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An analytical study on Factors of Job Burnout in
Working Folks Grammar Schools System

A REPORT
SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES,
VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY OF PAKISTAN
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE DEGREE OF MBA (2.5 YEARS) (EQUIVALENT TO MS)

Submitted By
JAMAL SHAH
mc110203190

Department of Management Sciences,

Virtual University of Pakistan
2013
1
2
Dedicated
to

My PARENTS
Who have always encouraged me in my studies and persuaded me to get excellence in
education which I am still striving for.

3
Acknowledgement
First of all I am thankful to ALLAH the ALMIGHTY, the most beneficial
and merciful who gave me the courage to finish my project.
Secondly, I wish to express my gratitude to my research supervisor for his
constructive advice, directions, comments, support and professional
guidance. I am also extremely thankful to all the authors of the references
in my project.
Finally, the prayers from my family members played an important role in
the completion of the project. Without their moral and financial support it
would have been impossible for me to write this project report. Especially
I extend gratitude to my brothers Dr. Zakir Shah and Zahid Shah for their
valuable guidance and assistance.
Thanks to all my teachers and friends for providing me timely assistance
in completion of this project.

Jamal Shah

4
Abstract
Early researches indicate that the main reasons of job burnout were
i) emotional exhaustion, ii) depersonalization and iii) reduced personal
accomplishments. Many researches conducted in different parts of the
world showed that factors of job burnout may include stressed working
environment, job overload, pay & reward, fairness and value. In addition
age, gender, marital status, and experience were also considered some
factors of job burnout among employees in an organization. This study
investigated the reasons behind the job burnout and collected data through
self-developed questionnaires from teachers working in Working Folks
Grammar Schools system in district Mardan. Collected data was then feed
into MS Excel worksheets to find out percentage, mean value and overall
mean value. After analysis of the data it was realized that respondents
were interested in teaching as profession. The subjects were still found
under an unkind level of stress during their work at school. Results
showed that the factors of job burnout were found to be job overload, lack
of mutual support, higher expectations from the job, and less leisure times
during work among teachers working the selected schools. Researcher
recommends that school time should be flexible with more focus on extracurricular activities. Supervisors should be friendly towards teachers
working under their surveillance. Family friendly events should be
celebrated in the schools in which all employees participated without
concerning their positions. This will promote social relationship between
the employees in the same institutions.

5
Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
S#

Abstract
1.1 Introduction …………………………
1.2 Background …………..……..………

1

Chapter 1

1.3 Introduction of the organization
1.4 Objectives …………………..………
1.9 Significance ………….……..………

Page #

8
8
10
10
11

Literature Review
2.1 Job burnout …………………………
2.2 Job burnout in Educational Institutions
2

Chapter 2

12
14

2.3 Job burnout in Pakistani Institutions/
Organization …………………………….
2.4 Factors of job burnout ………………

16
17

Methodology
2.1 Data Collection Sources……..…..…

2.5 Data Processing & Analysis……..….

3

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20
20
21

Chapter 4

Data Analysis
4.1 Summary …………………………...

22
34

Chapter 5

Conclusion, Recommendations &
Limitations
5.1 Conclusion …………………………
5.2 Recommendations …………………
5.2 Limitations …………………………

38
38
39

Chapter 3

2.2 Data Collection Tools/ Instruments...
2.3 Subjects/ Participants……..…..…….

4

5

6

References
Appendixes

40
42

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List of Illustrations
Table No. 1 …………………………………….

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Table No. 2 …………………………………….

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Table No. 3 …………………………………….

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Table No. 13 …………………………………..

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Table No. 16 …………………………………..

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Table No. 17 …………………………………..

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Table No. 19 …………………………………..

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Table No. 20 …………………………………..

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Table No. 21 …………………………………..

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Table No. 22 …………………………………..

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Table No. 23 …………………………………..

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Table No. 24 …………………………………..

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Table No. 25 …………………………………..

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Table No. 26 …………………………………..

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Table No. 27 …………………………………..

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Table No. 29 …………………………………..

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Table No. 30 …………………………………..

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Table No. 31 …………………………………..

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Human resource is considered as the backbone of any organization. Unlike machine
human beings have feelings and emotions which can affect the achievements of the
organization. Better feelings about a job in an organization are therefore inevitable for all
employees to achieve better results. Satisfaction that an employee can get due to his job
because of the positive thinking about his job is known as job satisfaction. Lacks of
interest, emotional exhaustion, workload, etc. are considered to be the reasons behind job
stress.
This study is aimed to find out the reasons producing job burnout in an organization. This
project is about finding the reasons that give lift to job burnout in Working Folks
Grammar School system in district Mardan.
Job burnout is therefore an important topic to discuss. Every person wants to know what
the indicators of a job burnout are. They also want to know about the factors that affect
this. Though various researches have been done on the topic but they are mostly related
to medical institutions and organizations. Few researches are concerned with teachers in
an institutional environment. This study is about the factors that are responsible for
producing job burnout in a specific school system that would help other similar systems
to minimize the job burnout in their institutions. Therefore this study is of immense
importance for both employee and employers.

