Causes and effects of dropouts at primary level


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Research thesis on the topic of Dropouts at Primary Level submitted for accomplishment of degree requirements of M.Ed at AWKUM

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Causes and effects of dropouts at primary level

  1. 1. CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF DROP-OUTS AT PRIMARY LEVEL BY: JAMAL SHAH Thesis in the partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Master in Education MARDAN COLLEGE OF HEALTH & PHYSICAL EDUCATION ADBUL WALI KHAN UNIVERSITY MARDAN 2010 1
  2. 2. DEDICATED to the most revered man of the universe and beyond it The Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) who enlightened the life of the people, awaken them of the deep slumber of darkness and educate them to lead a respectable life to get the blessings of Allah AlMighty. 2
  3. 3. ABSTRACT The high dropout rate at primary level in Pakistan suggests that there are some problems that hinder the process of learning. The goals of this study will be to determine what is standard primary education and why do we need it; to examine the relationships between children‘s needs and available resources; to consider the problems to the students, and causes that divert them from education at this level e.g. corporal punishment, pair groups, inappropriate environment, poverty, poor methodology, incorrect use of A.V. Aids etc; and finally through intervention, to evaluate the impact of different factors which may affect the process of learning at this level. This report is about a lot of students of our nation who do not complete primary school education, about the fact that this situation has gotten worse in most parts of the country especially in Khyber PukhtoonKhwa during the last decade. The report identifies several approaches to increasing student retention at school. Outcomes have been analyzed using a variety of parallel and inconsistent analysis of various methods in local schools at Takht Bhai. The study results are estimated to make a significant contribution to the context field of education by providing an accurate evaluation of the impact of different techniques and factors on key learning outcomes in primary education settings which may help in solving the problem of dropouts at this level. 3
  4. 4. Chapter TOPIC Introduction 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Background Education in Pakistan Obstacles to Education Statement of the Problem Hypotheses of the Study Objectives of the Study Significance of the Study Procedure of the Study 1.8.1 1.8.2 1.8.3 1.8.4 Population of the Study Sample of the Study Sample Size Research Instruments/ Tools for Data Collection Review Of Related Literature 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Education Theories of Education Primary Education Quality of Primary Education 2.4.1 International Standard of Quality of Primary Education 2.4.2 International Declarations on Quality of Basic Education 2.4.3 Definition of Quality in the Context of EFA 2.4.4 Quality of Primary Education in Pakistan 2.4.5 Teachers at Primary Level 2 2.5 High Drop outs at Primary Level in Pakistan 2.6 Causes and Effects of Drop outs Methods And Methodology 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Population of the Study Sample of the Study Sample Size Delimitation Research Instruments/ Tools for Data Collection Presentation, Tabulation And Analysis Of Data 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Low Enrolment Rate Corporal Punishment Poverty and Family Background Teacher‘s Role (their own problems & absentees) Bad Social Environment Lack of Basic Facilities Curriculum and Education Policy Poor Evaluation Summary, Findings, Conclusions And Recommendations 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Summary Findings Conclusions Recommendations Bibliography Appendices 4
  5. 5. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Education plays a vital role in human resources development. Schooling, according to the human capital theory, is an investment that generates higher future income for individuals. It elevates the productivity and competence of individuals and thus produces skilled manpower that is capable of leading the economy towards the path of sustainable economic development. Strengthening the quality of education has become a global agenda at all educational levels and more so at the primary level. Quality primary education also ensures increased access and equality and it is mainly due to these reasons that various international Forums and Declarations have pledged improvements in quality of primary education. It was stated in a report of Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO, 1991) that dropout phenomenon is a world-wide problem associated with the process of development in any society whether such society is a developing or developed nations. For instance, in the United States, a federal study group known as the National Commission on Excellence in Education observed critically that high school dropout rate rose to almost 30% by the late 1980s. In the light of the Annual Education for All Global Monitoring Report, published by UNESCO, it has been revealed that Nigeria, Pakistan, India, and Ethiopia, account for 23 million out of the world‘s 77 million out off-school children. There are many differences between the education systems of developed and developing countries. Like many other developing countries, the situation of the education sector in Pakistan is not very 5
  6. 6. encouraging. National commitment towards quality primary education has become significantly visible since the late eighties. From then onwards, the government has experimented a number of initiatives and interventions for improving quality with national and foreign funding. 1.2 Education in Pakistan Though Pakistan has made significant improvement in raising adult literacy; however the goal of universal primary education has not been achieved due to low Enrolment and high dropout rates. The low enrolment rates at the primary level, wide gaps between regions and gender, lack of trained teachers, scarcity of adequate teaching materials, shortage of proper schools, corporal punishment, religious invention, poverty etc. indicate the poor performance of this sector. But most importantly high drop-out rate has almost paralyzed the efforts for acquiring the goal of universal primary education in the country. The most cited and most widely available indicator of the education quantity is the gross Enrolment rate, defined as the number of children enrolled in a particular level of education, regardless of age, as a percentage of the population in the age group associated with that level. The age range for primary school is usually 6 to11 years. In 1960, primary school gross Enrolment rates were 65 percent in low-income countries, 83 percent in middle-income countries, and over 100 percent in high-income countries. By 2000, Enrolment rates had reached or exceeded 100 percent in both low and middle income countries in all regions except Sub-Saharan Africa, where gross Enrolment rates peaked at 80 percent in 1980 and then declined slightly. In many countries, gender disparities in access to education are significant. About 56 percent of the 113 million school-age children not in school are girls (UNESCO, 2002). In low-income countries, primary gross Enrolment rates are 107 percent for boys and 98 percent for girls; this gender gap is wider at the secondary level, 60 percent for boys and 47 percent for girls. The literacy level in Pakistan is understandingly lower than any other country of the region. This is perhaps due to the high level of drop-outs at the primary level. 6
  7. 7. The high levels of drop-outs at the primary school level remain the milestones of journey through school education. There may be many reasons taking part in this educational wastage, some of them are considered as ―The resources spent on dropouts are an ―educational wastage‖, because the limited literacy and numeracy skills acquired at less than primary level are lost by the drop outs. Consequently overtime they may revert to a state of complete illiteracy. Another kind of educational wastage results from the introduction of various incentive schemes to attract students. These schemes have yielded limited results, simply because they are not well integrated through the system. For example, in Sindh, the scheme to provide free primary education, including books, is beset with the most serious problem of extended teacher absenteeism in rural areas, and all the students are promoted to next class even if they do not appear in the examination. Teacher absenteeism is particularly acute because in these rural primary schools there is only one teacher for all the five classes. Furthermore, most of the teachers admit that they can only teach the regional language; therefore they do not even distribute the books for English and mathematics provided by the education department. Besides the characteristics of the system, household characteristics such as the poverty levels and the socio-cultural factors also have a strong bearing on the decision to educate children‖. (Bilquees, Faiz; p.45) So it is evident from the above assessment of education in Pakistan that its quality has greatly affected the literacy rate, but high drop-outs at primary level is a very critical issue to ponder on. Pakistan, as compared to even other developing countries, has a very high drop-out rate as recorded by UNESCO in 2004. 1.3 Obstacles to Education But it is very serious as currently surveyed by different NGOs in Pakistan and considered corporal punishment the most dangerous which is culturally accepted to ensure obedience, especially in previous NWFP (now, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa). In a survey in Hayat Abad Peshawar a teacher Abdul Akbar (age 40) says, ―The teacher 7
  8. 8. needs to ensure obedience and ensure children receive proper guidance. For this, an occasional light beating or other physical admonishment is necessary‖. (, May 03, 2010) Though legislation is made to ban this practice but it is poorly implemented. Teacher absenteeism is another factor that is particularly acute in rural areas because in rural primary schools there is only one teacher for all the five classes. Moreover, most of the primary teachers are undergraduate and professionally untrained; hence they do not know the psychology and interest of their students which result in drop-outs. Besides the characteristics of the system, domestic distinctiveness such as the poverty levels and the socio-cultural factors also have a strong bearing on the decision to educate children. Children tend to drop-out in large numbers in Pakistan at three significant levels; primary, middle and secondary but it is more startling at primary level which is to be considered the right of every child as promulgated in the education policy of Pakistan. 1.4 Statement of the Problem Primary education in Pakistan is strongly impeded by corporal punishment, poverty and lack of basic facilities in schools. This work is intended to find out the causes, effects and solutions of high ―Causes and Effects of drop-outs at primary level in tehsil Takht Bhai‖. Data is gathered from local primary schools in tehsil Takht Bhai through field work and survey. 1.5 Objectives of the Study The objectives of this study were: 1. To determine and analyze the causes that force the students to drop-out at primary level in Takht Bhai; 2. To find out the effects of drop-out on universal primary education in tehsil Takht Bhai; and 8
