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PAKISTAN FOREIGN
POLICY
PHASE I: (1947-1953)

PHASE II: (1954-1962)
Foreign Policy
• Association or connections amongst sovereign
states.

• Close association between sovereign states
covering their view points and outlooks on the
international affairs.
• Is a product of ideological, historical, economic,
national interests and geo-political locations.
Foreign Policy of Pakistan
• Five FACTORS:
• Ideological Obligation
• Historical Legacy
• Geographical Location
• The Indian Threat

• Economic Compulsions
Phases of Foreign Policy of Pakistan
• Phase I: 1947-53: Non Aliened years

• Phase II: 1953-62: Alliance with the West
• Phase III: 1962-71: Transition
• Phase IV: 1972-79: Bilateralism and nonalignment
• Phase V: 1980-90: Afghan-Crisis and US Ally
• Phase VI:1990-2001: Post-Cold War Era and Pakistan's

Dilemmas
• Phase VII: 2001-Date: Pakistan and Counter Terrorism
Phase I: Foreign Policy of
Pakistan
• Joined UN in Sep 30th, 1948

• Relations with India (aftermath of partition)
• Killing of people on both sides

• Kashmir and other princely states (War 1948)
• Water Dispute
• Division of Funds
• Division of Assets, etc.
Phase I: Foreign Policy of
Pakistan
• Relations with Afghanistan

• Cordial representation in May 1948

• Irredentist claim over Pakistan territory
• Soviet Union backup in mid-1950

• Reorganization of armed force
• Due to Soviet backed Indo-Afghan military pressure
• Modernization of three Services of Armed Forces
Phase I: Foreign Policy of
Pakistan
• Relation with US
• Cordial relations resumed in Feb 1948
• US ‘Marshal Plan-1950’ towards Asia
• Liaqat Ali Khan visit to US in May 1950
• Assistance in Economic Development
• Become a prey to the US dictates
Phase I: Foreign Policy of
Pakistan
• Relation with USSR
• Indifferent attitude towards Pakistan
• Dec 1949, Pak Ambassador at Moscow
• Invitation to Pakistan P.M. in June 1949
• Accepted but did not accomplished
• Anger of Soviet of Liaqat A. K. visit to US
Phase I: Foreign Policy of
Pakistan
• Relation with China

• 1st Muslim country to recognize China in Jan, 1950
• Exchange of credentials in Sept, Nov, 1951
• Backed China’s entry into UN as against US

• F.M. Manzoor Qadir criticized US to oppose China entry
• 1961, Ayub vote helped China to win a seat in UN
Phase I: Foreign Policy of
Pakistan
• Relation with Muslim Countries

• Importance to Muslim relationship
• Sponsored unofficial conferences for cultivating a broad-base setting
for Muslim organization.
• Muslim states did not show any response
• Indonesia and Egypt strong reservation on Pak
• Cordial relations with Iran, Turkey and S. Arabia
PHASE II: (1953-1962)

ALIENED YEARS
Phase II: Foreign Policy of
Pakistan
• Reasons:

• Shift from Independent Policy to Alliance
• Multifaceted alignments with the West

• Security arrangements with US for economic and military assistance
• Adverse effects of decrease in Jute and Cotton prices in international
market, 1952

• Shortage of Wheat 1952-53
• US wheat gift in 1953 to overcome shortage
Phase II: Foreign Policy of
Pakistan

• Continue…

• Sense of ISOLATION in the world

• Futile efforts to promote Muslims UNITY
• UN and commonwealth FAILURE in solving Pak-India conflicts,
especially Kashmir Dispute

• Containment of DANGERs of Communism
• Distrust of Soviet Union for a pro-Soviet “Rawalpindi Conspiracy” –

Maj. G. Akbar Khan
• Military willingness for advanced technology and economic support
Phase II: Foreign Policy of
PakistanPak Turkey Agreement for political,
• April 1954,
economic and cultural development
• May 1954, Pak US Mutual Defense Assistance
Agreement , US shall provide equipment, trainings
and other services
• Sep 1954, SEATO/ Manila Pact, alliance with US,
Australia, GB, NZ, Philippine, and Thailand)
• To resist attacks and counter subversive
measures, promote economic and social welfare
•

Only for communist aggression and not all

• Pakistan’s plea to include ALL was not accepted
Phase II: Foreign Policy of
Pakistan

• Sep 1955, Baghdad Pact (CENTO after Iraq withdrawal)
• Attached greater importance because of 3
Muslim countries, Iraq, Turkey and Iran.