1.1 Background:
Resources plays a pivotal role in prosper of an organization. Large amount of resources
with their best utilization is the maximum requirement of any organization. Most
organizations in past were relying totally on their human resources only. But due to
advancement in science and technology the intervention of human was cut off to half or
even less than that. Technology on one hand if assisted a person to do its job quickly and
8
accurately but on the other hand it also reduced the need of human resources
considerably. This lays pressure on man to compete with each other and even with the
efficiency of technology in order to sustain his job. This leads to job stress/ burnout in
every organization. Employees under job stress sometimes fail to resist and quit
organization.
Topic job burnout due to its mammoth importance always attracted researchers to find
out the indicators and reasons. Job burnout is considered a limitation in personal
perfection. Job burnout has many reasons that can affect the performance of an employee
in an organization.
Workload pressurizes an employee to achieve a challenging task either in a shorter time
or against the capabilities of that employee. Employee therefore strives more than what is
required but in vain. Failing in achievement of that task, employee gets under stress day
by day. This resentment paves the way for job burnout which compels the employee to
quit that job. Job burnout was felt when employee that they are paid less than what is
expected for a specific job. Major reasons of job burnout were found to be workload, low
salary, lack of self-esteem, etc. (Sari, 2000)
Employees usually have to face the problem of workload. Failing to fulfill the needs of
the employer often gives birth to job burnout. Job burnout is lack of motivation and
satisfaction for an employee. It happens when there is lack of communication, mismatch
of employer’s requirements and employees capabilities, overwhelming workload, bad
working condition, etc. Employees with job burnout are often seen cynical, unmotivated,
strained, unsatisfied, dejected, annoyed and hopeless.
Both employees and employer of an organization tends to reduce job burnout for the
effective and efficient work to achieve their personal and organizational goals. Job
burnout gives blows to the motivation, self-respect, self-esteem, high level of concern of
others, efficient performance, effective outcomes, and even offers obstacles in
achievement of challenging objectives.
Job burnout is deliberated mostly a psychological problem. Self-esteem is one of the
basic factors of job satisfaction and a higher level in Abraham Maslow hierarchy of
9
human needs. Some other sources of job burnout can be edgy working environment,
miscommunication, lack of information, interaction with others, etc.
In most countries of the world job burnout was found to be due to lack of flexible work
time, good remuneration, self-respect, high interest and favorable work environment.
This study will show factors that produce job burnout in teachers in WFGS system.

1.2 Introduction of the Organization:
Working Folks Grammar Schools system is setup by Workers Welfare Board (W.W.B.)
for the welfare of the children of labors working in factories in Pakistan. W.W.B. was
established under section 11(a) of the Workers Welfare Funds Ordinance, 1971. The
purpose of its establishment was to provide residence, health facilities, education, dowry
(Jahez), merit scholarships, sewing machines, bicycles and much more to labors and their
family members. NWFP W.W.B. established a directorate of education in 2000 in order
to provide free education and scholarships to the children of industrial labor. W.W.B. has
founded 25 schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to provide education to labors’ children.
1680 teachers are working in these schools in Dec, 2012. These schools are providing
education from elementary to higher secondary level. Teachers are paid better
remuneration for their services. Working Folks Grammar School (WFGS) system is
considered parallel to Army Public School & College (APSAC) system in Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa. Curriculum and co-curriculum is given immense importance in this system
of education. Modern facilities and educational materials are provided to each and every
school. No research has yet been done on any topic on WFGS system. But works on
factors that affect job burnout have been completed in different organizations throughout
the world.

1.3 Objectives
Objectives of the study are given as following;
1.3.1 To find out the factors of job burnout in Working Folks Grammar Schools system
in district Mardan
1.3.2 To rank the factors of job burnout according to their intensity in the selected
schools.
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1.3.3 To pinpoint ways of improvement adopted by other similar organizations.
1.3.4 To give recommendations for improvement in the WFGS system.

1.4 Significance:
This study will be significant for an employee and employer of an organization to know
about the main reasons behind job burnout. This will also help employees of an
organization in seeking job satisfaction by reducing job burnout. They will assist
employers and stakeholder about the needs of an employee working in that specific
organization. This study will help strategic managers to make requisite planning for
reducing situations which yield in job burnout. This study will add to existing researches
done with the same title but in different work environment of WFGS system.
Specifically this will show teachers the ways to avoid job burnout. Results of this study
will be implemented by W.W.B. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in assessing teachers’ satisfaction
against their performances. This will benefit concern authority in taking any future
decisions about teachers and their work environments. This study will help researchers
anywhere around the world for analyzing the same situation in different working
environment.

11
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1

Job Burnout:

Sole proprietorship is considered a very old type of business. Due to its elastic nature of
starting and ending a business easily, it always gained preference as compared to other
types of businesses. It is estimated that 80% of businesses are sole proprietorships which
create the idea of self-employed. Self-employed persons usually have a large
responsibility of management its owned business themselves. They are owner and
managers at the same time. But due to unlimited liabilities this type of business is not like
by investors when it comes to large capital investment.
Partnership and companies are more likely for large capital investment. Companies where
management is kept aloof from owners are very prosperous. Though this type of business
is very rare but has almost all the money invested in businesses in the world. Companies
hire employees which are usually not owners of the business themselves. Business itself
is considered an entity from both managers and owners. The development of a company
mostly depends on the performance of its employees. Employees do hardwork to achieve
organizational objectives in order to increase the organization’s reputation, assets and
owners’ shares. On the other company provides promotion, remuneration, benefits,
relaxation and other facilities to encourage its employees to move forward. When both
these channels are working properly, company does prosper and employees are usually
satisfied. Any blockage in these channels can produce job burnout.
Job burnout or Job stress is usually considered as negative feelings about one’s own job
in an organization. Job burnout deteriorates the performance of an employee which can
result in reduction of outcomes of that organization. "Burnout refers to a cluster of
physical, emotional, and interactional symptoms, including emotional exhaustion, a sense
of lacking personal accomplishment and depersonalization of clients” (Musa Gursel,
Sunbul & Sari 2002).
12
Job burnout is a physical and psychological situation of a person in which he feels
discomfort and dejected due to certain reasons during job in an organization.
Job burnout is a mental experience with negative inclination that may be the response of
supervisor and subordinate to stress related to their jobs. It is a collection of physical,
emotional, and relative signs, including emotional exhaustion, i.e. a sense of lacking selfsatisfaction and lack of personalization. (Gursel et al., 2002)
It is a kind of situation in which a person feels that what he is doing is much more than
what he gets in response of this job. It may be the inner feelings of an employee about his
internal and external environment. He may be feeling that his inner self is not satisfied
with what he is considering to acquire from a job doing in an organization or he may be
thinking that others are not giving him what he is worthy of. There is a lack of
confidence, lack of required energy, disappointment, and hence depersonalization in a
person with job burnout.
Sometimes it is difficult to investigate a person with job burnout because certain people
have the ability to conceal one’s own feelings from others and do his job regularly though
he may be relentless inside. This can be very perilous for the organization and that person
itself. But most employees with job stress want to make others know that they are not
satisfied with the current situation. Hence job burnout can be identified in a person
because of few symptoms that can be sensed among the affectees. Lack of job
commitment, cynicism, helplessness, resentfulness and prolongs absenteeism are some
symptoms that describe job burnout in an employee. Job burnout also produces some
health related problems such as anxiety, hypertension, and weariness.
Various researches have been done to find out the symptoms of Job burnout, factors that
produce it and intensity of each factor. Probably, the work of Maslach is the most
prominent one. Maslach (2003) defines burnout as a psychological syndrome which
includes persistent stress in the workplace. Burnout is intellectualized as consequence of
prolong professional stress, particularly among workers who deal with other persons in
one or another way. (Federici, Skaalvik, 2012)

13
Job burnout, in most researches, has been stated as psychological disease that affects the
job of an employee in an organization. Similarly this disease is closely connected with
stress in job workplace. A person under severe stress becomes vulnerable to job burnout.
This stress has been noticed to become much more disturbing when a person has to
interact with other persons inevitably and unwillingly. This pressurizes a person to
intermingle with other persons reluctantly which gives birth to negative stress. If the
person continues his job under stress in this situation usually produces physical,
emotional and psychological diseases. Hence, it becomes the cause of job burnout.

