AVALANCHES• An AVALANCHE is a rapid flow • Avalanches kill more than 150 of snow down a slope, from people worldwide each year. either natural triggers or human Most are snowmobilers, skiers, activity. and snowboarders.• It is typically occurring in mountainous terrain, an avalanche can mix air and water with the descending snow.
FLOODS• A FLOOD results from days of • What is a FLASH FLOOD? heavy rain and/or melting snows, when rivers rise and go over It is sudden flooding that their banks. occurs when floodwaters rise rapidly with no warning within several hours of an intense rain. They often occur after intense rainfall from slow moving thunderstorms.
EARTHQUAKES• EARTHQUAKES are the • EARTHQUAKES can be felt shaking, rolling or sudden shock over large areas although they of the earth’s surface. usually last less than one minute.• They are the Earths natural Earthquakes cannot be means of releasing stress. predicted - although scientists are working on it!• More than a million earthquakes rattle the world each year.• The West Coast is most at risk of having an earthquake, but earthquakes can happen in the Midwest and along the East Coast.
TORNADOS• A TORNADO is a violent • What is a funnel cloud? rotating column of air extending from a A funnel cloud is a rotating cone- thunderstorm to the ground. shaped column of air extending downward from the base of a• The most violent tornadoes are thunderstorm, but not touching capable of tremendous the ground. When it reaches the destruction with wind speeds ground it is called a tornado. of up to 300 mph.• They can destroy large buildings, uproot trees and hurl vehicles hundreds of yards.• In an average year, 1000 tornadoes are reported nationwide.
VOLCANOS• A volcano is a mountain that • Volcano eruptions have been opens downward to a pool of known to knock down entire molten rock below the surface forests. of the earth. • An erupting volcano can trigger• When pressure builds up, tsunamis, flash floods, eruptions occur. earthquakes, mudflows and rock• Gases and rock shoot up through falls. the opening and spill over or fill the air with lava fragments.• Eruptions can cause lateral blasts, lava flows, hot ash flows, mudslides, avalanches, falling ash and floods.
HURRICANES• A hurricane is a huge storm! It can be up to 600 miles across and have strong winds spiralling inward and upward at The Eye of the speeds of 75 to 200 mph. Each hurricane usually lasts for over a week, Hurricane moving 10-20 miles per hour over the open ocean. Hurricanes gather heat and energy through contact with warm ocean waters. Evaporation from the seawater increases their power. Hurricanes rotate in a counter- clockwise direction around an "eye." The center of the storm or "eye" is the calmest part. It has only light winds and fair weather. When they come onto land, the heavy rain, strong winds and large waves can damage buildings, trees and cars.
WILDFIRES• A wildfire also known as a wild • Common causes of wildfires land fire, forest fire, vegetation include lightning, human fire, grass fire, peat fire, carelessness, arson, volcano bushfire (in Australia), or hill eruption, etc. fire is an uncontrolled fire often occurring in wild land areas, but • More than four out of every five which can also consume houses wildfires are caused by people. or agricultural resources.• Wildfires often begin unnoticed, but they spread quickly igniting brush, trees and homes.
TSUNAMI• Tsunami (pronounced soo-nahm- • They can be as high as 100 feet. ee) is a series of huge waves that happen after an undersea • They can cause a lot of disturbance, such as an destruction on the shore. earthquake or volcano eruption. (Tsunami is from the Japanese • They are sometimes mistakenly word for harbor wave.) called "tidal waves," but tsunami have nothing to do with the• The waves travel in all directions tides. from the area of disturbance, much like the ripples that happen after throwing a rock.• The waves may travel in the open sea as fast as 450 miles per hour. As the big waves approach shallow waters along the coast they grow to a great height and smash into the shore.