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Vital Substances Qi


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This lecture is a basic look at the vital substance Qi

Vital Substances Qi

  1. 1. Vital Substances 1<br />By James O’Sullivan C.Ac. (China)<br /><br /><br />
  2. 2. The Vital Substances<br />Chinese Medicine sees the working of the body and mind (Shen) as the result of the interaction of certain vital substances that are:<br />Qi<br />Blood (Xue)<br />Essence (Jing)<br />Body Fluids (Jin Ye)<br />Shen (Mind / Spirit)<br />
  3. 3. What is Qi<br />Qi, sometimes spelled “Chi”, or what is known a “Ki” in Japan, is Energy or Life force. It is the energy of the body, of the meridians, of food, of the universe.<br />Qi is a refined substance transformed by the internal organs, to nourish the body, mind / spirit.<br />Qi manifests both on the physical and spiritual level<br />
  4. 4. A simple look at Qi<br />Qi is much more than the conventional view of energy, life force, prana. <br />Nutrients from food which are a main supply of energy are a form of Qi. <br />Carbohydrates is another name for the Qi which powers the body.<br />The other essential nutrients are Qi, only different forms that can be felt. <br />
  5. 5. Qi in material form<br />Qi changes form according to its locality and function.<br />Qi is in a constant state of flux and its immaterial/material state constantly varies. <br />When Qi condenses, it accumulates to form physical shape e.g. poor circulation of Qi in the body can result in condensation of Qi to form lumps, masses or tumours.<br />e.g. Stress knots in the upper trapezium <br />
  6. 6. Chinese character for Qi<br />Translates to “steam rising from rice as it cooks”. <br />meaning that Qi <br />can be light as steam, <br />can raise energy, <br />can warm, <br />can be solid as rice, <br />Is like rice that gives the energy to live<br />
  7. 7. Two basic types of Qi<br />Pre-Heaven (Ancestral) Qi, is the Qi that we are born with. It is limited and the quality and amount of this Qi represents our basic “constitution”. <br />Post-Heaven (Acquired) Qi, on the other hand, is derived from the foods we eat and the air that we breath. The quality of Post-Heaven Qi depends on our lifestyle habits such as food quality, balance of emotions, physical exercise and so on. <br />
  8. 8. Pre-Heaven Qi<br />Pre-Heaven Qi (Yuan Qi) is derived from our ancestors.<br />Gathered and formed at conception.<br />Stored in the Kidneys.<br />Determines basic constitution, strength and vitality.<br />Essential to growth and development.<br />Can be conserved but not replenished.<br />Composite of :<br />Essence (Jing)<br />Yuan Qi (original Qi)<br />
  9. 9. Post Heaven Qi<br />Post Heaven Qi (Postnatal Qi) is derived from food and lifestyle.<br />Can be stored and replenished.<br />Composite of :<br />Gu Qi (Qi of food and drink)<br />Kong Qi(air Qi)<br />Zong Qi (gathering Qi)<br />Post Heaven Qi is influenced by<br />Food Quality<br />Balance of Emotions<br />Physical Exercise<br />Lifestyle Habits<br />
  10. 10. all Qi is ultimately one Qi<br />manifesting in different forms<br />
  11. 11. Creation of Qi<br />Food and water are taken into the body via the mouth. Taken down to the Stomach and Spleen where it is transformed into Gu Qi. <br />Gu Qi is raised up to the chest where it combines with Kong Qi, which is formed by the Lungs from air. <br />Combined Kong Qi + Gu Qi is called Zong Qi<br />Yuan Qi from the Kidneys acts on Zong Qi and transforms it into Zhen Qi (Upright Qi of the Body)<br />Zhen Qi can be split into Wei Qi and Ying Qi<br />
  12. 12. The Creation of Qi<br />Air<br />Kong Qi<br />Zhen Qi<br />Zong Qi<br />Food<br />Gu Qi <br />Wei Qi<br />Ying Qi<br />Ancestors<br />Yuan Qi<br />Production of Qi in the Body<br />
  13. 13. Yuan Qi<br />Source: <br />Derived from Essence (Jing). The Yuan Qi is also known as Pre-Heaven Qi and is inherited form our parents at conception. <br />Yuan Qi has it’s root in the Kidneys and spread throughout the body by San Jiao (triple burner or triple heater). <br />It is the foundation of all the Yin and Yang energies of the body.<br />
