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MINERALS
 A solid, naturally occurring inorganic substance
 A naturally occurring, stable at room temperature,
definite chemical formula, abiogenic, ordered atomic
arrangement
 Different from rock, which an aggregate of minerals or
non-minerals, indefinite composition
MINERAL IN PAKISTAN
 Extensive Reservoirs
 Mostly unexploited
 Area of 600,000 sq. km has potential for metallic
and non-metallic minerals
 Inputs for industry as Iron, Zinc, Copper, Gold,
Silver, Platinum, Lead, Chromite, etc.
 Vast potential of multi-colored granite, marble
and other stones
CONTINUE….
 Contribute 0.5% GDP only
 52 main minerals under exploitation though on small
scale
 Major production is coal, rock salt and other
industrial & construction minerals
 Value addition in the mineral sector is focused on
Limestone, Coal, Gypsum, Sulphur, Crude Oil, and
Natural Gas
CONTINUE….
 Mining industry dominated by;
 Punjmin (8 minerals)
 Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation (11)
 FATA Development Corporation (10)
 Balochistan Development Authority (Flourite)
 KP Development Authority (4)
 AK Mineral & Industrial Development Corp. (12)
 Pakistan Steel (Limestone)
PROBLEMS
 Weak Mineral Departments
 Mining vs Environment
 Understaffing of regional directorates
 Lack of technical know-how
 Lack of interest of foreign investors
 Lack of interest of environmentalists
 Capital for Exploration
NEEDS FOR IMPROVEMENT
 Foreign Investment
 Private Sector Investment
 Modern Management
 Large Capital
 Technical Knowledge
MAIN METALLIC MINERALS OF
PAKISTAN
 Aluminum
 Iron Ore
 Copper
 Chromite Ore
 Zinc/ Lead
 Calcium
 Magnesium
• Antimony
• Arsenic
• Gold
• Graphite
• Glass Sand
• Tungsten
MAIN NON-METALLIC MINERALS OF
PAKISTAN
 Coal
 Phosphates
 Rock Salt
 Asbestos
 Limestone
 Kaolin
 Brine
 Marble
• Potash
• Silica Sand
• Sulphur
• Natural Gas
• Oil
• Mica
• Radioactive
Minerals
MINERALS IN PUNJAB
 Iron Ore: Large deposits in Kalabagh & Mianwali
district
 Coal: Salt Range & Markawal (235 million tons)
 Gypsum: 2nd largest: Daud Khel (Mianwali) has
53 million tons, Rakhi-Munh, Khewra and Safed-
Koh-Rodo area and in Suleman Ranges near D.G.
Khan
 Salt: Salt Range 160 km, b/w Jhelum & Indus
 Khewra, Warcha, Kalabagh, Bhadurkhel, Jatta, & Karak
by PMDC and Chakwal and Khushab by Punj MDC
 600 million tons as estimated by PMDC
MINERALS IN PUNJAB
 Lime Stone: Range Pothar, Margalla Hills,
Zinda Pir
 Aluminum: Khushab District, Low grade
quality
 Calestine: 83% strontium Sulfate,
 used in signal rockets, tracer bullets, warning fuse
and fireworks
 Strontium in ceramics, paints, plastic, etc.
 Daud Khel Western Salt Range
• Natural Gas: Uch and Adhi (R.Pindi)
 18 Mcf/day of gas, 62 tons/ day LPG and 300 Barrels/ day NGL
MINERALS IN SINDH
 Coal: 184 million/ 185 billion total in Pak
 One of the biggest good quality lignite deposits
 Salt: Coastal Area of Karachi, High purity salt
 Limestone: Ganjo Takkar, Murli Hills, Mango Pir, Cape
Monze, Kot Diji, and Ranipir.
 Alum: Kirthar Nits
 Carbonate Soda: Nara Taluka (Khairpur), Nawabshah,
Umerkot, Shah Bandar, etc.