  9. 9. 3. To pinpoint the possible solutions of this problem of increasing drop-outs at primary level. 4. To provide recommendations for actions and interventions to minimize this phenomena; and 5. To contribute to the capacity building efforts of the concerned actors in the field of education by sharing knowledge and experience by carrying out applied research in the field of education. 1.6 Significance of the Study The high drop out rate in Pakistan is a very serious problem for the government, governmental departments, and educational sectors and even for every citizen of the country. To cope with this problem one has to find out the causes of the problem. These would definitely help in providing the remedy for solving this problem. Primary education is the base for any kind of education and is universally thought compulsory for every human being of the world. People throughout the world are striving for universalizing the primary education. Pakistan is also trying its best but is facing many hindrances, e.g. poverty, physical punishment, etc. This work is, therefore, very important in this prospect that it is considered to provide the causes and effects of this high drop out rate in Pakistan. 1.7 Hypotheses of the Study The hypotheses of this study were: 1. Poverty is to be considered the root cause of high dropout rate at primary level in tehsil Takht Bhai, Mardan. 2. Corporal Punishment has played a major role in students‘ leaving the primary schools. 3. Lack of basic facilities and activity less curriculum at primary level also compel students to leave their schools. 1.8 Procedure of the Study 9
  10. 10. The following methodology was therefore adopted to help the different sectors to resolve this problem. 1.8.1 Population of the study This study was conducted in male primary schools in Takht Bhai city. The number of male students in Takht Bhai was nearest 40, 000. 1.8.2 Sample of the Study The group of male students taken for study was the students studying in the primary classes (Nursery to Five). 560 students dropped out during this decade. Only Government Primary Schools were under study. 1.8.3 Sample Size A simple of 56 male students (10% of dropped out) and 10 govt. primary schools i.e. 50% of the target population was taken as a sample. 1.8.4 Research Instruments/ Tools for Data Collection This study was a qualitative and quantitative analysis based on two kinds of information: i) Published or secondary information ii) Primary data (original or first-hand account of events or experiences) This study was structured in a way that first of all, the problem in hand was described and then its role in education was also mentioned in an appropriate method. In next step materials from different sources were compiled to help in correct identification and knowledge of the problem. The data is accumulated from different primary schools in Takht Bhai through survey with the help of a social organization Youth Empowerment Society. Questionnaires are prepared and filled in this survey through physical visits to these schools and questions are asked from the students of the concerned schools and reasons are investigated from the students who dropped out from their schools. 10
  11. 11. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Education The word education has been derived from ―Educare (means to bring up) or Educere (to raise) or educatum (the act of teaching or training). So the education means to train or to lead an individual or group of individuals for a specific purpose. Education means knowing and understanding something or getting acquisition of something through careful observations and experiences. Education includes activities of educating or instructing or activities that impart knowledge or skill. ―Education plays the role of leadership in the society. The functions of the educational institutions are to develop the people physically, mentally, psychologically, socially, and spiritually‖. (Ghulam Rasool Mamon; p.5) It improves and promotes the economic, social, political and cultural life of the nation. Education is a dynamic process which affects all spheres of life equally. Education is a formal kind of learning which is usually pre-organized and pre-planned. It is also usually regular, disciplined and comprises of recognized learning materials. Education being an indispensable tool in nations building is a process of systematic training and instruction designed to transmit knowledge and acquisition of skill, potentials and abilities which will enable an individual to contribute efficiently to the growth and development of his society and nation. 11
  12. 12. 2.2 Theories of Education For instance in Sparta, people used education for promotion of physical growth and defense of the country. {Socrates on the other side thought education as to ―dispel the error and discover the truth‖. Plato-―Education is the capacity to feel pleasure and pain in the right moment‖ ―Aristotle thinks education a process of creation of sound mind in a sound body‖. Pestalozzi-―Education is natural, harmonious and progressive development of man‘s innate powers‖. W. James says, ―Education is the organization of acquired habits of such actions as will fit the individual to his physical and social environment} (Educational Philosophy by Dr. Dalaganjan Naik; p.8) Islam gives grand importance to education which is obvious from the sayings of Allah in the Holy Quran: Allah has termed education ( ) a light which enlightens the life of His creature and can show them the right path. The Allah through our Holy Prophet says, The Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) had also highly valued education and says, ― ‖. (Al-Hadiths) It was he who made the people of Arabia good and taught them the laws of a virtuous life. He gave them the message of Allah, to abstain the wrong doing forbidden by Allah Al-Mighty. Famous Muslim scholar Imam Ghazali (R.A.) says, ―Education is a way to distinguish between good and bad and right and wrong and to make Allah happy‖ 12
  13. 13. Similarly, Ibn Khaldoon states, ―Education is a process of intellectual and moral training of human beings‖ Education in Islamic perspective can also be defined as, ―Education is a complete social process, which makes possible the growth of all aspects of the personality of an individual so that to get the reality of the universe and its creator and enable to act in civilization, organization and modern application of society as needed and comprises of all experiences which can affect the application of mind‖. (Mirza Sakhi Muhammad ―Ilmul Taaleem‖; Part I, p.5) ―Education can empower spiritual, mental, intellectual and physical capabilities and can make the personality balanced‖. (Attash Durrani ―Perspectives of Education‖ A.I.O.U., Islamabad; p.117) Hence, according to the mentioned definitions education in Islam does not mean only to impart knowledge but to lead a useful life which was instructed by our Allah to us through Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.). This would help a Muslim to work for the betterment of his community in particular and society as a whole to strengthen peace and prosperity in the world. Islam is a complete way of life which teaches and trains human beings according to their nature. Allah knows about the strength and weakness of human beings so it is His task to present the organizational system according to. Education and training can be set apart from each other. According to Professor Khurshid Ahmad, ―Educational thinking maneuvers both knowledge and self-enlightenment. That is why the particular educational system of Islam consists of education and character building as two aspects of a single fact‖. (Educational Ideology of Islam; p.15) Education is important especially for women because it provides important means for their empowerment. Apart from the acquisition of knowledge and values conducive to social evolution, education provides many other benefits. The development 13
  14. 14. of the mind, training in logical and analytical thinking, organizational, administrative and management skills accrue through education. Enhanced self-esteem and improved financial and social status within the community is a direct outcome of education. Education, therefore, be made available to all. For better parenting and healthier living also, education is an important factor. It is beyond doubt that educating girls can yield a higher rate of return than any other investment. Education is consequently that route which paves the way for modernization of a country. 2.3 Primary Education It is the earliest program of education for children, beginning generally at the age of five or six and lasting from six to eight years. ―It means full-time education suited to the requirements of students up to the age of 12 years‖. (Online Dictionary) ―Primary education is the beginning of a systematic set of studies in reading, writing, and mathematics‖ (Michael Wann ―The Primary Education‖; p.7) ―Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. It is preceded by pre-school or nursery education and is followed by secondary education‖ (Wikipedia) ―By primary education, we explicitly mean the first five years or grades of education, where the age of the child is between 5 to 9 years‖. (Gulzar Hussain Shah ―The Role of NGOs in Basic and Primary Education in Pakistan‖; p.12) ―Primary education refers to the compulsory education where in the students seek the basic knowledge about all the relevant and necessary subjects of life that may include the counting, word formation and comprehension and knowledge about general ethics, norms and standards of the surrounding‖. (Dr. P.A. Shami and Kh. Sabir Hussain, ―Basic Education‖; p.15) In some countries there is a public examination at the end of the fifth grade when a completion certificate gives entry to higher level schools as well as an independent confirmation of the literacy of the child. Whether there is a public examination or not, we 14
  15. 15. will take primary education to be the first five years of education for a child starting at the age of about 5 or 6 years and graduating from primary school at the age of 9 or 10 years. The purpose of the elementary school is to introduce children to the skills, information, and attitudes necessary for proper adjustment to their community and to society. Basically, the subjects taught are reading, writing, spelling, mathematics, social studies, science, art, music, physical education, and handicrafts. These are often supplemented with other subjects, such as foreign languages. Over the years new subject matter has made the elementary school curriculum more advanced than heretofore. This is the time when the experiences of children make their tilt towards particular discipline and program of life. Usually in some countries primary education ends up at the age of ten years where the students pass their 5th grade examination. This time period initiates and made all pupils understand about how to work in community as a class and how to deal and obey authorities in general in society. Other than this discipline is the most important aspect that is learned in these preliminary years before stepping into the stream of professional education. 2.3.1 Primary Education in the world It is compulsory in all the countries where in all the courses and subjects take compulsory position and children are introduced with the basics of language, art, science, arithmetic and other aspects of life specifically the religion. General education of all disciplines is very necessary for every child which is provided in primary education. ―The World Development Report 2000/2001 indicates that the biggest problem of poverty, besides the lack of food, is the lack of power directly related to a lack of knowledge. Worldwide almost 1 billion people lack a basic skill to acquire knowledge: they are illiterate. They are illiterate because they have had no primary education or because the quality of their primary education was too low. Basic education is an investment that pays off. The value and role of ―knowledge‖ is different in every culture 15