2.2

Job Burnout in Educational Institutions:

Job burnout in education institution has an equal importance like in any other
organization. Researchers are usually more concerned with teaching staff in educational
institutions to identify the reasons of their job burnout. Teachers and students are the two
key wheels of the same vehicle.
Jobs that require no formal education was perceived easy to get and jobs that require
higher degree of education were considered difficult to pursue. People found it most easy
to pursue a job as a farmer and most difficult as a teacher, doctor and to work as a
government employee if studied independent of age, sex and education. (Zhang et al.,
2012)
Teaching being a difficult profession is usually supported by recreational activities to
alleviate boredom and physical exhaustion. Teachers still do feel job burnout in one or
another form of its nature.
It is sometimes very necessary to identify latent danger burnout poses for the individual
and for the organization and it is also not impossible to take practical actions to alleviate
stress. Teachers require chances to remember their motives for uniqueness entering the
field, to search increasing their achievements to feel pride in past successes, to know that
feelings of the frustration and dissuasion are mutually shared by most of the colleagues.
(Meadow, 1981)

14
Researches displayed that male teachers are more vulnerable to job burnout as compared
to female. There may be many reasons behind this but it was seen that female teachers
showed more commitment to their jobs as compared to male teachers.
Female are considered to be more responsible, superior qualification, and showed great
aptitude. They have more propensities for challenging jobs comparatively, though they
have to do their domestic jobs as well. Additionally, male teachers are rectified by too
much tuition work and are not compelled to fulfill any domestic obligations. A research
study conducted in India shows that rural teachers are more satisfied as compared to
urban teachers. It is because urban teachers expect more from their jobs as compared to
rural teachers inspite of their better qualification and talent. (Singh et al., 2010)
Teachers tend to get maximum of their jobs in educational institutions, especially
colleges. Their job satisfaction is therefore linked with what they expect from their
services. In other words good remuneration and better compensation can add to the job
satisfaction of teachers.
A study revealed that when the psychological needs of teachers are satisfied they showed
high level of self-esteem, higher mental comfort, true motivation, less anxiety and
positive institutional behavior. This leads to higher efficacy of teachers towards their
jobs. (Sadegi et al., 2013)
Teachers believe that they should be more respected than any other professional because
of their services towards the society. In most civilized nations of the world teachers are
given their desirable respect but this is faded away with modernization in the world.
Society, teachers, students, parents are closely connected. Teachers cannot be segregated
from their society.
Teachers are assumed, in a study in China, to be more satisfied with their lives but less
satisfied with their communities. Teachers are still respected in in China under the effect
of traditional Chinese culture. (Chen, 2010)
An objection on teachers is that they are more reserved from the society they live in.
They are considered more rigid to any change around them.
15
Education professionals are seldom prepared for change. Teacher trainings usually do not
succeed to highlight the dangerous of the status quo in their working lives. Similarly
social support and guidance of head teachers or principals are also vital for high morale.
Teachers usually believe that appointment of new head teacher or principal will develop
the quality of his working life. On the other hand, dissatisfaction results when current
head teacher or principal does not respond well. (Evas, 2000)

2.3

Job Burnout in Pakistani Organizations/ Institutions:

Pakistan is a developing country due to which its literacy rate is very low as compared to
some other developing countries. Different systems of education do exist in Pakistan,
which if improved the literacy but also deteriorated the overall situation of educational
system. Teachers in most of these schools are more exposed to job burnout because of
many reasons. A study in public sector in Pakistan tells that overall, 59% respondents
were dissatisfied with their job. Less than half of the participants showed satisfaction
towards their working environment, and 68% participants were contented with their
responsibilities. Participants 66% showed frustration due to the extraneous tasks
consigned to them. (Kumar et al., 2013)
Due to cultural constrains, female workers find it difficult to work in Pakistan. They find
it difficult to move to their work places and back home. They also discover deterrence
during work in working places.
However, research showed that gender have almost no relationship to job satisfaction.
But comparatively female showed less satisfied that males. (Dantzker, 1998)
Female teachers in Pakistan are facing too many problems as compared to other countries
of the world. Men are considered more dominant in the society in Pakistan as compared
to women though women are highly revered in this culture.
Both male and female teachers are given their due regard in the society in Pakistan. They
are not respected as they should be according to the state religion of Islam. Teachers in
Pakistan mostly belong to the middle status and therefore live their lives hardly.

16
2.4

Factors Affecting Job:

Researchers have used many methodologies to identify reasons behind job burnout and
recommend solutions to reduce them for producing job satisfaction in an organization.
Experimental research methodology is used by researches in medical sciences mostly
whereas descriptive research has been used by researches in social sciences preferably.
Findings of both these types of researches are not much different from each other.
Job burnout may be due to situations that have prolong stressed working hours, work
overload under pressure, absence of breaks and rest, inappropriate challenging
expectations to accomplish a task in limited intervals of time and with less available
resources. It is both physical and psychological problem which may be due to internal
conflicts within itself or external uncontrollable forces. (Altaf & Awan, 2011)
Personal interest, job overload, working environment, lack of social support, less pay and
benefits and nonexistence of self-respect are few main reasons behind job burnout.
Various aspects of working environments have been postulated or perceived to be related
to experiencing stress that would eventually affect health. Job settings that are possible
sources of stress for workers are the social or psychosocial characteristics of the work
situation. (Pugliesi, 1999)
Working environment has tremendous effects on human nature which can be both
positive and negative. Working environment may consist of leadership style, structure of
organization, goals and mission, nature of workers in the same setting, etc.
Intensive researches indicate the individuals with higher educational levels undergo more
job burnout. They may be exposed to it due to their substantial responsibilities or because
of their greater expectations from their jobs. (Maslach et al., 2001)
Higher qualified individuals therefore are considered to be more under stressed mainly
either because of their high expectations or challenging tasks assigned to them. Usually
tasks are assigned to an employee according to its caliber. Accomplishing that task with
no proper compensation dishearten a qualified employee.

