build towns such as Nainatal, India
  30. 30. Cultural Generalizations and Cultural Particulars <ul><ul><li>Regularities that occur in different times and places but not all cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Particularities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traits or features of culture not generalized or widespread </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generalities </li></ul>Nukak of Columbia, S. Amer. eats monkey
  31. 31. Mechanisms of Cultural Change <ul><ul><li>Borrowing of traits between cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct – between two adjacent cultures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect – across one or more intervening cultures or through some long-distance medium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forced – through warfare, colonization, or some other kind of domination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unforced – intermarriage, trade, and the like </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul>
  32. 32. Mechanisms of Cultural Change <ul><ul><li>Exchange of features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul>Khanty are a reindeer-herding people of western Siberia Photo:
  33. 33. Globalization <ul><li>Processes that make modern nations and people increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent </li></ul>Sweatshops in Saipan: $3.50/hr wage; pay ~7k to come work; never get out of debt; Photo: spring2006