  16. 16. but good basic education is essential in every culture and at all levels. A carpenter needs to know what an angle of 90 degrees is. When a mother does not want her child to get diarrhea, she needs to know the basics of hygiene. Millions of Africans do not have access to information on HIV/AIDS because they cannot read‖. (Morison; ―Education and economic growth‖; p.23) Basic knowledge and access to information enables people to choose good governments or to oust bad ones. The effectiveness of investments in health and sanitation depends on good basic knowledge among villagers. The effectiveness of extension services for poor farmers depends on their capacity to understand what is being explained to them. ―A recent OECD study states that those few countries in Africa that years ago significantly invested in (primary) education now derive economic growth from this investment. Going back in history, it is generally acknowledged that the introduction of compulsory primary education in Western Europe in the 19th century has been a crucial factor for economic and social development. Giving priority to primary education does not compete with other sectors, it supports their development. A well educated population is also crucial for countries wanting to take advantage of market opportunities, wanting to export or to attract foreign investment‖. (Lockheed and Verspoor, ―Improving Primary Education in Developing Countries‖) Free market access is important but what do you do with it if your country has no competitive enterprises because its population cannot read or calculate or is not innovative. The absence or the poor quality of basic education not only becomes visible in illiteracy but also shows its effects among people who do finalize secondary school and university. Ministries, factories, hospitals and farms in developing countries often work inefficiently, not because the people working there are not capable but because they lack the right knowledge and skills. For instance, a test in Nicaragua showed that 7 out of 10 engineers could not calculate the contents of a cube with sides of 1 meter. The argument was that they did not have the formula at hand. Similarly, a doctor in Ghana claimed 16
  17. 17. seriously he had vaccinated more than 120 % of the village population. Are these engineers or doctors ―stupid‖ or less intelligent? Of course not, something went wrong when they passed through primary school. They probably got teachers without an adequate level of knowledge, who were poorly prepared or who were not motivated. 2.3.2 Universal Primary Education (Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality.) By UNESCO—2006-09 All children must have the opportunity to fulfill their right to quality education in schools or alternative programmes at whatever level of education is considered 'basic'. All states must fulfill their obligation to offer free and compulsory primary education in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international commitments. The international agreement on the 2015 target date for achieving Universal Primary Education (UPE) in all countries will require commitment and political will from all levels of government. For the millions of children living in poverty, who suffer multiple disadvantages, there must be an unequivocal commitment that education be free of tuition and other fees, and that everything possible be done to reduce or eliminate costs such as those for learning materials, uniforms, school meals and transport. Wider social policies, interventions and incentives should be used to mitigate indirect opportunity costs of attending school. No one should be denied the opportunity to complete a good quality primary education because it is unaffordable. Child labour must not stand in the way of education. The inclusion of children with special needs, from disadvantaged ethnic minorities and migrant populations, from remote and isolated communities and from urban slums, and others excluded from education, must be an integral part of strategies to achieve UPE by 2015. While commitment to attaining universal enrolment is essential, improving and sustaining the quality of basic education is equally important in ensuring effective 17
  18. 18. learning outcomes. In order to attract and retain children from marginalized and excluded groups, education systems should respond flexibly, providing relevant content in an accessible and appealing format. Education systems must be inclusive, actively seeking out children who are not enrolled, and responding flexibly to the circumstances and needs of all learners. One of the most important findings of the EFA 2000 Assessment that preceded the World Conference on Education for all held in Dakar in April 2000 was that the performance of primary education fell below desired levels. Many gains in primary education had diminished due to national and international conflicts, natural disasters, and situations of extreme poverty. The report suggests a wide range of ways in which schools can respond to the needs of their pupils, including affirmative action programmes for girls that seek to remove the obstacles to their enrolment, bilingual education for the children of ethnic minorities, and a range of imaginative and diverse approaches to address and actively engage children who are not enrolled in school. Access to primary education is taken to be a basic right of every citizen. All citizens need to be literate to function productively and to make their full contribution to society as well as to realize their own potential. Almost all countries hold the welfare of their citizens as the prime objective for their existence. The citizen is taken to be the end for which the state functions. If citizens are to be treated as an end, their needs and prerequisites for a good life become part of the package of basic rights that are the foundation of a state or society. Given that, education becomes a pre-requisite for developing the full potential of a citizen and it becomes a prime concern for the state. It should be clear that the argument for basic rights does not depend on the question of the ability of the citizen or even of the state to pay for this education. It depends solely on the perception of the welfare of citizens and what is considered to be necessary to ensure this welfare. The factors that are considered to be prerequisites for the self development of citizens are of 18
  19. 19. course not static. They have to be relative to the state of development of the society in question, as well as to other societies around it. They also have to be relative to the state of science and technology of the society. A more scientifically advanced society might require more education and training as a pre-requisite than a society that is less scientifically advance. But for almost all societies now, primary education is considered to be a definite pre-requisite. 2.3.3 Universal Primary Education in Pakistan Some, though not all, consider middle and secondary education to be necessary too, and Pakistan is moving in this direction. Following from this concept of relative prerequisites for societal development in different countries, Adam Smith had a very relative notion of what constitutes poverty. In his times, if a worker did not have a silk shirt he could not show himself in public with dignity. This was poverty for Smith. The same argument is used to justify both the importance of literacy in particular, education in general, and their connection with the state of society to justify how much education should be expected in this pre-requisite category. Furthermore, at a current institutional level the Constitution of Pakistan places the responsibility for basic education unambiguously on the State. This is reflected in the principles of policy in Article 37, which states: ―The State shall: 1) Promote, with special care, the educational and economic interests of backward classes or areas. 2) Remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period.‖ The second principle makes it clear that the Constitution places responsibility for the provision of free and compulsory primary and secondary education on the government. It should also be noted that the provision holds for all citizens of Pakistan, irrespective of race, colour, ethnicity, religion and gender. Furthermore, the first point 19
  20. 20. emphasizes the increased responsibility of the state in offering education to backward classes or areas of Pakistan. This further strengthens the idea that access to education for all citizens is a basic right that they can and must claim from the state and society. The responsibility for actual provision of education falls on the provinces, and the actual executing agency is usually the local government. All provinces have made primary education compulsory through appropriate legislation, or are working on such legislation. However, the implementation of this legislation remains uneven. The National Education Policy (1998-2010) also envisages universalization of primary education in Pakistan. It has ambitious targets, and if the government is able to achieve these targets most of the work of getting all children of the relevant age in schools would be completed. This will take us a long way in achieving universal literacy eventually. So according to the above mentioned statements it is the duty of the government to provide the basic primary education to every citizen of Pakistan. But it constantly failed to facilitate its people this dire need of basic education and skill. Literacy rates in Pakistan continue to be low, with over one-half of adult population still illiterate. However, over the past two decades, improvements in literacy rates have been impressive, especially for females and that, too, in the rural areas. 20
  21. 21. TABLE 2.1 Literacy Rates (10+ years) (%) YEAR RURAL TOTAL 47.12 17.33 26.17 Male 55.32 26.24 35.05 Female 37.27 7.33 15.99 Both 63.08 33.64 43.92 Male 70.00 46.38 54.81 Female 1998 URBAN Both 1981 GENDER 55.16 20.09 32.02 Table 2.1 revealed that overall national literacy rate was 44% in 1998 with wide variations across location, provinces and gender. The average literacy rate for urban areas was 63%, with 70% for males and 55% for females while the rural literacy rate was much lower at 34%, with 46% for males and 20% for females. Limited provisions exist in the public sector for early childhood care and education and one-third of children attending ―katchi‖ and Class 1 are admitted to the former section. In the urban private schools, however, there has been a mushroom growth of nursery schools and kindergartens. At the primary level, gross enrolment rates have always been higher in urban than rural areas. Also, these rates display sharp gender disparities within each area but due to higher levels of overall awareness, improvements in the socio-cultural attitudes towards girls‘ education and certain policy measures which focused on female education, especially in rural areas under the Social Action Programme (SAP), the gender gap has somewhat narrowed during the 1990s. It may, however, be kept in mind that although wide variations exist in the statistics quoted for key education indicators across various government data sources, but there is unanimous agreement that the gender gap at the primary level is still well pronounced. 21
  22. 22. Figure 2.1 Literacy Rate of Selected South Asian Countries 100 90 80 70 60 Pakistan India 50 Bangladesh Sri Lanka 40 30 20 10 0 Adult Male Female Figure 2.1 showed that Pakistan has the lowest literacy rate as compared to its neighbour south asian countries, except for Bangladesh which is marginaly less than Pakistan, all other countries have tremendous growth in their literacy rate. 22
  23. 23. TABLE 2.2 Progress In Gross Enrolment Rates At Primary Level During 1990s YEAR RURAL TOTAL 71.4 59.4 62.6 Female 63.2 23.2 33.9 Both 67.4 41.9 48.8 Male 92.0 89.0 90.0 Female 82.0 52.0 61.0 Both 1998/99 URBAN Male 1990 GENDER 87.0 71.0 76.0 Table 2.2 showed a contrasting difference of progress in enrolment rate at primary level between urban and rural area in Pakistan. It is also evident that female education in the country is always lagging behind the total which is very alarming. Universal Primary Education is important for eradication of illiteracy, Promotion of equality among members of society, combating poverty and diseases. Universalization of primary education serves as an instrument for development of national economy. It is one of the top priority goals as committed by Pakistan at the National and International levels. The task has forbidding magnitude and need massive efforts. Pakistan is perhaps one such state among 200 countries on the global map wherein percentage of primary education has declined to the extent of 3 per cent during the last decade. According to studies conducted by the World Bank, three out of five persons in Pakistan cannot read and write. Pakistan is at No 132. In the literacy chart, literacy in Punjab is below 46 per cent and eight million children between ages of 5 to 9 are deprived of primary education while 40 per cent of Punjab population up to the age of 14 years consists of children - of them 50 per cent do not go to schools. 23