17
Of many reasons behind teachers’ job burnout recruiting, retaining, promotion and
remuneration based on their assessment of teachers’ capabilities and actual efficacy in
hovering students’ achievement and other results, and is not based on a set of teacher
characteristics such as education and experience in the same field. (Hanushek & Rivkin,
2007)
Researches explored that social support can reduce the job burnout. If teachers get social
support they feel less job burnout.
A researcher finds a shortage in research because it does not explore any relationship
between the teachers job burnout and teachers social support. (Zhongying, 2008)
Remuneration also plays a pivotal role in reducing job burnout. Teacher if gets what he
wants out of the job, he feels satisfaction towards that job. Remuneration can be in the
form of salary and other benefits that teachers get in response of their jobs in an
organization.
If a person finds it work interesting, pay reasonable, promotional chances decent,
supervisor compassionate and co-workers sociable, then this situation leads a person to
envisage job satisfaction. (Singh, 2010)
Teachers’ performance can be enhanced by providing them their due rights, i.e. timely
promotion, good payment and recreational breaks. Teachers need favorable working
milieu where they can effectually impart their duties.
Sudden teachers’ promotion, worthwhile payment and job contentment are the main
factors that guide teachers’ insight as a vehicle of conveying, creating and improving
their job performance. (Alimi et al., 2011)
Recreational breaks do not mean that they should be indulged into frivolous activities.
These breaks should facilitate teachers to spare time for their families. Low income of
teachers does not support too much luxurious accomplishments.
Teachers who have lower income are more susceptible to job burnout through emotional
exhaustion and depersonalization. Less experience Turkish teachers stated their high
18
depersonalization. Whereas drinking, smoking and marital status as other factors showed
no relations with job burnout. (Demirel et al., 2005)
Corollary, these studies showed that there are many reasons that produce job burnout of
teachers but emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and stressed working environment
can be considered the most important of these.
Lack of personal interest, less remuneration, work overload, no promotional
opportunities, lack of rewards, nonexistence of leisure times, lack of social support, high
job expectations, absence of self-respect are few reasons that yield job burnout among
teachers.

19
CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY
Descriptive type of research is used in this study and used quantitative research for
collection of data. Quantitative research has been used to get responses of the subject.
Data collected is compared with the research results obtained from researches done on
the same topic worldwide.

2.1

Data Collection Sources

Researcher used survey to collect data from teachers in WFGS system in district Mardan.
Primary source of data collection is used to gather data for analysis of factors of job
burnout. Whereas the secondary data is collected from published books, journals,
research papers, etc. available in hard at library or through reliable sources on internet.

2.2

Data Collection Tools/ Instruments

This study is conducted through using questionnaires prepared by the researcher
according to the need of the project. These questionnaires are framed on the famous
Likert Scale. Self-made Questionnaires are used in order to acquire correct and to the
point data about the research topic.

2.3

Subject/ Participants

There are 4 Working Folks Grammar Schools in district Mardan. Population of teachers
in these schools is 284, working in two shifts (morning and evening). Unit of analysis of
this research is individual, i.e. teacher. Data is collected from teachers teaching at
primary, middle and high levels only. A sample of 50 teachers is selected using simple
random sampling technique. Sampling frame for the study is teachers working both at
morning and evening shift in these four (4) WFG Schools in district Mardan.
20
2.4

Data Processing & Analysis

Confidentiality of the respondents was ensured during data collection. Data is collected
through self-prepared questionnaires. The data is divided into seven different aspects of
job burnout. Data was feed in MS Excel Worksheet. Percentage and mean were
calculated to analyze the data.

21
CHAPTER 4
DATA ANALYSIS
Data was collected through self-developed questionnaires from teachers teaching in
Working Folks Grammar Schools in district Mardan. Data was placed into tables and
percentage and mean were derived. According to Likert Scale data was titled as SDA-1,
DA-2, UD-3, A-4 and SA-5. The data is presented in the following tables for analysis and
interpretation.
TABLE No. 1
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

16

16

4

11

3

Percentage

32%

32%

8%

22%

Mean

6%

2.38

The mean value 2.38 shows that tendency of responses is from disagree to neutral that the
respondents are disagree with the statement and that they do not dislike their profession.
This is also confirmed from the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 32% is
disagree and 32% is strongly disagree.
TABLE No. 2
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

3

0

2

23

22

Percentage

6%

0%

4%

46%

Mean

44%

4.22

The mean value of 4.22 shows that the tendency of the responses is from agree to
strongly agree, all the respondents are agree that they want to start their days with
enthusiasm and passion. This can be illustrated through percentages table that high
percentage, i.e. 46% is agree and 44% is strongly agree with the statement.
22
TABLE No. 3
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

6

5

4

19

16

Percentage

12%

10%

8%

38%

Mean

32%

3.68

3.68 shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree that most of the
respondents like extracurricular activities, this is also confirmed from percentage table
that a high percentage i.e. 38% is agree and 32% is strongly agree.
TABLE No. 4
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

0

0

0

12

38

Percentage

0%

0%

0%

24%

Mean

76%

4.76

4.76 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from agree to strongly agree, all the
respondents are strongly agree that they plan their lessons before entering into
classrooms. A high percentage i-e 76% is strongly agree and 24% is agree with the
statement.
TABLE No. 5
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

5

20

0

16

9

Percentage

10%

40%

0%

32%

Mean

18%

3.08

3.08 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to disagree, the
respondents mostly do not like to check notebooks daily. This is confirmed by high
percentage value of disagree, i.e. 40% .