MINERALS IN SINDH
 China Clay: Nagar Parkar, Tharparkar
 Contain 16-31% clay, also known as Kaoline
 Natural Oil: Khashkheli, Laghari, Tando Alam (Lower
Sindh)
 Natural Gas: Khairpur, Kandkot, Mari, Golachi and
Khaskheli
MINERALS IN KP
 Chromite: Dargai (0.7Mt), Heroshah (0.1) Jijal-pattan
and Chilas (0.2)
 Pakistan is Major Exporter of Chromite
 Coal: Kandkot, Marri (small but good quality)
 Bauxite: Hazara District, Hangu, Cherat
 Gypsum: DI Khan, Kohat (4442Mt)
 Largest Resources in KP
 Phosphate: Abbotabad, Hazara
MINERALS IN KP
 Magnesite: Kumhar (Abbotabad) – 11 Mt
 Limestone: Quality extensive deposits in KP and NA
 Annual Production 8700 matric tons
 China Clay: Shah Dheri (Swat)
 Annual Production 61, 400 matric tons
 Marble: 158/ 162 million tons in KP
 Gem Stone: Emerald, Ruby, Topaz, Peridot
MINERALS IN BALOCHISTAN
 Aluminum: Large Deposits,
 Kalat, Ziarat, Loralai
 Iron Ore: 930 million tons
 Copper: Saindak and Reko-diq
 Chromite: Muslim Bagh, Noshki, Ras-Koh
 Zinc: Lasbela-Khuzdar belt (world class)
 Coal: Hamai, Duki, Pir Ismail, (217 million t)
 Natural Gas: Pirkok, Sui, Mazarani, (31 Tcf)
MINERALS IN BALOCHISTAN
 Gypsum: 2000 million tons
 Marble: (2 million tons) High Quality
 Gems:
 Chagi: Garnet, Azurite, Malachite, Lapis
 Panjgur: Quartz
 Killa Abdullah: Aragonite
 Khuzdar: Aragonite

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Pakistan's Abundant Mineral Resources

  • 1.
  • 2. MINERALS  A solid, naturally occurring inorganic substance  A naturally occurring, stable at room temperature, definite chemical formula, abiogenic, ordered atomic arrangement  Different from rock, which an aggregate of minerals or non-minerals, indefinite composition
  • 3. MINERAL IN PAKISTAN  Extensive Reservoirs  Mostly unexploited  Area of 600,000 sq. km has potential for metallic and non-metallic minerals  Inputs for industry as Iron, Zinc, Copper, Gold, Silver, Platinum, Lead, Chromite, etc.  Vast potential of multi-colored granite, marble and other stones
  • 4. CONTINUE….  Contribute 0.5% GDP only  52 main minerals under exploitation though on small scale  Major production is coal, rock salt and other industrial & construction minerals  Value addition in the mineral sector is focused on Limestone, Coal, Gypsum, Sulphur, Crude Oil, and Natural Gas
  • 5. CONTINUE….  Mining industry dominated by;  Punjmin (8 minerals)  Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation (11)  FATA Development Corporation (10)  Balochistan Development Authority (Flourite)  KP Development Authority (4)  AK Mineral & Industrial Development Corp. (12)  Pakistan Steel (Limestone)
  • 6. PROBLEMS  Weak Mineral Departments  Mining vs Environment  Understaffing of regional directorates  Lack of technical know-how  Lack of interest of foreign investors  Lack of interest of environmentalists  Capital for Exploration
  • 7. NEEDS FOR IMPROVEMENT  Foreign Investment  Private Sector Investment  Modern Management  Large Capital  Technical Knowledge