  24. 24. ―The children population of less than 18 years of age in Pakistan is 70 million. As many as 20.60 million are of less than 5 years, and almost 20.30 million below the age of 18 years do not go to schools. The total strength of schools in Pakistan is 2,60,0095 out of which 1,44,724 are in the public sector. The total strength in these schools consists of 30.33 million children. The number of primary schools in Pakistan do not exceed beyond 1,25,000 where capacity for admission is minimal. The lack of facilities in government schools force the parents to send their children to private schools where they have to pay higher expenses, which inflict a heavy toll on the domestic budget of families while their children do not get quality education. According to Education For All -EFA Global Report, 45 percent children leave the primary school without qualifying 5 th class examination due to missing facilities both at the school and at their doorstep. (UNESCO, report-2003) A human development report 2008 of the federal government says that one out of 40 schools do not have boundary wall, 1/5th are without electricity and drinking water facility and 1/4th do not have any class room furniture, 1/7th do not have lavatories. Hundreds of schools can be termed as ghost schools as teachers are getting salaries but the institutions do not exist anywhere. Hundreds of primary schools in the peripheral areas are used for livestock. According to a study conducted by Education Executive Club and presented at the Pakistan National Forum special session held recently on primary education, the rupees two billion amount allocated to upgrade schools in the total of Rs 30 billion earmarked for education in 2008-09, the primary schools will get little share. Consequently, the children will continue to sit on jute mats and under the open sky. No new school will be opened in Punjab during the current budget period. So primary education in Pakistan is quite perilous for the coming future. It needs a sincere will for improvement and upgradation as per international requirements. Though it is striving for universalization of primary education but this dream never came 24
  25. 25. true in the recent past. Pakistan is though facing a lot of difficulties in the current decade but it can still manage this basic need of the people if it desired so. The government since its birth never tried to allocate a good chunk of GDP and GNP for sake of progress in primary education. The amount allocated for education is low for its quality and need in every budget. Therefore, it always lags behind the quality and standerd necessary for the universalization of primary education in the country. Financial investment is, of course, always a big problem for this country it had never made an effort to fulfill it. TABLE 2.3 Financial Act 1995-96 to 2002-2003 (Rs in Billion) 1995-96 Recurring Budget 39.610 Development Budget 2.585 Total Education Budget 42.195 % Of GDP 2.00 1996-97 40.536 1.968 42.504 2.62 1997-98 46.100 2.984 49.084 2.34 1998-99 46.979 2.427 49.406 2.40 1999-2000 51.572 2.430 54.002 1.7 2000-01 54.396 1.966 56.362 1.6 2001-02 64.975 2.500 67.475 1.9 2002-03 67.270 2.604 69.874 1.7 Year From the tabular data (Table 2.3) it can easily be concluded that government is not able to invest the requisite amount on education in accordance with the population growth. Allocations lag behind the developing countries in the region. A comparison of education indicators in some of the countries of South Asia and South-East Asia from the data available from publications by some of the organisations of the United Nations 25
  26. 26. Pakistan compares favourably with respect to economic development if tills is measured as GNP per capita. However, this is not reflected in its performance with respect to [he development of education or the skill endowment of it population. TABLE 2.4 Comparative Picture Of Education In South Asia Adult Primary Combined Literacy Enrolment Enrolment Rate Rate (Net) Rate 2001 1995-2001 2001 1990 1998-2000 1990 1998-2000 Bangladesh 41 79 54 4.5 2.5 10.3 15.7 Bhotan 47 53 33 N.A 52 N.A 12.9 India 58 89 56 3.9 4.1 12.2 12.7 Maldeves 97 99 79 4.0 3.9 10.0 11.2 Nepal 43 66 64 2.0 3.7 8.5 14.1 Pakistan 44 46 36 2.6 1.8 7.4 7.9 Sri Lanka 92 97 63 2.6 3.1 8.1 N.A Country Public Expenditure On Education As Percentage Of GDP Total Govt. Expenditure Table 2.4 showed that Pakistan has the poorest performance in each of the indicators, which reflect these. Only with respect to the primary school completion rate for Bangladesh does Pakistan perform better, but his is only marginally so. It would appear from the data that while the overall performance of Pakistan is poor. Pakistan's performance with respect to females is even worse. Hence, it is evident from the comparison of different countries with Pakistan that it has almost the lowest standard of primary education throughout the world except for very poor and backward countries in Africa and elsewhere. 26
  27. 27. This has a constrasting effect on the quality of education in the country which is also considerably low for the world class standard. Pakistan has also to ensure the quality standard of primary education for all its people. 2.4 Quality of Primary Education Education provides the bedrock for reducing poverty and enhancing social development. An educational system of poor quality may be one of the most important reasons why poor countries do not grow. In Pakistan, the quality of education has a declining trend. It is realized that science education in particular is reaching lowest ebb and needs to be improved urgently. ―There is acute shortage of teachers. Laboratories are poor and ill equipped and curriculum has little relevance to present day needs. The schools generally are not doing well. Tracing causative factors responsible for the present state is a critical need. These include defective curricula, dual medium of instruction at secondary level, poor quality of teachers, cheating in the examinations and overcrowded classrooms‖. (Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2002) In Pakistan efforts have been made to mould the curriculum in accordance with our ideological, moral and cultural values as well as our national requirements in the fields of science, technology, medicine, engineering and agriculture, etc. The rise in supply of educational infrastructure or removal of the supply side constraints can play an important role in raising literacy and education of the population. Development budget allocation for the social sector has been very low throughout and is evident from the budgetary allocation for education as in Table No. 2.3. ―At the sub-regional meeting of South Asian Ministers in Kathmandu in April 2001, Quality Education was unanimously identified as a priority area from the regional perspective. The ministers and all participants were in agreement that there was an urgency to seek remedies for bottlenecks faced in these areas to meet the intermediate targets and EFA goals by 2015. In the context of quality education, the discussions highlighted, that in spite of concerted efforts and resources devoted to quality, the results 27
  28. 28. have been neither satisfactory nor sustainable. Why is this so?‖ (Dr. Munawar S. Mirza, ―Quality of Primary Education‖) Failing standards reveal poor service delivery, leading in turn to low levels of interest; and improvement in quality is a key element that could ensure equity for learners through substantive entitlements in terms of capabilities for improving human well-being. 2.4.1 International Standard of Quality of Primary Education Several international and regional meetings have reiterated the need for Quality EFA. In this context, the Dakar Framework of Action refers to quality both within the six goals and the accompanying strategies: ―Improving every aspect of the quality of education, and ensuring their excellence so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills‖. Strengthening the quality of education has become a concern of paramount importance in discussions on education. The concern is shared equally by all the stakeholders at all levels of education including the primary education. ―The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) declared primary education as the basic human right of all people. Accordingly, all nations prioritized universal access to education. The developed, and many developing, nations have attained universal or near universal access to primary education. Now the focus is on the quality of students' learning. The concern is valid not only for nations who have attained the quantitative targets, it is also valid for nations still striving for expansion of educational access. It has been established that access and quality are not sequential elements. Quality is rather considered, in the light of growing evidence, a means for achieving the universal access and equity of education regardless of gender, location, race, religion, and social class‖. (Hoy, Jardine, ―Improving Quality in Education‖) 28
  29. 29. The World Bank (1997) in one of its reports on elementary education in Pakistan has also laid equal emphasis on the expansion of access and quality as the quality has been visualized instrumental in improving access. The report states: "The best way to improve access is to improve quality which would make coming to school or staying in school a more attractive option from the perspective of parents as well as children. Moreover, effort to improve quality will tend to increase the efficiency of the public expenditure and will encourage parents to contribute to children education." (World Bank (1997), Pakistan towards a Strategy for Elementary Education, Report No. 16670 – Pak) Quality of education also means setting standards which make a pavement for assessment of standards, comparability of programs, and accountability for meeting the targets. To ensure the acheivement of these standards one has to make ample efforts. These require sincerity of the authority concerned of these countries who are facing this lack of quality in education especialy in primary education which is basic and elementary for all the human beings of all regions of the world regardless of any creed, culture, society, religion, geographic conditions, etc. 2.4.2 International Declarations on Quality of Basic Education 1. The Jomtien Declaration of EFA, 1990: A landmark document for the promotion of basic education emphasized that 'the focus of education must, therefore, be on actual learning outcomes rather than exclusively on enrolment'. 2. The World Education Forum, Dakar Framework of Action 2000: Emphasis on quality of education is included as one of the six goals: "Improving all aspects of the quality of education, and ensuring their excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills" (Article 7(vi)) The Expanded Commentary on the Dakar Framework of Action includes following two articles on quality: 29
  30. 30. i) Evidence over the past decade has shown that efforts to expand enrolment must be accompanied by attempts to enhance educational quality (World Bank (1997. Article 43). ii) Government and all other EFA partners must work together to ensure basic education of quality for all, regardless of gender, health, location, language, or ethnic origin (Article 44). 3. The Recife Declaration of UNESCO E-9 project (Education for All in the nine most populous developing countries), of January 2000, reaffirms commitment to the enhancement of quality of basic education through adopting several measures. 4. The Beijing Declaration of the E-9 Project on ICT1 and EFA (August 2001) reiterated its commitment to raise the quality of education through using Information Communication Technology (ICT), and better training of teachers and administrators. ―Despite the growing concern about the quality of education, its crystallized definition is somewhat difficult (Aspin & Chapman, 1994) largely due to a wide array of stakeholders and consumers along with the complexities of teaching-learning process which need to be unfolded continuously. ―Terms like effectiveness, efficiency, equity, equality and quality are often used interchangeably‖. (Adams, D., ―Defining Education Quality. Improving educational Quality Project‖) Most of the people view quality of education as the learning outcomes of students which is the primary concern of all stakeholders. But to achieve the desired quality the antecedents, that is the input and process should also have quality in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, excellence, and social justice. The quality education output can be achieved only if quality is ensured at each level of the educational process from standard setting, learning environment, teacher training, teacher-learning process, assessment and monitoring. Adams (1993) included six elements of quality i.e. reputation of the institution, resources and inputs, process, content, output and outcomes, and value added. 30