23
TABLE No. 6
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

0

0

6

31

13

Percentage

0%

0%

12%

62%

Mean

26%

4.14

Mean value 4.14 shows that tendency of responses is from agree to disagree, all the
respondents thought that their students are taking interests in classroom activities. This is
confirmed by percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 62% is agree and 26% is strongly
agree with the statement.
TABLE No. 7
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

0

0

4

11

35

Percentage

0%

0%

8%

22%

Mean

70%

4.62

4.62 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from agree to strongly agree, all the
respondents are quite satisfied with what they are doing as a teacher. This is also
confirmed by percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 22% is agree and 70% is strongly
agree with the statement.
TABLE No. 8
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

2

14

9

23

2

Percentage

4%

28%

18%

46%

Mean

4%

3.18

3.18 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, most of the
respondents thought that they are under unkind stress during their work in school. This is
confirmed by the high percentage, i.e. 46% is agree with the statement.
24
TABLE No. 9
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

8

18

9

15

0

Percentage

16%

36%

18%

30%

Mean

0%

2.62

2.62 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from disagree to neutral,
respondents were found undecided to state whether or not the assigned tasks match their
abilities. This is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 30% is agree
but 36% is disagree with the statement.
TABLE No. 10
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

6

13

9

11

11

Percentage

12%

26%

18%

22%

Mean

22%

3.16

Mean value 3.16 shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, the
respondents thought that they are not receiving what they can claim out of their jobs. This
is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 22% is agree and 22% is
strongly agree with the statement.
TABLE No. 11
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

0

15

4

17

14

Percentage

0%

30%

8%

34%

Mean

28%

3.6

3.6 mean value shows that tendency of the responses is from neutral to agree, most of the
respondents thought that their salaries can support their expenses. This is confirmed by
percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 34% is agree and 28% is strongly agree.
25
TABLE No. 12
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

13

13

2

22

0

Percentage

26%

26%

4%

44%

Mean

0%

2.66

2.66 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from disagree to neutral, the
respondents were found undecided. Almost half of them thought that they are reserved
and half thought that they are active in social relationships. This is confirmed by
percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 44% is agree whereas 26% is disagree and 26%
strongly disagree with the statement.
TABLE No. 13
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

8

18

5

11

8

Percentage

16%

36%

10%

22%

Mean

16%

2.86

2.86 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from disagree to neutral.
Respondents thought equally in favour and against the statement that they are misjudged
or unvalued by their co-workers. This can be illustrated through percentage table that
high percentage, i.e. 36% is disagree and 22% is agree with the statement.
TABLE No. 14
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

13

16

3

16

2

Percentage

26%

32%

6%

32%

Mean

4%

2.56

Mean value 2.56 shows that tendency of responses is from disagree to neutral and the
respondents were found undecided. Half of the respondents thought that minor problems
irritate them in the school and half of them thought against the statement. This is
confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 32% is agree and 32% is
disagree with the statement.
26
TABLE No. 15
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

14

14

9

13

0

Percentage

28%

28%

18%

26%

Mean

0%

2.42

2.42 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from disagree to neutral, most of the
respondents were found undecided whether they are supportive towards other colleagues
in the school. This is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 28% is
disagree and 28% is strongly disagree with the statement.
TABLE No. 16
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

3

15

10

19

3

Percentage

6%

30%

20%

38%

Mean

6%

3.08

3.08 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, the
respondents thought that they become frustrated with some tasks of their jobs in the
school. This is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 38% is agree
with the statement.
TABLE No. 17
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

0

23

0

25

2

Percentage

0%

46%

0%

50%

Mean

4%

3.12

3.12 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, the
respondents felt emotionally or physically exhausted and felt lack of energy during work
in school. This is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 50% is
agreed with the statement.
27
TABLE No. 18
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

11

18

9

7

5

Percentage

22%

36%

18%

14%

Mean

10%

2.54

2.54 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from disagree to neutral, the
respondents were found undecided to think that they are inclined to negative thinking
about their jobs. This is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 36%
is disagree and 18% is neutral to the statement.
TABLE No. 19
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

3

11

2

23

11

Percentage

6%

22%

4%

46%

Mean

22%

3.56

3.56 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, most of the
respondents felt that they have all kind of facilities available for teaching in the school.
This is confirmed by percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 46% is agree and 22% is
strongly agree with the statement.
TABLE No. 20
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

0

13

0

27

10

Percentage

0%

26%

0%

54%

Mean

20%

3.68

3.68 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, most of the
respondents thought that there classrooms are not properly decorated with what should
require for teaching learning process. This is confirmed by percentage table that high
percentage, i.e. 54% is agree with the statement.
28
TABLE No. 21
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

0

19

6

22

3

Percentage

0%

38%

12%

44%

Mean

6%

3.18

3.18 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, most of the
respondents were found comfortable in the setting environment of the school. This is
confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 44% is agree with the
statement.
TABLE No. 22
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

0

3

0

18

29

Percentage

0%

6%

0%

36%

Mean

58%

4.46

4.46 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from agree to strongly agree, all the
respondents thought that teaching has greatly add to their respect in the society. This is
confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 58% is strongly agree and
36% is agree with the statement.
TABLE No. 23
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

0

0

6

7

37

Percentage

0%

0%

12%

14%

Mean

74%

4.62

Mean value 4.62 shows that tendency of responses is from agree to strongly agree, all the
respondents are strongly agreed that they proud to be teachers in the school. This is
confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 74% is strongly agreed with
the statement.
29
TABLE No. 24
SDA-1

DA-2

UD-3

A-4

SA-5

Respondent

5

11

0

22

12

Percentage

10%

22%

0%

44%

Mean

24%

3.5

3.5 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, most of the
respondents were agreed that that teachers are still respected in the society. A high
percentage, i.e. 44% is agree and 24% is strongly agree with statement.

TABLE NO. 25

Interest
Mean
a. I feel that I am in the wrong place/ profession.

2.38

b. I start my day with enthusiasm to do something new and good in
teaching.

4.22

c. I like the extra-curricular activities most.

3.68

d. I plan my lessons before entering into classroom.

4.76

e. I feel boredom to check notebooks daily.

3.08

f. I think my students are taking interest in classroom activities.

4.14
3.71

Overall mean value 3.71 shows that tendency of responses about interest is from neutral
to agree, most of the respondents are satisfied with their profession. Highest mean value
4.76 reveals that they plan their lessons before entering into classrooms.