  14. 14. Yuan Qi<br />Function:<br />Promotes and stimulates functional activities of organs.<br />Provides the foundation for the production of Zhen Qi.<br />Distribution:<br />Originates in the Ming Men (gate of vitality), circulates via San Jiao, pools in the meridians at the Yuan Source Points.<br />Relevance: <br />Deficiencies in Yuan Qi may lead to poor development of Post-Heaven Qi.<br />
  15. 15. Gu Qi<br />Source:<br />Originates from the action of the Spleen on the food in the Stomach. Gu Qi is the first stage in the transformation of food. Food is first “Rotted and Ripened” by the Stomach and then sent to the Spleen to make Gu Qi.<br />Function:<br />Gu Qi is blended with Kong Qi to form Zhen Qi<br />Gu Qi is transformed into Blood.<br />
  16. 16. Gu Qi<br />Distribution:<br />Gu Qi is sent to the Lungs, then passes to the Heart, where (with help of Yuan Qi and Kidney Qi), it is transformed into Blood.<br />Relevance:<br />Good quality food and a healthy Stomach/Spleen are important to generate energy.<br />Weaknesses in the Spleen may lead to bloating, distension, fatigue, loss of appetite, loose stools.<br />
  17. 17. Zong Qi<br />Source:<br />Combination of Gu Qi and Kong Qi. <br />Function:<br />Nourish the Heart and Lungs. Basis for the involuntary functions of heartbeat and respiration.<br />Assists the Lungs in controlling Qi and respiration and circulating energy throughout the body.<br />
  18. 18. Zong Qi<br />Function cont.:<br />Assists the Heart in circulating blood through the vessels and governing the blood.<br />Zong Qi and Yuan Qi assist each other. Zong Qi flows downward to aid the Kidneys. Yuan Qi flows upward to aid in respiration.<br />Distribution:<br />Stored in the chest. Gathers in the throat and influences speech (which is under control of the Heart) and the strength of voice (under control of Lungs). Strength of Zong Qi can be determined from the health of Heart, Lungs and form circulation and voice.<br />
  19. 19. Zong Qi<br />Relevance:<br />If Zong Qi is weak, the hands will be weak or cold, weak voice and low energy.<br />It is easily affected by emotional problems. <br />For example: grief weakens the Lungs and disperses energy in chest.<br />
  20. 20. Kong Qi<br />Source:<br />Originates from the Air received by the Lungs.<br />Function:<br />Combines with Gu Qi to form Zong Qi.<br />Distribution:<br />Distributed from the chest.<br />Relevance:<br />Good quality Air and good breathing practices are essential for the formation of energy.<br />
  21. 21. Zhen Qi<br />Source:<br />Derived from Zong Qi by action of Yuan Qi.<br />Function:<br />Circulates in the meridians and nourishes the organs.<br />Distribution:<br />Originates in the chest and is distributed throughout the body by respiration.<br />
  22. 22. Zhen Qi<br /><ul><li>Relevance: </li></ul>Deficiencies indicate either an imbalance in the functioning of Post Natal Qi or in a declining amount of Yuan Qi. <br /><ul><li>Composite of : </li></ul>Ying Qi (Nutritive Qi)<br />Wei Qi (Defensive or Protective Qi)<br />
  23. 23. Ying Qi<br />Functions:<br />Nourishes the internal organs and the whole body.<br />It helps to produce blood.<br />Distribution:<br />Circulates in the main meridians.<br />
  24. 24. Ying Qi<br />Relevance:<br />It is the Qi that is activated by insertion of an acupuncture needle.<br /><ul><li>Flows with the blood in the main meridians and within the blood vessels.</li></li></ul><li>Wei Qi<br />Function:<br />To protect the body from attack by pathogenic factor (from outside) such as Wind, Cold, Heat, Dampness, Dryness and Summer Heat.<br />To warm, moisten and nourishes skin and muscles.<br />Regulates body temperature by opening or closing the pores(sweating).<br />
  25. 25. Wei Qi<br />Distribution:<br />On the surface of the body between the skin and tissue. <br />Circulation is dependent on the Lungs.<br />
  26. 26. Wei Qi<br />Relevance:<br />People who catch colds easily or often have Wei Qi deficiency.<br />Deficiency may also make it difficult to regulate body temperature and lead to spontaneous sweating (pores not correctly opened and closed, so that the fluids escape)<br />