  31. 31. Lockheed and Verspoor (1991) in a study of developing countries have identified various input and process determinants of educational output. These include orderly school environment, academic emphasis in the form of clearly defined learning outcomes and standards, curriculum, particularly the ―implemented curriculum‖ (textbooks, other learning materials), time for learning, effective use of school time, qualified teachers and healthy children. The developed countries show the similar results with a varying level of quality inputs. the curricula is also important in raising the student achievement. ―A report "US about Initiative on Education for All, 2002" enlists teacher training, improved curriculum, management system, parent and community involvement and accountability as the major required educational reforms.‖ (Dr. Munawar S. Mirza) The USAID has thus laid down the same parameters for funding basic education programmes i.e. accountability, qualified teachers in every classroom, locally managed schools, and participation of community. 2.4.3 Definition of Quality in the Context of EFA The Dakar Framework of Action 2000 defined quality of education in terms of recognized and measurable learning outcomes especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills. Article 42 of the Expanded Commentary on the Dakar Framework of Action further elaborates that 'a quality education is one that satisfies basic learning needs, and enriches the lives of learners and their overall experience of living. The measures to attain the required quality were suggested as under: 1. Healthy, well nourished and motivated students. 2. Adequate facilities and learning materials. 3. A relevant curriculum. 4. Environment that encourages learning. 5. Clear definition of learning outcomes. 6. Accurate assessment of learning outcomes. 7. Participatory governance and management and engaging local communities. 31
  32. 32. 2.4.4 Quality of Primary Education in Pakistan Pakistan policy makers have drawn guidelines for the enhancement of quality of education from the international knowledge, Declaration on EFA, and indigenous situation analysis. The National Education Policy, 1992, in the context of primary education, clearly mentions the plan to adopt special measures for improving the quality of education. These measures include proper training of teachers, update 'primary kit' provision of computers, books of general knowledge, science and mathematics and raising the number of teachers to five per school over a period of ten years. Pakistan is a signatory of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and many other declarations down to the World Declaration on Education for All (1990), the World Education Forum: Dakar Framework for Action 2000, the Recife Declaration of E-9 Countries 2000 and the Beijing Declaration of E-9 Countries on ICT and EFA 2001. But Pakistan, despite policy statements and target setting in various education policies and five-year plans is still far below universal primary education access and retention. The priority is thus, still on the expansion of basic educational opportunity to all. However, with the emerging international agenda of quality education, Pakistan has also readdressed the educational target setting by adopting a two-pronged approach based on quantitative expansion along with quality enhancement, particularly since the 7th Five Year Plan. The National Education Policy 1998 has included many elements and strategies for improving quality at elementary level. The central message of SAP-II and EFA beyond DAKAR is Quality Education and that the access is not sustainable without quality (Govt. of Pakistan, 2000). The important policy statements and strategies are listed below: The National Education Policy 1992 recognized that the quality aspect of primary education has been compromised and required urgent examination of the measures needed for its raising. The policy has mentioned several strategies for the purpose including teachers‘ training; updating ―primary kit‖; provision of books; etc. 32
  33. 33. The National Education Policy 1998-2010 had also included among its objectives the improvement of elementary education. The policy gives a comprehensive list of quality inputs such as merit-based recruitment of teachers; pre-service and in-service training of teachers; improving the quality and availability of books; etc. Education Sector Reforms: Action Plan 2001-2005 based on National Educational Policy 1998-2010 among its nine sectors includes a cross-cutting thrust area of quality assurance in education including upgraded teacher training, textbooks and curricula, and assessment system. The National Plan of Action (NPA) for Education for All also addresses the issue of quality education. The major quality inputs suggested include reforms in curricula (focusing on basic learning needs of child, youth, adolescent and adult), textbook development and teachers‘ training. An improved system of examination/assessment i.e. National Education Assessment System (NEAS) will also be introduced. Besides, early childhood education programmes will be initiated as part of efforts to improve the achievement of pupils at primary education level. In Pakistan, the system of National or Provincial Assessment has yet not been established. Standardized data on student learning over years or over repeated measurements is non-existent. However, the realization of a coherent National Assessment has been emerging since mid eighties of the last century. Resultantly a number, nearly two dozens, isolated studies on student learning have been conducted by different agencies and organizations since 1984 and more so during the last decade. Some of the studies have been conducted at national level, whilst other focused on provinces and still some other had a very narrow focus and limited sample. The parameters, methodologies and rigour of the studies also vary. The tests used were generally curriculum and textbook bound. Some small-scale studies used competencies as the standards for testing. A compilation and analysis of various studies has been done and it has been 33
  34. 34. concluded that on the average students do not achieve competency on more than half the material in the 5th grade curriculum (Benoliel, 1999 in UNESCO, 2001). BRIDGES (1989) observed that students of grade 4th and 5th attained scores of 29 and 33 in science and 25 and 26 in mathematics. A study by Mirza and Hameed (1995) in 14 Punjab shows that students of grade I, II, III, IV and V attained mean scores of 62%, 70%, 53%, 51% and 46%, respectively. In grade IV and V the lowest scores were observed in mathematics. Baseline survey of Sindh (2000) reported a mean score of 8 in mathematics. Studies further show that students performed better on items measuring rote learning and poorly on items requiring comprehension, problem solving and life skills. Pervez (1995) also found over 60% children at the end of grade 5 competent in rote learning whilst only 18 - 27% could write a letter, read with comprehension and demonstrate life skill knowledge. 2.4.5 Teachers at Primary Level The importance of teacher as key figure in the education process has always been recognized. The most recent National Education Policy 1998-2010 also recognizes that the teacher is considered the most crucial factor in implementing all educational reforms at the grass-root level. The World Declaration on Education for All emphasized the role of teacher as under: "The pre-eminent role of teachers as well as of other educational personnel in providing quality education needs to be recognized and developed to optimize their contribution ….…improve their working conditions and status notably in respect to the recruitment, initial and in-service training, remuneration and career development possibilities." (Article 1.6 p. 58). The Dakar Framework of Action for EFA, 2000 also states as under: "Enhance the status, morale and professionalism of teachers" (Article 8-ix) The quality of public primary school is a matter of concern both in terms of number of teachers provided and their qualifications. Hence, it is clear from the above 34
  35. 35. literature review that quality of primary as defined by WDE and Dakar Framework of Action for EFA, in Pakistan is very poor and needs to be improved a lot. Though it has made a lot of promises in the each and every education policy but failed to get to that standard and level. Once again I repeat, that it needs utmost earnestness to reach to that peak which is still possible in these conditions. Though critics give emphasize to high Enrolment rate as an indicator for better quality of primary education and vice versa but drop outs at this level is also a perilous indicator for quality of primary education. 2.5 High drop outs rate at primary level in Pakistan Pakistan has currently the highest drop outs rate in the region. Students enrolled at the primary level leave the school before compeleting the necessary education. It has become a headach for all the countries of the world, and every country is striving for reducing the drop outs at this level and to enhance the quality of primary education to increase rate of the graduate students. Though developed countries have made significant attainments in the last decade or so but most of the developing countries are still undertaking this problem to cope especially at this level. ―Early dropouts are a widespread phenomenon in developing countries. Whereas in the OECD countries, almost 100% of students enroll in secondary education and almost 80% of them finish, in Latin America, only 50% of students enroll and less than a third of them complete the level‖. (Carlson, B. published 2002) Similarly, Pakistan has now the highest rate of dropouts at primary and secondary level as compared to other developed, even developing and underdeveloped countries expect for a few very poor countries of Africa. Now it is very contemplative whether how many students are still out the school, a recent survey states that 3 out of every 5 children are still away from the basic primary education. Low Enrolment is another impediment Pakistan has to cross. Literacy rate at present is estimated at 49 percent (male 61.3 and female 36.8 percent) whereas the 35
  36. 36. Primary School gross Enrolment rate increased from 52 percent in 1987 to 73 percent in 1990-91, it declined to 71 percent in 1998-99 mainly due to decline in Enrolment in government schools. The main reasons for the decline in the enrolment at government schools include rising of poverty and decline in the quality of education. For the females, the enrolment ratio has increased. The gender gap in urban areas is not very significant, enrolment rates for boys 95 percent and girls 92 percent. However, significant gap in enrolment rates between urban and rural areas still exist. These gaps are mainly due to inequality of resource distribution, higher teacher absenteeism, lack of access and higher opportunity cost for the parents in rural areas. These factors had an even stronger impact on middle school enrolment. TABLE 2. 5 (Statistical Profile for the year 2000-01) Level Institutions Enrolment Teachers Primary 165,775 17,903,460 338,398 Middle 18,806 4,263,794 95,195 Secondary 12,852 1,771,382 162,006 Higher Secondary 661 42,334 20,190 Sec. Vocational 498 88,000 6,582 Colleges 1,083 956,468 35,325 Universities 28 100,000 9,280 It is evident from the table 2.5 that the number of institutions, enrolled students and teachers was very low in the year 2000-01. At present, out of the total 18 million 5-9 age group children 12 millions are in schools and 6 millions are out of school. The number of left out will gradually decrease with the increase of participation rate. It has 36