30
TABLE NO. 26

Workload
Mean
a. I am satisfied with the work I do during school time.

4.62

b. I find myself under an unkind level of stress to succeed.

3.18

c. I think that I am given tasks that do not match my ability.

2.62
3.47

Overall mean value 3.47 shows that tendency of responses about workload is from
neutral to agree. Highest mean value 4.62 shows their satisfaction with their work but
mean value 3.18 reveals that they feel they are under an unkind level of stress. Whereas
2.62 mean value illustrates that they think they are given challenging tasks which do not
match their abilities.

TABLE NO. 27

Remuneration
Mean
a. I think that I am not receiving what I claim out of my job.

3.16

b. I receive enough salary to support my expenses.

3.60
3.38

Overall mean value 3.38 shows that tendency of responses about remuneration is from
neutral to agree. Highest mean value 3.6 shows their satisfaction about their needs but
mean value 3.16 reveals that they feel they are not receiving what are expected to be out
the current job.

31
TABLE NO. 28

Social/ Mutual Support
Mean
a. I think myself reserved from others to communicate.

2.66

b. I am misjudged/ unvalued by my co-workers in the school.

2.86

c. I feel I get easily irritated by minor problems in the school.

2.56

d. I am less supportive with people than possibly they are worthy.

2.42
2.63

Overall mean value 2.63 shows that tendency of responses about social support was from
disagree to neutral. This shows lack of mutual support between the respondents. Mean
value of 2.42 shows that they are undecided whether they are supportive or less
supportive towards others.
TABLE NO. 29

Emotional Exhaustion
Mean
a. I become frustrated with parts of my job in the school.

3.08

b. I feel exhausted of emotional or physical energy.

3.12

c. I discover that I am inclined to negative thinking about my job.

2.54
2.91

Overall mean value of 2.91 shows that tendency of responses about emotional exhaustion
is from disagree to neutral, most of the respondents think that they feel emotional and
physical exhaustion during work as revealed by highest mean value 3.12.

32
TABLE NO. 30

Working Environment
Mean
a. I have all kinds of facilities required for teaching.

3.56

b. I feel that classrooms of my school are not properly decorated.

3.68

c. I am not comfortable in the setting environment of my school.

3.18
3.47

Overall mean value of 3.47 shows that tendency of responses about working environment
is from neutral to agree, most of the respondents think that their classrooms are not well
decorated as revealed by mean value 3.68.

TABLE NO. 31

Self-Respect
Mean
a. I think that teaching as profession has greatly added to my selfrespect.

4.46

b. I feel proud of what I am doing as a teacher.

4.62

c. I think that teachers are respected in the society.

3.5
4.19

Overall mean value of 4.19 shows that tendency of responses about self-respect is from
agree to strongly agree, all of the respondents think that teaching is a respectable
profession and they feel proud to be teacher as revealed by highest mean value 4.62.

33
4.1 Summary:
Analysis of the above data showed that most teachers like their profession of teaching.
They thought that teaching as profession greatly added to their respect in society.
Teachers showed their extensive interest in teaching. They showed their high intentions
to start a day with enthusiasm to do innovative and creative thing in teaching which may
improve their own performance in their students’ accomplishments. Lesson planning is
considered an important tool in teaching learning process. Teachers highly favored lesson
planning before attending any class. However they did not like to check notebooks of the
students daily but liked extra-curricular activities. This shows their intents for
recreational activities in the school. The interest of the students was felt to be on the high
side by them. They were satisfied that there teaching methodologies do attract the interest
of their students. This showed that teachers are taking too much interest in their
classroom activities.
Similarly, most teachers were found very satisfied with their works they do during school
time. But they still found themselves under an unkind level of stress which hampers their
success in career. However teachers were found undecided to measure their abilities and
compare them with the tasks assigned to them during school time.
Teachers found their payments enough to fulfill their basic needs but they were still not
satisfied with their remunerations. They expected something more when they compare
their assigned tasks with their payments.
Teachers were undecided about their social relationships. Some teachers thought that they
are more reserved from other people in the society whereas few teachers sensed
themselves amiable towards others. They were also unsure about their value in the heart
of their co-workers. A good chunk of them thought that they are unvalued by their
colleagues. Teachers were also undecided to think that they get easily irritated by minor
problems in the school. They thought that they support others in accomplishment of their
jobs.
Job burnout is still felt by teachers. They thought that they become frustrated with few
parts of their jobs in the school. They did feel emotional exhaustion during their work at
34
school. They thought that they feel lack of energy sometimes. Teachers were undecided
about thinking negatively towards their jobs.
Working environment is also a factor of job burnout. Teachers though felt that all kinds
of facilities are available in the school for teaching but classrooms are not properly
decorated. Teachers though found themselves comfortable in the setting environment of
the school.
Teaching as profession was highly regarded by teachers. They thought that teaching has
added to their self-respect and gave them the requisite reverence in the society. They felt
immense proud to be teacher compared to any other profession. They also thought that
teachers are highly venerated in the society.
Objective No. 1: To find out the factors of job burnout in Working Folks Grammar
Schools system in district Mardan
Overall mean value 3.71 of Table No. 25 shows that respondents found themselves
satisfied with their current profession. Highest mean value 4.76 reveals that they plan
their lessons before entering into classrooms.
Overall mean value 3.47 of Table No. 26 shows that they are under work overload. Mean
value of 3.18 shows that the respondents found themselves under an unkind stress during
their work in school. (Table No. 8) Whereas they were found undecided when they were
asked whether assigned tasks match their abilities or not with a mean value of 2.62.
(Table No. 9) This reveals that work overload was the reason of their responses.
Overall mean value 3.38 of Table No. 27 shows that respondents think that their current
salary fulfills their needs. But mean value 3.16 reveals that they feel they are not
receiving what are expected to be out the current job and they have higher expectations
from their jobs. (Table No. 10)
Overall mean value 2.63 of Table No. 28 shows that respondents were found undecided
whether mutual support between them is good or bad. This shows lack of social support
between them. Mean value of 2.42 shows that they are undecided whether they are
supportive or less supportive towards others.
35
Overall mean value of 2.91 Table No. 29 shows that most of the respondents think that
they feel emotional and physical exhaustion during work. Mean value of 3.2 shows that
respondents become emotionally or physically exhausted and they feel lack of energy
during their work in the school. (Table No. 17) Mean value of 3.08 shows that
respondents become frustrated with some parts of their jobs in the school. (Table No. 16)
Respondents were also not happy with the working environment. Overall mean value of
3.47 of Table No. 30 shows that most of the respondents think that their classrooms are
not fit for teaching learning process. 3.68 mean value shows that most of the respondents
thought that there classrooms are not properly decorated with what should be there for
teaching learning process. (Table No. 20)
Hence this objective was achieved by finding the factors of job burnout in WFGS system
in district Mardan that are work overload, physical and emotional exhaustion, high
expectations and stressed working environment.
Objective No. 2: To rank the factors of job burnout according to their intensity in the
selected schools.
Factors of job burnout can be ranked from higher intensity to lower intensity in the
following way;
1) The overall mean value of 2.63 of social and mutual support towards other coworkers shows that most of the respondents do not know how to cooperate with
each other. Therefore lack of cooperation among co-workers was revealed and be
the most effective factor.
2) Emotional or physical exhaustion was found to be the second most important
factor that affects job satisfaction of teachers in WFGS system in district Mardan
as revealed by overall mean value of 2.91.
3) High expectations of teachers from their jobs were found to be the third most
important factor influencing teachers’ jobs at school in the same institutions.
Overall mean value of 3.38 reveals that they expect more what they get from their
job currently.
36
4) Work overload and was found to be the fourth most affective factor of job burnout
in the WFGS system in district Mardan. Overall mean value of 3.47 reveals that
they respondents feel that they are under unkind of stress during work.
5) Stressed working environment was found to be the last most effective factor of
job burnout in WFGS system in Mardan. Overall mean value reveals that teachers
were not satisfied with their classroom.
Objective No. 3: To pinpoint ways of improvement adopted by other similar
organizations.
It is evident from the literature review that different reforms have been introduced by
similar organizations to reduce job burnout in them. To minimize the effect of work
overload similar system of schools have made it sure to maintain a balance between
curricular, co-curricular and extra-curricular activities in the school. Some residential
institutions have reduced their curricular activities to only 30% per day. Other institutions
have introduced different festivals to promote social relationships between co-workers.
Classrooms in most modern institutions are usually well-decorated with curriculum
related materials.
Objective No. 4: To give recommendations for improvement in the WFGS system.
To reduce work overload teachers must not be involved in non-teaching or administrative
jobs, records maintenance of students at school level, section heads, housemasters,
Master of day, etc. Specialized persons should be given these tasks whereas teachers
must do only their teaching related activities. Classrooms must be properly decorated that
can enhance both its attractiveness and productivity in learning. Classrooms can be
decorated with subject related materials, i.e. charts, models, maps, pictures, etc. Teachers
should also be involved in extra-curricular activities in the school to alleviate physical
and emotional exhaustion. Remuneration should be at the right time in the right amount
to all teachers as compared to any other organizations of different sector. Regular events
of mirth should be celebrated in the school to promote social relationships among all
employees of the institution.