• GB was a member whereas US back up
• For strengthening defensive capabilities
• For the menace of communism ONLY
Phase II: Foreign Policy of
Pakistan

• March 1959, Bilateral Agreement between Pak &
US
•

Defense and economic assistance from US

•

US national interest and Pak preservation of
independence and integrity

•

Provision of Air Base to US by Pakistan for 1959-69

•

800 million USD as assistance and loan

•

Ammunition, Artillery, Aircrafts, sea warships, etc.

•

US Military Assistance Advisory Group

•

Training of Military Officers in US
Phase II: Foreign Policy of
Pakistan
• Cost of Alignment with WEST
•

Independent Foreign Policy was compromised

•

Relations with Soviet Union
•

Threatening Pakistan for supporting US

•

Supporting India in Kashmir dispute

•

Support to Afghan irredentist claims

•

Pakistan exclusion from NAM in 1961 (due to defense pact)

•

Alienated Egypt, vague policy towards SUEZ crisis 1956

•

No support from US regarding Pak-India problems

•

Questions raised in US, Pak as defender of interests vs
USSR
Phase II: Foreign Policy of
Pakistan
• Pak China relations:
•

China avoid open condemnation of Pakistan
participation in the PACTs

•

Showed remarkable understanding of Pakistan position

•

Backed Up China in getting UN membership

•

Indo-Sino relationships helped Pakistan

• Pak India relations:
•

Kashmir Dispute, Canal Water dispute

•

Indus Basin Water Treaty 1960
PAKISTAN'S FOREIGN POLICY PHASES (1947-1962

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PAKISTAN'S FOREIGN POLICY PHASES (1947-1962