  37. 37. been planned to decrease the number of left out to 4 million by the year 2005, 1 million (all girls) by 2010 and almost zero by 2015. Presently, half of the children who enroll in grade 1 drop out before completing 5 year cycle of primary education (grade 1-v). Female drop out rate is more i.e. 54% than male which is 45%. Due to retention of a child in a class for more than one year, the completion rate at primary level has raised to 7-8 years instead of 5 years. TABLE 2.6 Enrolment In Educational Institutions At Primary Level Year Male Female Total 1992-93 92516 38080 130596 1993-94 94063 39987 134050 1994-95 97667 41967 139634 1995-96 101696 43434 145130 1996-97 107619 42042 149661 1997-98 105324 51204 156528 1998-99 102815 56515 159330 1999-2000 103773 58748 162521 2000-01 104866 42870 147736 At the primary level, gross Enrolment rates have always been higher in urban than rural areas until 2001 as illustrated in Table 2.6. Also, these rates display sharp gender disparities within each area but due to higher levels of overall awareness, improvements in the socio-cultural attitudes towards girls‘ education and certain policy measures which focused on female education, especially in rural areas under the Social Action Programme (SAP), the gender gap has somewhat narrowed during the 1990s. Looking at the Table 2.6, one can feel that Enrolment rate was increasing in the 1990s and reached its peak in 1999-2000 but then declined again. Though it may be due 37
  38. 38. to the then condition in Pakistan (Militeray Intervention and 9/11 event) but it should not be effected by the overall condition of the country except for the elastic policies that are framed mostly in democrated era of government in Pakistan. Although Enrolment of the students at this level is satisfactory, if not recognized for the universalization of primary education, yet drop outs rate is tremendous. A major area of concern is the high drop-out rate from primary school. ―In the developed and newly industrialised countries there has been a substantial increase in investment in education which has created a population with an increased level of cognitive and problem solving skills. The developing countries, however, have been unable to enroll, keep and teach comparable proportions of children in primary schools. Despite increasing gross Enrolment rates, fewer than 60 percent of children enrolling in primary schools in the low-income countries and not more than 70 percent in the middle-income countries continue with their education to complete primary schooling. Moreover, these completion rates have declined over the past decade, and most of the drop-outs occur in the initial years of schooling. The problem appears to be more acute for girls.‖ (31) These observations are also valid for Pakistan. Pakistan has also the same problems, it has invested very few amount of its GDP and GNP as mentioned in the Table No. 2.3 since its birth. That is why it is always facing a lot of problems in the realm of education and educational system. According to a national survey, although drop-out rates for boys have remained unchanged over the decade but drop-out rates for girls are reported to have decreased. Substantial decline was found in the percentage of girls (aged 10-18 years) who left school before completing primary school, in both urban (from 12% to 8%) as well as in rural areas (from 27% to 21%). (Lockheed; ―Improving Primary Education in Developing Countries‖;1991) 38
  39. 39. 2.5.1 Comparison with other countries In almost all the developing countries school drop-out rates or low completion rates have been a subject of interest to academics, researchers, and policy makers for a long time. Although the findings of various studies differ depending on the peculiar country specific situations but rural-urban divide, gender bias, and distance to school appear to be the most common elements in all the studies. Hence it can be illustrated through the following table that the dropouts rates in Pakistan is much higher than expected by the international UPE. TABLE 2. 7 Percentage Of Boys And Girls Dropping Out Before Completing Primary School YEAR RURAL TOTAL 14 17 16 Female 12 27 20 Both 13 20 17 Male 13 17 16 Female 8 21 15 Both 1998-99 URBAN Male 1990-91 GENDER 11 18 15 The above table 2.7 showed that the drop out rate at primary level of schooling is too high for Pakistan. If we compare our own condition with the newly administered country Afghanistan, male drop outs rate is greater than female at primary level. ―When the drop out rate per grades for boys and girls was considered, it was found that in all grades, with exception in grades three and five, girls dropped out to a smaller extent than boys did. This might be interpreted as a second stage of selection, i.e. among those girls who are enrolled in schools, the ones who want to quit schools they do so in these grades.‖ (Amir Mansory; p. 12) 39
  40. 40. The study by Chaurd and Mingat (1996) based on a sample of 8000 students in the Punjab and the NWFP provinces is a very extensive study on the learning effects and dropout rates at the primary level only. It covers three types of educational institutions — private, public, and mosque schools over a thirteen months period in 100 schools (to give it a longitudinal survey dimension) at two levels – grade I and grade IV. The main findings of the study are that at level I dropouts are lowest for private schools, and highest for mosque schools, however at level IV the drop-outs are lower and do not differ significantly between the three categories of schools. Similarly, the study shows that in both the single gender and mixed schools the magnitude of dropouts at grade level I is not significantly different. However at grade level IV the dropouts are higher for mixed schools, but at the same time dropout rates at this level were lowest for schools that offered second shifts. In fact double shifts in schools fulfil a very important demand of the poor parents. It allows them the flexibility of time to send children to school without affecting their earnings, which in most cases are vital to the survival of the family. Overall, in single gender schools the dropout rate is higher in all female schools compared to males. At the regional level, in the rural areas dropouts are not affected by multigrade or single grade teaching, or even if the schools do not offer all levels of primary schooling. Similarly low quality of building structure and poor ventilation were also not a serious issue with regard to student retention, but highly qualified and aged teachers appeared to facilitate the dropouts at both grade I and IV levels. Kamal and Maqsood (2000) also analyze the primary dropouts using the same data set. However in order to give a more equal representation to all the three types of schools they revisited the areas covered and suitably modified the representation of schools by type. Their findings are identical to the earlier study with reference to classroom characteristics, teacher qualifications, and the age of the teachers. While they also found lowest dropout rates for private schools both in the Punjab and the 40
  41. 41. NWFP(KPK), the dropouts in the mosque schools differed. They were lower in Punjab and higher in the NWFP(KPK). However in both the provinces the performance of the public schools was superior to that of the mosque schools. An interesting finding of this study is that while in the rural areas harsh treatment of the students resulted in higher retention rates, this was not acceptable in the urban areas. The study by Holmes (2003) measures the determinants of school completion in Pakistan at the primary, middle, and high school levels, using the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (PIHS) data of 1991. She also finds that overall, females receive less education than males. They tend to dropout, or are withdrawn earlier for both economic and socio-cultural reasons. Opportunity cost of sending female children to school in rural areas, where girls are married quite early, is high because benefits of their schooling will not accrue to their parental household. This finding is also supported by World Bank (1989) which shows that escorting girls to middle and high schools raises the cost of sending girls to school, therefore they tend to drop out after completing primary school. Socio-cultural factors prevent girls from attending mixed school beyond the primary level, as well as single gender schools at distance. Lack of single gender schools has also been reported as a major deterrent to the girls‘ continuation into middle and high schools by Alderman, (1996). They concluded that gender gap in illiteracy can be reduced by 40 percent in rural Pakistan if gender gaps in primary education were eliminated. Findings with regard to the impact of parents education differ widely. Holmes shows that this impact differs by gender; the education of the father increases the expected level of school retention by boys, and that of the mother‘s enhances the educational attainment of girls. However earlier studies Behrman (1999) and Swada and Lokshin showed that parents education did not impact child schooling by gender. Behrman found no effect of mother‘s primary education on child schooling while father‘s education had a significant impact on children‘s education. Similarly, 41
  42. 42. Swada and Lokshin reported a consistently positive and significant coefficient of father‘s and mother‘s education at all levels of education except at the secondary school level. However, King, (1986) found a clear positive effect of father‘s education on both sexes; no significant effect of mother‘s education on boys schooling, and a significant effect on the girls only in middle class urban sample. An interesting linkage between property ownership/ land holdings and girls education is reported by Holmes. For the richer households, it is argued that education of boys is considered a necessity, while that of the girls is a luxury. Therefore girls education was positively associated with the wealth of the household. Likewise the positive impact of higher male wages was three times higher for girls than for boys in the urban areas. However the higher female wages did not have any bearing on girls schooling while that of the boys declined. The positive impact of higher wages is also reported by Alderman (1995, 1996); Behrman (1997); Burney and Irfan (1991); and Sathar and Llyod (1994). In Pakistan dropouts at the primary exit level are also associated with negative income and health shocks. Swada and Lokshin point out that in general Pakistani households face considerable income instabilities, particularly in the rural areas which have a severe limitation on formal and/or informal insurance and credit availability. As a result they are therefore more likely to adopt perverse informal selfinsurance devices by using child labor income as parental income insurance, sacrificing the accumulation of human capital. The study by Swada and Lokshin puts forward an interesting finding on female education. They point out that households do not discriminate against all daughters, while the older daughters might have to bear the brunt of resource constraint the domestic labour provided by elder girls and their early marrying infact releases household resources for younger siblings including younger daughters. Swada and Lokshin focus in detail on the sibling variable, and show that at the secondary school exit, and post secondary levels, the older brothers tend to increase the schooling 42
  43. 43. probabilities. Once the family decides to invest in the schooling of the most brilliant child, called the ―winner‖, the elder brothers farm or non-farm contributions towards this investment make a more significant contribution than the daughters non-market domestic labour contribution in the household. By-passing the debate on birth order effects in investment in education they maintain that ―under credit constraints, birth-order effects exist, and, more important, the effects are specific to gender and educational levels‖. (Dr. Najam Us Saqib, ―Drop-Out Rates And Inter-School Movements‖) Having reviewed almost all the possible variables related to the school effect, classroom effects, household related economic and socio-cultural factors, in the next section we describe the date set available for our analysis of the dropout and inter school movement phenomenon, as well as the methodology adopted for the analysis of these two phenomenon. While dropout rate for rural males is lower than that of rural females, the dropout rate of urban males is much higher than that of urban females. One plausible explanation for high male dropouts could be the prevalence of poverty. In the urban areas male children in general take up employment at early ages to support families, while rural males start helping in farm and livestock activities outside the house. Most of the pupils in Pakistan are enrolled in either public or private schools. The two types of schools differ widely in terms of the quality of education offered to the students. The level of cognitive skills imparted by the private schools is generally much higher than that of public schools. If it‘s 1 out of 2 children that begin school, it‘s likely another 1 in 2 drop out before they even complete it in Pakistan. The true scale of the problem is still unknown. UNESCO states that only 70% of students beginning primary school actually complete it and the bad news is, the dropout rate is increasing with no increase in Government 43
