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WORKSHOP
M.Sc. Pakistan Studies
Resource Person: Jamal Shah
ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY
POPULATION
DEMOGRAPHY
• The statistics such as births, deaths, income,
or the incidence of diseases, which illustrates
the changing structure of human population.
• The study of composition of a particular
human population.
POPULATION
• 6th largest population (185.9 million)
• Growth rate: 1.6%
• Birth rate: 31 births/ 1000
• Death rate: 8/ 1000
• Life expectancy: 63.4years 62(M), 64(F)
• Infant Mortality: 61.27deaths/1000 live
births
GROWTH RATE
• High growth rate of 1.6%
• Overall increase of 55% since 1998
–Shows 2.6% as against 3.1% in (1972-81)
• Birth Rate- Death Rate = Rate of Natural
Increase
• Birth and death rates declined
DEATH RATE/ BIRTH RATE
• Declined for the last thirty years
• Come down from 30/1000 (1947) to 7.1/1000
(2006)
• Access to medical facilities
• Control over CHOLERA, MALARIA & TYPHOID
• Improvement in FOOD production
• Increase in general awareness
• Declined 50(1947) to 26.1(2006) per 1000
REASONS FOR HIGH POPULATION
GROWTH
• Problem of overpopulation
–Too large to support the available
resources
• Hinders several developmental plans
• Increase due to economic, political and social
factors
• Position on Human Development Index
• Needs high resources
REASONS FOR HIGH POPULATION
GROWTH
• Important for Agricultural and industrial
labour force
• Early marriages, increases the span for
reproductively
• Belief that Allah gives “RIZQ”
• Strong RESISTANCE in family planning
• Strong desires for SONs
CONTINUE…
• In migration of AFGHAN refugees
• Inconsistent Government Policies
• Illiteracy and unawareness
REMEDIES
• Population Welfare programs
– Green Star Clinics and Child Welfare Association
• NGO/ Government population welfare
• Increase in literacy rate
• Rural electrification, building roads, etc.
• Role of Ulemas
• More educational institutions for FEMALES
REMEDIES
• Delay the age of marriage to reduce
birth rate
• Better utilization of natural and human
resources of country
• Implementation of government policies
LIFE EXPECTANCY
• Low as compare to other countries of the
world (Median age: 22years)
• Young country versus Matured country
• Older than Sub-Saharan Africa, Afghanistan,
Yemen
• Younger than most of other countries as
Europe, US, Canada, Japan (40 above)
• Dependency ratio: 61%
EMPLOYMENT
• All persons of age 10years or above
• Paid or Self-Employed (40.5 million) – 2004
• Employed by SECTORS
– Primary: (raw materials from Earth/ Sea) – 56.5%
• Mining, Fishing, Forestry, Agriculture (42%), etc.
– Secondary: (Occupations) – 10.5%
• Steel Making, Shipbuilding, furniture, etc.
– Tertiary: (Services) – 33%
• Transport, Banking, Trade, Insurance, Administration,
health, Education
SECTORAL DISTRIBUTION
42.0%
13.0%
6.0%
15.0%
6.0%
16.0%
1.8%
Agiculture Mining Construction
Trade Transport Finance
Others
UNEMPLOYMENT
• Means the state of being unable to find a paid job
• 2.68 million persons, unemployed, in 2007
– 5.32% of total labour was unemployed in 2007
• Causes:
– Lack of enough economic opportunities
– Social and economic problems
• Disguised Unemployment (Agriculture)
• Lack of manpower planning
• Lack of skill training, education, technical Ed.
CONTINUE….
• High rate of population growth
• Mechanization in AGRICULTURE
• Revolution in INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
• CULTURAL restrains
• Mismatch in demand and supply of LABOUR force
• RURAL urban migration
• Political instability
• Terrorism
CONTINUE…
• SOLUTION:
–Increase in literacy ratio
–Skilled labour vs unskilled (Institutions)
–Alignment of education with industry
–Trained and skilled to foreign countries can
add remittances (GNP)
–Standard of Living and style of Life
–Quantity and Quality of food production
POPULATION DENSITY
• The density is the number of people per unit
area (per sq. mile, per sq. km, etc.)
• Population Density =
𝟏𝟖𝟑 𝒎𝒊𝒍𝒍𝒊𝒐𝒏
𝟕𝟗𝟔, 𝟎𝟗𝟓 𝒔𝒒. 𝒌𝒎
= 230
• FACTORS affecting population density:
– Physical: Relief, Climate, Soil, Water Supply,
Natural Vegetation, etc.
– Human: Economic, Political, Social
• Punjab(56%), Sindh(23%), KP(14%), Bal(5%)
MIGRATION
• The movement of people from one area to
another: ( - 1.8/ 1000)
– Can be on cause, duration, distance, origin, etc.