37
CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION & LIMITATIONS
5.1 Conclusion:
This study elaborated that teachers take high interest in their teaching as profession. They
highly regard this profession. They think this profession to be the most revered of all
professions in their society. They think that they have the social support of the people in
local community. They feel proud to be a teacher because it greatly added to their respect
in the society. They therefore showed intense interest in classroom activities in the
school.
This process is however hampered by the work overload during the school when teachers
are assigned extra tasks which either do not match their abilities or are more challenging
to complete in a given time. They found it difficult to check notebooks daily and like
extra-curricular activities to be more in the school. They like to get more relaxation
during their works at school.
Lack of social support among teachers was revealed in this study. Emotional exhaustion
was also felt by the teachers mainly due to some unkind stress from their supervisors or
executives. They felt that this stress is usually unseen and unknown to them. They find
themselves emotionally exhausted during hardwork at school. They find no energy in the
few last hours of the school time and therefore demands for recreation in school daily
schedule.
Though they find their salaries quite attractive but they expect something more when they
look at their hardwork they do during school time.

5.2 Recommendations:
In the light of the analyzed data, the researcher recommends following few points for
implementation by Workers Welfare Board Khyber Pakhtunkhwa;
5.2.1 School time should be made more flexible for both teachers and students. This
would help to reduce boredom of doing similar activities in the school. Extra-curricular
38
activities should be given their appropriate time in the school daily schedule. Teachers
should not be overburdened with frivolous tasks assigned to them.
5.2.2 Supervisor must be democratic towards their teachers. He must give teachers their
due regard. Supervisor must be cooperative rather than authoritative towards teachers. He
should not think teachers as his subordinates but members of the same team headed by
him. Like the evaluation report that supervisor sends about teachers after a specific
period, there must be evaluation of the supervisor done by the teachers so that supervisor
can know about his discrepancies.
5.2.3 Working environment should be very comfortable for the teachers. Standard
schools usually arrange their staffroom very comfortable for the relaxation of teachers.
5.2.4 Regular family events should be celebrated in the school to promote social
relationships among all employees of the institution.
5.2.5 Classrooms should be completely decorated with materials that can help in
learning. Charts with attractive colours, beautiful figures, simple structures, pictures, etc.
can enhance the development of the learners. Beautiful models related to curriculum must
be kept in classroom which will assist teachers in explaining abstract concepts.

5.3 Limitations:
The findings of this study cannot be generalized to all schools because of the following
limitations;
5.3.1 Access to the concerned participants was a bit difficult. Random sampling method
was used which do not assure hundred percent participation of all teachers in the study.
5.3.2 Teachers find it difficult to unclose the actual facts. They may have concealed the
facts in some responses. They may be more biased towards themselves.
5.3.3 Likert scale was used in preparing questionnaires which puzzled the respondents
and they find this scale a bit difficult to understand. They were sometime indecisive to
select between the two closely connected responses.