  44. 44. spending to arrest it. In secondary school, the likelihood of a child completing nine years of basic education is laughable. Financial reasons are often given as the main reason for dropping out, whether to go to work or due to school costs such as tuition fees, text books and uniforms. It‘s an issue of low quality at high price. Building more schools and lowering school fees is certainly the first step, but it definitely isn‘t enough to keep children in school once there. If quality education isn‘t present in school, children will continue to dropout. Therefore regarding the above literature review, it is very evident that dropout rate in Pakistan has become a startling one which needs proper attention and adequate measures. 2.6 Causes and Effects of Dropouts “There is no doubt that the future of our State will and must greatly depend on the type of education we give to our children ……….” (Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Founder of Pakistan) At the moment Pakistan does not have the infrastructure to educate its population. It‘s a case of too many children and too few schools. Shocking data from the recent National Education Census (NEC) 2005, found that 1 in 5 villages had no school at all. Between the plains and mountains, 10 - 20% of pupils must trek from 2-5 kms to reach their class. This issue isn‘t helped by the growing threat of 'Ghost Schools.' The ‗Ghost school‘ problem is common throughout South Asia, particularly in rural areas. Teacher absenteeism, low attendance and non-existent funding mean that many perfectly suitable schools have to close and many greedy fat cats continue to claim school subsidies. The NEC places the number of empty schools at 12,737 or 5% of the total number. In some situations, one man‘s taxes can mean another child's loss. What this all boils down to is a severe lack of funding and quality in Pakistan‘s schooling system. Parents wish to send their off-spring to school but the value of that taught is 44
  45. 45. often off-putting. Even if children make it to class, the quality of education they receive is often poor and the statistics are staggering. Over a third of all public schools have no boundary wall, no latrine or drinking water facility on site. Almost 74,0000 public schools have no electricity and 9000 have no building whatsoever. In school, students sit on mats, a blackboard can be a luxury and teachers rarely have their own textbook. A teaching kit supplied in the mid-seventies sits in most schools, but is hardly ever used by teachers for fear that they might damage it. Working children 6.5 million children under 9 years old are out of school; 1 in 10 are working nationally. A boggling 35 percent of children never even finish Grade 5. Average Class size is 37 pupils. Pakistan has one of lowest ten education budgets in the world. On paper, Pakistan is the king of talk, passing sound judgments on the problems of its people, economy and future development. The big test now lies in putting those words into action something the Government has a poor record of doing. Pakistan‘s Government estimates that it will cost $7 billion to achieve EFA by 2015, of which $4.3 billion will be petitioned from international donors. The World Bank‘s Development Report for 2008 showed that total aid to Pakistan increased from $308 million to $2.2 billion in 2005. Annual GDP growth is the second highest in the world after China and expenditure on education actually increased to almost 3 percent in 2006, though still far off the 6 percent recommended to achieve a solid education reform. Of all the schools I encountered in Pakistan, each one had a committed team of teachers and community staff working tirelessly to give their children the best future they could. Hoping this is the reality across Pakistan is a desperate dream, for the country faces a teacher motivation crisis. A 1997 survey estimated teacher absenteeism at up to 35% in Northern Pakistan, and 22 percent in the Punjab. The situation is particularly bad among female teachers. As the situation fails to improve, Pakistan‘s Government has announced that a year on year increase of 3 percent in teacher numbers will be needed to acquire universal primary 45
  46. 46. Enrolment by 2015, (an extra 65,000 teachers per year), but as always needs exceed capability. Pakistan‘s teachers are ill-equipped, badly trained and unprepared in a school system with no safety net. The World Bank reports that 58 percent of primary/secondary teachers in country‘s Northern Areas lack proper credentials. Classes usually have several grades in the same classroom; few have facilities such as blackboards and books; and most have an average class size of 38 to deal with. There is no respect like selfrespect and the teaching industry lacks this in droves. Around 90% of local education budgets are spent on Government teacher salaries, leaving little money to spend on school infrastructure and extras like text books. Some public teachers take out second jobs to supplement wages and with zero accountability, few inspections and a healthy dose of corruption available, few lose their positions. Attempting to fill this hole of despair won‘t be easy, yet a ray of light in Punjab province may offer some hope. Under the watchful eye of the World Bank, the Punjab Education Sector Reform Program (PESRP) has invested heavily in existing school buildings, given 11 million students free text books, hired 50,000 additional teachers and paid stipends based on attendance to the parents of 300,000 girls. A well trained and devoted teacher is a greater asset to a rural community than a well built school without one. Whilst it‘s highly unlikely that Pakistan will fill its teaching void by 2015, schemes like the PESRP may hold some hope for restoring the pride in a once proud profession. It is also in the first two or three years of school that children lose the opportunity for learning, if memorization is stressed and children are intimidated by teachers. The United Nations ranks Pakistan, 105 out of 134 in its Human Development Gender Index 2006; the second lowest in South Asia. Honour killings, rape and illegal trafficking of women are prevalent across much of the country. Low literacy and poor health care mean that 1 in 10 children die before the age of five. 46
  47. 47. The country may have applied macro reforms to the economy but it needs to focus at the micro level now to move forwards. As 2015 looms, the country faces a huge challenge to find the funds to meet its educational commitments, solve the MDGs and answer the daily needs of it people, not withstanding another major disaster. The U.N. Development Programme‘s 2004 Human Development Report assigns Pakistan the lowest 'education index' of any country outside Africa. Pakistan can no longer continue its ‗wait till tomorrow‘ education campaign if it‘s serious about meeting its commitments. International donors rarely meet their obligations on time, and in a country where political instability is a cultural necessity, the chances of meeting EFA in full remain slim indeed. Hence, it can be concluded from the above discussion and review that the main causes of dropouts at primary level may be the following: a) Low rate of Enrolment of children, especially at rural areas b) Less number of primary schools c) Bad condition of School buildings d) Insufficient class rooms, Latrines, Water reservoirs, etc e) Lack of basic facilities for the quality primary education f) Shortage of A.V.Aids g) A reduced amount of fund allocated for primary education h) Apathy of government towards improvement of primary education i) Poor structure of curriculum and evaluation j) Corruption from low grade to any high grade in this sector k) Trained teachers deficiency l) Teacher‘s unnecessary absentees from the school m) Laziness of teachers in learning activities n) Teacher‘s own problems o) Ineffective methodolgy of teachers creates boredom 47
  48. 48. p) Poor implementation of curriculum q) Poverty of the educands and working children r) Lack of parents‘ concern s) Lack of students‘s own interest Peer groups t) No connection of industry with curriculum u) Corporal punishment v) Unemployment in the country discourages parents w) Unproductive and activity less curriculum x) Contemptible thoeries towards female education y) Lack of best Supervision and administration of all activities z) Low investment of govt. educational sectors in primary education These causes can be even more if completely analyzed the condition and environment of primary schools everywhere in the country. But the most important and severe of these causes are corporal punishment and poverty. Physical punishment can, as educationists think, depress and demoralize the students at any level but generally at primary level. It is the worst cause noticed by all the educationist and philosopher as a threat to all kinds of education. Ibn-e-Khaldon thinks that corporal punishment may discourage and dishearten children to complete their education. Hence, corporal punishment should be avoided especially at primary level. Poverty may be also thought as inevitable factor of dropouts in the country. The dropouts at primary level can be very dangerous and perilous. Dropouts may have very bad effects on the overall condition of the country. These effects can be expected to turn out as a result of high dropouts at primary level: a) Bad social effects on community and society, lead to terrorism b) May stop good transference of culture heritage c) May produce poverty in turn and bad economic condition d) Declining industry and basic needs of life, e.g. electricity 48
  49. 49. e) Poor nutrition of babies by uneducated mothers f) Ailing and unhealty children g) Discouragment, disparity, tension, disloyalty among the people h) Corporal punishment can make children stupid, thief, liar, irresponsible, i) It may dispirit their hidden potentialities j) Lack of good and productive industry k) May lead to anarchy, misery and aristocracy instead of democracy. These are some of its long and short term effects which can be expected even worse in a country having a bundle of problems ahead. We are listening from the last 20 or more years that Pakistan is developing country but it is actually an underdeveloped country. Developing countries like Malaysia and Singapore left it for too behind the race of development. Pakistan is lagging behind in the pursuit of producing good economy through exploring and utilizing resources and establishing high-quality industry. All these problems are due to lack of basic and technical education. It is still very dangerous for this country that its government is not taking any extraordinary step to allocate a good chunk from its GNP for the improvement and development of basic primary education and to make better technical education to provide professionally expert and well-equipped manpower. 49