– In migration vs out-migration
– Immigrants(come) vs emigrants (leave)
– Rural PUSH vs Urban PULL
• Problems:
– Housing, Environmental Degradation, Pressure
on Infrastructure, Increase in crimes, Social &
Psychological problems, cities’ unplanned growth

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Population Demography of Pakistan

  • 1.
  • 2. WORKSHOP M.Sc. Pakistan Studies Resource Person: Jamal Shah ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY POPULATION
  • 3. DEMOGRAPHY • The statistics such as births, deaths, income, or the incidence of diseases, which illustrates the changing structure of human population. • The study of composition of a particular human population.
  • 4. POPULATION • 6th largest population (185.9 million) • Growth rate: 1.6% • Birth rate: 31 births/ 1000 • Death rate: 8/ 1000 • Life expectancy: 63.4years 62(M), 64(F) • Infant Mortality: 61.27deaths/1000 live births
  • 5. GROWTH RATE • High growth rate of 1.6% • Overall increase of 55% since 1998 –Shows 2.6% as against 3.1% in (1972-81) • Birth Rate- Death Rate = Rate of Natural Increase • Birth and death rates declined
  • 6. DEATH RATE/ BIRTH RATE • Declined for the last thirty years • Come down from 30/1000 (1947) to 7.1/1000 (2006) • Access to medical facilities • Control over CHOLERA, MALARIA & TYPHOID • Improvement in FOOD production • Increase in general awareness • Declined 50(1947) to 26.1(2006) per 1000
  • 7. REASONS FOR HIGH POPULATION GROWTH • Problem of overpopulation –Too large to support the available resources • Hinders several developmental plans • Increase due to economic, political and social factors • Position on Human Development Index • Needs high resources
  • 8. REASONS FOR HIGH POPULATION GROWTH • Important for Agricultural and industrial labour force • Early marriages, increases the span for reproductively • Belief that Allah gives “RIZQ” • Strong RESISTANCE in family planning • Strong desires for SONs
  • 9. CONTINUE… • In migration of AFGHAN refugees • Inconsistent Government Policies • Illiteracy and unawareness
  • 10. REMEDIES • Population Welfare programs – Green Star Clinics and Child Welfare Association • NGO/ Government population welfare • Increase in literacy rate • Rural electrification, building roads, etc. • Role of Ulemas • More educational institutions for FEMALES
  • 11. REMEDIES • Delay the age of marriage to reduce birth rate • Better utilization of natural and human resources of country • Implementation of government policies
  • 12. LIFE EXPECTANCY • Low as compare to other countries of the world (Median age: 22years) • Young country versus Matured country • Older than Sub-Saharan Africa, Afghanistan, Yemen • Younger than most of other countries as Europe, US, Canada, Japan (40 above) • Dependency ratio: 61%
  • 13. EMPLOYMENT • All persons of age 10years or above • Paid or Self-Employed (40.5 million) – 2004 • Employed by SECTORS – Primary: (raw materials from Earth/ Sea) – 56.5% • Mining, Fishing, Forestry, Agriculture (42%), etc. – Secondary: (Occupations) – 10.5% • Steel Making, Shipbuilding, furniture, etc. – Tertiary: (Services) – 33% • Transport, Banking, Trade, Insurance, Administration, health, Education
  • 15. UNEMPLOYMENT • Means the state of being unable to find a paid job • 2.68 million persons, unemployed, in 2007 – 5.32% of total labour was unemployed in 2007 • Causes: – Lack of enough economic opportunities – Social and economic problems • Disguised Unemployment (Agriculture) • Lack of manpower planning • Lack of skill training, education, technical Ed.
  • 16. CONTINUE…. • High rate of population growth • Mechanization in AGRICULTURE • Revolution in INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY • CULTURAL restrains • Mismatch in demand and supply of LABOUR force • RURAL urban migration • Political instability • Terrorism
  • 17. CONTINUE… • SOLUTION: –Increase in literacy ratio –Skilled labour vs unskilled (Institutions) –Alignment of education with industry –Trained and skilled to foreign countries can add remittances (GNP) –Standard of Living and style of Life –Quantity and Quality of food production
  • 18. POPULATION DENSITY • The density is the number of people per unit area (per sq. mile, per sq. km, etc.) • Population Density = 𝟏𝟖𝟑 𝒎𝒊𝒍𝒍𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝟕𝟗𝟔, 𝟎𝟗𝟓 𝒔𝒒. 𝒌𝒎 = 230 • FACTORS affecting population density: – Physical: Relief, Climate, Soil, Water Supply, Natural Vegetation, etc. – Human: Economic, Political, Social • Punjab(56%), Sindh(23%), KP(14%), Bal(5%)
  • 19. MIGRATION • The movement of people from one area to another: ( - 1.8/ 1000) – Can be on cause, duration, distance, origin, etc. – In migration vs out-migration – Immigrants(come) vs emigrants (leave) – Rural PUSH vs Urban PULL • Problems: – Housing, Environmental Degradation, Pressure on Infrastructure, Increase in crimes, Social & Psychological problems, cities’ unplanned growth