  27. 27. Wei Qi<br />In the daytime, Wei Qi circulates in the Exterior, but at night it goes into the Interior and circulates in the Yin Organs.<br />This is why one is more easy to catch cold at night rather than in the daytime, since the Wei Qi has withdrawn to the Interior at night. Sleeping under an open window at night, for example, gives pathogenic factor a better chance for attack than during the daytime, since the Exterior of the body is less well protected.<br />
  28. 28. Organ Qi<br />Qi is also used to mean the complex of functional activities of a given internal organ e.g. <br />Spleen Qi means the complex of the functional activities of the Spleen. <br />Stomach Qi, Kidney Qi, etc<br />
  29. 29. The Functions of Qi<br />Transforming:<br />Spleen Qi transforms food into Gu Qi<br />Kidney Qi transforms Fluids<br />Bladder Qi transforms Urine<br />Heart Qi transforms Qi into Blood<br />Transporting:<br />Spleen Qi transports GuQi<br />Lung Qi transports Fluids to the skin<br />Lung Qi transports Qi downward<br />Kidney Qi transports Qi upward<br />Liver Qi transports Qi in all directions and upward<br />
  30. 30. Protecting:<br />Lung Qi (by virtue of circulating Wei Qi) protects the body from external pathogenic factor<br />Containment, Holding:<br />Spleen Qi holds the Blood in the Vessels<br />Kidney & Bladder Qi holds Urine<br />Lung Qi holds Sweat<br />Raising:<br />Spleen Qi raises the Organs (keeps them in place)<br />Warming:<br />A function of Yang. Kidney Yang in particular and also Spleen Yang, warms the body<br />
  31. 31. Qi Disharmonies<br />Qi has four main states of imbalance. These imbalances may effect many parts of the body at once or within a particular meridian, organ or area. Deficiency of Qi, for example, may effect the Lungs with symptoms of shortness of breath, the Stomach/Spleen with symptoms such as poor appetite and the body in general with symptoms of fatigue and weakness.<br />
  32. 32. Qi Deficiency<br />Because of: over work, mental strain, weak constitution(Wei Qi deficiency, gets cold and flu easily). The problem become chronic , especial in old people. <br />Organs involved: Spleen. Lung. Kidney.<br />Clinical Manifestations: Fatigue, SOB, pale face, weak spirit, excessive sweating, tiredness, lethargy, apathy, exhaustion, disillusionment, dislike to speak, spontaneous sweating – all made worse with exertion or exercise<br />Tongue: Pale body with thin coating<br />Pulse: Empty<br />
  33. 33. Sinking Qi<br />If Qi is very deficiency, then the holding function is depleted and it may sink, organ prolapse.<br /><ul><li>*Esp. Spleen Qi
  34. 34. Clinical Manifestations: Down-bearing sensation in abdomen or prolapse of organs</li></ul>Tongue: Pale body with thin coating<br />Pulse: Empty<br />
  35. 35. Rebellious Qi<br />In this instance, Qi flows in the wrong direction e.g. Stomach Qi considered to flow downwards, carrying food to the intestines. If Qi “rebels”, it will move upwards leading problems. Esp. Stomach Qi.<br />Clinical Manifestations: Coughing, belching, vomiting, hiccups, dizziness<br />Tongue: Pale body with white coating or Red w/yellow coating<br />Pulse: Wiry or Rapid<br />
  36. 36. Qi Stagnation<br />The long term causes could be irregular eating habits, stress, P.M.S. and painful periods. This commonly in acute conditions, like cold or flu attacking the flow of Qi, causing emotional shock. This is when the Qi gets stuck and stop moving, you see this mostly in Liver Qi.<br />Clinical Manifestations next page……….<br />
  37. 37. Qi Stagnation<br />Clinical Manifestations: Normally includes some sort of pain or distension or “stuck feeling” e.g. distended or dull pain in hypochondrium and chest, Pain that is not fixed in the chest or hypochondriac areas, sighing, hiccup, abdominal distension, fluctuation of mental state, feeling of difficulty in swallowing, melancholy, moodiness, unhappiness, feeling of lump in throat, painful periods, distension of breasts before periods, pre-menstural tension and irritability<br />Tongue: normal<br />Pulse: Wiry or tight<br />