  50. 50. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY This high dropout rate in Pakistan needs some analysis to be done through a constructive method. It would be diffinitely difficult but not impossible because Pakistan comprises of a large population having a blend of varied cultures and civilizations. The following methodology is therefore adopt to help the different sectors to resolve this problem. 3.1 Population of the Study The population of the study was taken as: This study was conducted in male primary schools in Takht Bhai city. Takht Bhai is a town consisting of more than hundred thousand inhabitants. It is a tehsil of district Mardan comprises of Takht Bhai city area, Gujar Garhi, Shergarh and lots of villages in its outskirts. The estimated number of male students in Takht Bhai was nearest 40, 000. 3.2 Sample of the Study The group of male students taken for study was the students studying in the primary classes (Nursery to Five). Only Government Primary Schools were under study. 3.3 Sample Size The number of male students studying in the primary classes (Nursery to Five) was found as 15, 000. The primary schools were about 20. It was very difficult for the researcher to approach to each and every school of the target population, a simple of 7, 000 male students and 10 govt. primary schools i.e. 50% of the target population was taken as a sample. 50
  51. 51. 3.4 Delimitation The study was delimited to the 10 different primary male schools in local Takht Bhai because there the students were coming from all sides of Takht Bhai city. 3.5 Research Instruments/ Tools for Data Collection 3.5.1 Educational Research ―It is an organized study to find out the solution of an educational problem through observation, analysis and inquiries‖ Educational Research has a broad scope and contains research studies, reviews of research, discussion pieces, short reports and book reviews in all areas of the education field. The wide coverage allows discussion of topical issues and policies affecting education institutions worldwide. The Systematic Process of Research comprises of the following steps: 1. Identify the problem (and relevant related knowledge) 2. Review the information (via literature search) 3. Collect data (in an organized and controlled manner) 4. Analyze data (in a manner appropriate to the problem) 5. Draw conclusions (make generalizations based on results of analysis) 3.5.2 Quantitative Research “It is the type of research conducted for the purpose of understanding social phenomena‖. We do measurement according to the problem in discussion and try to find the solution in terms of accurately measured data and information. This research is based on some validity given as following: i) Internal Validity ii) External Validity 3.5.3 Qualitative Research ―This type of research is conducted to determine relationships, effects, and causes‖. It is based on: Credibility, Comparability, Translatability, etc. 51
  52. 52. 3.5.4 Survey ―An investigation of the opinions or experience of a group of people, based on a series of questions is known as survey‖. This study was a qualitative and quantitative analysis based on two kinds of information: i) Published or secondary information ii) Primary data (original or first-hand account of events or experiences) This study was structured in a way that first of all, the problem in hand was described and then its role in education was also mentioned in an appropriate method. The relationship of the problem was overviewed in order to be acquainted with its effects on general education and especially at primary level. In next step it was briefly described the purpose of education and review the findings of available studies on school dropouts. In literature review, materials from different sources were compiled to help in correct identification and knowledge of the problem. The necessary conditions or quality of primary education was also given in this unit. In the last of unit 1, the problem ―Dropouts at primary level in Pakistan‖ was discussed through accumulated data from the studies done by different authors. The causes and effects of the problem were also argued based on the published information. The data was accumulated from different primary schools in Takht Bhai through survey with the help of a social organization Youth Empowerment Society. Questionnaires were prepared and filled in this survey through physical visits to these schools and questions were asked from the students of the concerned schools and reasons were investigated from the students who dropped out from their schools. The comparison of the data was done with on-record statistics which was available from provincial and federal government. The results obtained from questions asked through analysis of data collected during visits of primary schools in Takht Bhai survey, their criticism and statistics were reported in an organized way in unit 5, and finally the conclusions and policy suggestions emerging from this study were reported in the last of this study. 52
  53. 53. CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION, TABULATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA Through physical survey of the given schools, the data is accomulated about dropouts, Enrolments, reasons behind them, etc. in a tabular form or proforma. The condition of primary education in these areas is same, encouraging in some urban areas and disappointing in rural areas. This survey shows that students tend to drop out at primary level quite regularly. Though the Enrolment in all these schools are comparatively sufficient but it takes too less time to continue. Students in large do take admission and enter the school at Nursery and One (grade-1) but they all do not complete five years primary education. They enter usually at the age of 5 and leave at the age of 9, if they continue their five years primary education. Children of these school are mostly physically weak and unable to meet the needs of basic education. They looks very depressed and unhealthy. They are morally equipped and have good respect of their teacher. But this respect seems like has some irrational fear behind it. They are not well-dressed and their clothes exhibit that they come of poor families. Most of the students belong to a family who are professionally farmer in rural area and a few in urban area schools. In urban schools, the majority of the students‘ fathers work in government departments, having low income. Father is considered the head of the family who affords all the expenditures of the dwellers. Due to low income they often cannot come up with the money for the books and other stationary as per their children‘s need. These children therefore have a lot of needs and become deprived of them which are necessary for the basic quality primary education. Therefore they are reluctant to 53
  54. 54. come to school at this level regularly. Hence they more often than not come late to school and most of the time they are absent of their schools. Teachers in turn fine or punish them as a culprit of being too absent of their schools. Students neither can pay their fine nor can bear this physical sentence. So they turn out to be more and more absent of their schools or mislay their confidence in and appetite for education. Corollary, they abscond from the schools in dismay and misery. This escape of the students is too much in last few years may be due to the prevailing poverty in the country. The following chart shows the escalating rate of drop out in the last four years at primary level in Takht Bhai. Figure 4.1 Rate of drop outs in percentage in Takht Bhai 2006 22% 2009 31% 2007 20% 2008 27% The graph gives us an idea about the overall condition of primary education in Khyber PakhtoonKhwa (NWFP) generally and in Takht Bhai specifically in the past 4 years. The drop out rate is increasing per annum and is very high in 2009. Though it decreased marginally from 22% in 2006 to 20% in 2007 since that it increased upto its high mark. It became worse in 2008 as 27% and even worst 31% in 2009. The drop outs at this level are too much for making primary education universalized in the country. In some school the drop out rate is quite severe which about half of the admitted students. This reflects the inappropriate environment and learning atmosphere in these areas for primary education. 54
  55. 55. For instance, Govt. Primary School No. 3 Takht Bhai showed a very bad continuation of primary education for students and large number of students left the school after taking admission in. Comparison of the Students Admitted and Dropped Out In Govt. Primary School No. 3, Takht Bhai TABLE 4.1 Students Students Admitted Dropped Out 1 66 2 S/No %age Year 30 45.45% 2000 79 33 41.77% 2001 3 70 30 42.86% 2002 4 40 21 52.50% 2003 5 78 37 47.44% 2004 6 59 27 45.76% 2005 7 59 21 35.59% 2006 8 67 27 40.30% 2007 9 57 15 26.32% 2008 10 42 14 33.33% 2009 Total 617 255 41.33% The high drop out rate has reasons behind it which was found to be low Enrolment, corporal punishment, poverty, family background, peer group, lack of facilities for quality primary education, teachers‘ problems, high absentees for both students and teachers, bad social environment, activity less curriculum, incorrect way of evaluation, etc. 55
  56. 56. Drop outs and their Reasons TABLE 4.2 S/No Name of the School 1 2 3 4 Govt. Primary School No. 1, Takht Bhai Govt. Primary School No. 2, Takht Bhai Govt. Primary School No. 3, Takht Bhai Govt. Primary School No. 4, Takht Bhai Govt. 5 Primary Students Students enrolled dropped out Major reasons 1208 09 Regular Absentees, 894 15 980 29 625 15 Migration, Withdrawal 1271 119 Absentee, Changing Place 88 0 360 29 510 34 296 10 612 13 6844 273 Migration, Withdrawal, Continuous Leaves Migration, Continuous Leaves School Mazdoor Abad , Takht Bhai 6 Govt. Primary School Naway Killi, Takht Bhai Govt. Primary School Haji 7 Abbas Khan Killi, Takht Bhai 8 9 Govt. School Jamra, Takht Bhai Govt. Primary School Sazodin Killi, Takht Bhai Govt. 10 Primary Primary Nil Withdrawal, Migration, Absentee Absentee, Migration Migration, Continuous Absentee, Careless Parents School No.1 Pump Killi, Takht Continuous Absentee Bhai Total Students The dropped out students are showed by table 4.2 in different primary schools in Takht Bhai with reasons as considered to be more hazardous. 56
  57. 57. Few of these reasons can be discussed below: 4.1 Low Enrolment It is discovered through survey of these schools that only 70% of the children be able to take admission in primary schools. This is also very alarming that this ratio is decreasing every now and then as illustrated in the above table No. 10. Parents are hesitant to send their children to primary schools at this age due to many reasons. 4.2 Corporal Punishment This is another very worrisome factor of high drop outs at primary level in Takht Bhai. Physical punishment, rebukement, mental torture, scolding, set-stand, etc. are different form of this corporal punishment. This demoralizes the students and impedes their potentialities to grow. This makes them to unreliable and be short of selfconfidance which should be there in students. This also gives boost to crimes in students as well. 4.3 Poverty and Family Background The people of Pakistan are very poor living below the poverty line illustracted by UNO through out the world. Most of the parents of this area work in government departments having very low salary averaging 10, 000 rupees. Some parents possess a small of piece of land where they work with their children and a very few work in abroad mainly in Arabian countries. Therefore it is difficult for them to carry out the needs of their children. Family background also affects a child‘s education, children belong to a poor family usually have a lot of incomplete wishes. 4.4 Teacher’s Role (their own problems & absentees) Teachers in primary school have low income and lots of problems. Teachers‘ own problems greatly affect the overall learning environment of the school. 57
  58. 58. Table of Teacher’s Salaries (in Pakistani Rupees) per months TABLE 4.3 S/No School Minimum Salary Maximum Salary Average 1 G.P.S. No. 1, Takht Bhai 10865 17239 12500 2 G.P.S. No. 2, Takht Bhai 8925 14620 9580 3 G.P.S. No. 3, Takht Bhai 8310 16298 11920 4 G.P.S. No. 4, Takht Bhai 8000 approx. 16000 approx. 10550 10245 8225 9000 8200 10240 9560 11922 9520 11050 8695 12717 10245 9005 14498 12546 9500 14500 12080 9366.7 11616.67 10903.1 5 G.P.S. Naway Killi, Takht Bhai 6 G.P.S. Haji Abbad Khan Killi, Takht Bhai 7 G.P.S. Sazodin Killi, Takht Bhai 8 G.P.S. Mazdoor Abad, Takht Bhai 9 G.P.S. No. 1 Pump Killi, Takht Bhai 10 G.P.S. Jamra Takht Bhai Total Average Teachers used to be absent regularly without any legal documentation. There is no check over them make their existance sure in the school. Students‘ are also inclined to be absent of their schools. These absentees leave the learning process inadequate, ineffective and incomplete. 58