  • 1. PAKISTAN FOREIGN POLICY PHASE I: (1947-1953) PHASE II: (1954-1962)
  • 2. Foreign Policy • Association or connections amongst sovereign states. • Close association between sovereign states covering their view points and outlooks on the international affairs. • Is a product of ideological, historical, economic, national interests and geo-political locations.
  • 3. Foreign Policy of Pakistan • Five FACTORS: • Ideological Obligation • Historical Legacy • Geographical Location • The Indian Threat • Economic Compulsions
  • 4. Phases of Foreign Policy of Pakistan • Phase I: 1947-53: Non Aliened years • Phase II: 1953-62: Alliance with the West • Phase III: 1962-71: Transition • Phase IV: 1972-79: Bilateralism and nonalignment • Phase V: 1980-90: Afghan-Crisis and US Ally • Phase VI:1990-2001: Post-Cold War Era and Pakistan's Dilemmas • Phase VII: 2001-Date: Pakistan and Counter Terrorism
  • 5. Phase I: Foreign Policy of Pakistan • Joined UN in Sep 30th, 1948 • Relations with India (aftermath of partition) • Killing of people on both sides • Kashmir and other princely states (War 1948) • Water Dispute • Division of Funds • Division of Assets, etc.
  • 6. Phase I: Foreign Policy of Pakistan • Relations with Afghanistan • Cordial representation in May 1948 • Irredentist claim over Pakistan territory • Soviet Union backup in mid-1950 • Reorganization of armed force • Due to Soviet backed Indo-Afghan military pressure • Modernization of three Services of Armed Forces
  • 7. Phase I: Foreign Policy of Pakistan • Relation with US • Cordial relations resumed in Feb 1948 • US ‘Marshal Plan-1950’ towards Asia • Liaqat Ali Khan visit to US in May 1950 • Assistance in Economic Development • Become a prey to the US dictates
  • 8. Phase I: Foreign Policy of Pakistan • Relation with USSR • Indifferent attitude towards Pakistan • Dec 1949, Pak Ambassador at Moscow • Invitation to Pakistan P.M. in June 1949 • Accepted but did not accomplished • Anger of Soviet of Liaqat A. K. visit to US
  • 9. Phase I: Foreign Policy of Pakistan • Relation with China • 1st Muslim country to recognize China in Jan, 1950 • Exchange of credentials in Sept, Nov, 1951 • Backed China’s entry into UN as against US • F.M. Manzoor Qadir criticized US to oppose China entry • 1961, Ayub vote helped China to win a seat in UN
  • 10. Phase I: Foreign Policy of Pakistan • Relation with Muslim Countries • Importance to Muslim relationship • Sponsored unofficial conferences for cultivating a broad-base setting for Muslim organization. • Muslim states did not show any response • Indonesia and Egypt strong reservation on Pak • Cordial relations with Iran, Turkey and S. Arabia
  • 12. Phase II: Foreign Policy of Pakistan • Reasons: • Shift from Independent Policy to Alliance • Multifaceted alignments with the West • Security arrangements with US for economic and military assistance • Adverse effects of decrease in Jute and Cotton prices in international market, 1952 • Shortage of Wheat 1952-53 • US wheat gift in 1953 to overcome shortage
  • 13. Phase II: Foreign Policy of Pakistan • Continue… • Sense of ISOLATION in the world • Futile efforts to promote Muslims UNITY • UN and commonwealth FAILURE in solving Pak-India conflicts, especially Kashmir Dispute • Containment of DANGERs of Communism • Distrust of Soviet Union for a pro-Soviet “Rawalpindi Conspiracy” – Maj. G. Akbar Khan • Military willingness for advanced technology and economic support
  • 14. Phase II: Foreign Policy of PakistanPak Turkey Agreement for political, • April 1954, economic and cultural development • May 1954, Pak US Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement , US shall provide equipment, trainings and other services • Sep 1954, SEATO/ Manila Pact, alliance with US, Australia, GB, NZ, Philippine, and Thailand) • To resist attacks and counter subversive measures, promote economic and social welfare • Only for communist aggression and not all • Pakistan’s plea to include ALL was not accepted
  • 15. Phase II: Foreign Policy of Pakistan • Sep 1955, Baghdad Pact (CENTO after Iraq withdrawal) • Attached greater importance because of 3 Muslim countries, Iraq, Turkey and Iran. • GB was a member whereas US back up • For strengthening defensive capabilities • For the menace of communism ONLY
  • 16. Phase II: Foreign Policy of Pakistan • March 1959, Bilateral Agreement between Pak & US • Defense and economic assistance from US • US national interest and Pak preservation of independence and integrity • Provision of Air Base to US by Pakistan for 1959-69 • 800 million USD as assistance and loan • Ammunition, Artillery, Aircrafts, sea warships, etc. • US Military Assistance Advisory Group • Training of Military Officers in US
  • 17. Phase II: Foreign Policy of Pakistan • Cost of Alignment with WEST • Independent Foreign Policy was compromised • Relations with Soviet Union • Threatening Pakistan for supporting US • Supporting India in Kashmir dispute • Support to Afghan irredentist claims • Pakistan exclusion from NAM in 1961 (due to defense pact) • Alienated Egypt, vague policy towards SUEZ crisis 1956 • No support from US regarding Pak-India problems • Questions raised in US, Pak as defender of interests vs USSR
  • 18. Phase II: Foreign Policy of Pakistan • Pak China relations: • China avoid open condemnation of Pakistan participation in the PACTs • Showed remarkable understanding of Pakistan position • Backed Up China in getting UN membership • Indo-Sino relationships helped Pakistan • Pak India relations: • Kashmir Dispute, Canal Water dispute • Indus Basin Water Treaty 1960