  • 8. MAIN METALLIC MINERALS OF PAKISTAN  Aluminum  Iron Ore  Copper  Chromite Ore  Zinc/ Lead  Calcium  Magnesium • Antimony • Arsenic • Gold • Graphite • Glass Sand • Tungsten
  • 9. MAIN NON-METALLIC MINERALS OF PAKISTAN  Coal  Phosphates  Rock Salt  Asbestos  Limestone  Kaolin  Brine  Marble • Potash • Silica Sand • Sulphur • Natural Gas • Oil • Mica • Radioactive Minerals
  • 10. MINERALS IN PUNJAB  Iron Ore: Large deposits in Kalabagh & Mianwali district  Coal: Salt Range & Markawal (235 million tons)  Gypsum: 2nd largest: Daud Khel (Mianwali) has 53 million tons, Rakhi-Munh, Khewra and Safed- Koh-Rodo area and in Suleman Ranges near D.G. Khan  Salt: Salt Range 160 km, b/w Jhelum & Indus  Khewra, Warcha, Kalabagh, Bhadurkhel, Jatta, & Karak by PMDC and Chakwal and Khushab by Punj MDC  600 million tons as estimated by PMDC
  • 11. MINERALS IN PUNJAB  Lime Stone: Range Pothar, Margalla Hills, Zinda Pir  Aluminum: Khushab District, Low grade quality  Calestine: 83% strontium Sulfate,  used in signal rockets, tracer bullets, warning fuse and fireworks  Strontium in ceramics, paints, plastic, etc.  Daud Khel Western Salt Range • Natural Gas: Uch and Adhi (R.Pindi)  18 Mcf/day of gas, 62 tons/ day LPG and 300 Barrels/ day NGL
  • 12. MINERALS IN SINDH  Coal: 184 million/ 185 billion total in Pak  One of the biggest good quality lignite deposits  Salt: Coastal Area of Karachi, High purity salt  Limestone: Ganjo Takkar, Murli Hills, Mango Pir, Cape Monze, Kot Diji, and Ranipir.  Alum: Kirthar Nits  Carbonate Soda: Nara Taluka (Khairpur), Nawabshah, Umerkot, Shah Bandar, etc.
  • 13. MINERALS IN SINDH  China Clay: Nagar Parkar, Tharparkar  Contain 16-31% clay, also known as Kaoline  Natural Oil: Khashkheli, Laghari, Tando Alam (Lower Sindh)  Natural Gas: Khairpur, Kandkot, Mari, Golachi and Khaskheli
  • 14. MINERALS IN KP  Chromite: Dargai (0.7Mt), Heroshah (0.1) Jijal-pattan and Chilas (0.2)  Pakistan is Major Exporter of Chromite  Coal: Kandkot, Marri (small but good quality)  Bauxite: Hazara District, Hangu, Cherat  Gypsum: DI Khan, Kohat (4442Mt)  Largest Resources in KP  Phosphate: Abbotabad, Hazara
  • 15. MINERALS IN KP  Magnesite: Kumhar (Abbotabad) – 11 Mt  Limestone: Quality extensive deposits in KP and NA  Annual Production 8700 matric tons  China Clay: Shah Dheri (Swat)  Annual Production 61, 400 matric tons  Marble: 158/ 162 million tons in KP  Gem Stone: Emerald, Ruby, Topaz, Peridot
  • 16. MINERALS IN BALOCHISTAN  Aluminum: Large Deposits,  Kalat, Ziarat, Loralai  Iron Ore: 930 million tons  Copper: Saindak and Reko-diq  Chromite: Muslim Bagh, Noshki, Ras-Koh  Zinc: Lasbela-Khuzdar belt (world class)  Coal: Hamai, Duki, Pir Ismail, (217 million t)  Natural Gas: Pirkok, Sui, Mazarani, (31 Tcf)
  • 17. MINERALS IN BALOCHISTAN  Gypsum: 2000 million tons  Marble: (2 million tons) High Quality  Gems:  Chagi: Garnet, Azurite, Malachite, Lapis  Panjgur: Quartz  Killa Abdullah: Aragonite  Khuzdar: Aragonite