39
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41
APPENDIX A

Questionnaire for teachers in WFG System Schools in District Mardan
Project Title: An analytical study on Factors of Job Burnout in Working Folks Grammar
Schools System
MBA (2.5years)

VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY OF PAKISTAN

Designation: __________________
Duty Station: ____________________________

BPS: ______________
Total Service: _____________

Address: ___________________________
Qualification (academic):________________ (Professional if any): ___________
Interest:
a. I feel that I am in the wrong place/ profession.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

b. I start my day with enthusiasm to do something new and good in teaching.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

c. I like the extra-curricular activities most.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed
d. I plan my lessons before entering into classroom.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed
e. I feel boredom to check notebooks daily.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

f. I think my students are taking interest in classroom activities.
42
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

Workload:
a. I am satisfied with the work I do during school time.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed
b. I find myself under an unkind level of stress to succeed.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed
c. I think that I am given tasks that do not match my ability.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

Remuneration:
a. I think that I am not receiving what I claim out of my job.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed
b. I receive enough salary to support my expenses.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

Mutual/ Social Support:
a. I think myself reserved from others to communicate.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

b. I am misjudged/ unvalued by my co-workers in the school.

43
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

c. I feel I get easily irritated by minor problems in the school.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

d. I am less supportive with people than possibly they are worthy.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

Emotional Exhaustion:
a. I become frustrated with parts of my job in the school.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed
b. I feel exhausted of emotional or physical energy.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

c. I discover that I am inclined to negative thinking about my job.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

Working Environment:
a. I have all kinds of facilities required for teaching.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

b. I feel that classrooms of my school are not properly decorated.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

c. I am not comfortable in the setting environment of my school.
44
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

Self-Respect:
a. I think that teaching as profession has greatly added to my self-respect.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

4. Agreed

5. Strongly

b. I feel proud of what I am doing as a teacher.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed
c. I think that teachers are respected in the society.
1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided
Agreed

45
APPENDIX B

Respondent #

Tabulation of Data

INTEREST

WORKLOAD

IN
TR
1

IN
TR
2

IN
TR
3

IN
TR
4

IN
TR
5

IN
TR
6

1

2

5

4

4

2

4

5

2

2

1

2

5

5

4

5

5

4

5

4

2

3

1

1

5

5

2

5

5

4

4

2

4

1

4

2

4

5

5

4

4

2

5

4

4

6

2

5

5

5

2

7

2

4

1

5

8

1

5

4

9

2

4

10

4

4

REMUNER
ATION

W W W
RE RE
OR OR OR
M1 M2
K1 K2 K3

EMOTIO
NAL
EXHAUS
TION

SOCIAL/
MUTUAL
SUPPORT

WORKING
ENVIRON
MENT

SELF
RESPECT

SS
1

SS
2

SS
3

SS
4

EE
1

EE
2

EE
3

W
E1

W
E2

W
E3

SR
1

SR
2

SR
3

4

1

5

4

1

1

4

2

5

4

4

2

5

1

5

4

2

4

1

3

4

4

3

1

5

5

5

5

5

1

1

2

1

1

3

4

5

4

1

5

5

4

5

5

2

2

4

4

2

4

2

2

4

3

4

2

4

4

4

4

4

5

4

4

2

2

5

4

2

4

4

4

2

4

5

2

4

4

5

5

4

5

4

3

3

5

4

3

2

1

3

4

5

2

4

2

5

5

4

1

4

5

4

2

2

2

4

5

4

2

4

2

2

4

4

2

5

5

4

5

4

4

5

3

1

2

4

1

1

4

2

2

2

2

4

4

2

5

5

5

3

5

2

4

3

2

4

5

3

4

2

5

3

2

2

1

5

5

4

4

3

4

5

5

4

3

4

4

3

3

2

3

4

4

3

4

5

3

3

4

2

4

3

4
46
IN
TR
1

IN
TR
2

IN
TR
3

IN
TR
4

IN
TR
5

IN
TR
6

W W W
RE RE
OR OR OR
M1 M2
K1 K2 K3

11

1

4

5

5

1

5

5

2

1

4

12

2

5

5

5

2

4

5

4

3

13

1

5

4

5

5

5

5

3

14

1

5

4

5

5

5

5

15

4

4

4

4

4

4

16

1

4

4

4

2

17

3

4

5

5

18

4

5

2

19

3

4

20

4

21

SS
1

SS
2

SS
3

SS
4

EE
1

EE
2

EE
3

W
E1

W
E2

W
E3

SR
1

SR
2

SR
3

2

1

1

1

1

2

2

3

2

4

2

5

5

2

3

5

4

3

2

1

3

4

5

2

4

2

5

5

2

3

5

5

2

2

1

4

4

4

1

4

2

3

5

5

4

3

4

5

5

2

2

1

4

4

4

1

4

2

3

5

5

4

5

2

2

3

4

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

4

2

2

4

3

4

3

3

1

4

2

4

4

4

2

2

2

2

2

4

5

3

4

5

4

2

5

5

2

2

5

5

1

2

1

3

3

2

3

2

4

2

5

5

1

5

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

2

2

2

4

4

4

2

4

4

4

4

3

5

4

4

4

5

2

4

2

4

5

1

1

4

2

1

4

4

4

5

5

4

3

5

4

5

3

4

4

4

4

3

2

4

4

2

4

4

4

2

2

4

4

4

2

1

5

4

5

4

5

5

3

4

2

4

2

2

2

1

2

2

2

4

4

4

5

5

2

22

2

5

4

4

2

4

5

2

2

1

4

1

5

4

1

1

4

2

5

4

4

2

5

1

23

5

5

4

5

5

4

5

4

2

5

4

2

4

1

3

4

4

3

1

5

5

5

5

5

24

1

1

5

5

2

5

5

4

1

1

2

1

1

3

4

5

4

1

5

5

4

5

5

2

25

2

4

1

4

2

4

5

2

4

4

2

4

2

2

4

3

4

2

4

4

4

4

4

5
47
IN
TR
1

IN
TR
2

IN
TR
3

IN
TR
4

IN
TR
5

IN
TR
6

W W W
RE RE
OR OR OR
M1 M2
K1 K2 K3

26

4

4

2

5

4

4

4

4

2

2

27

2

5

5

5

2

4

5

4

3

28

2

4

1

5

1

4

5

4

29

1

5

4

5

4

4

5

30

2

4

3

5

2

4

31

4

4

5

5

4

32

1

4

5

5

33

2

5

5

34

1

5

35

1

36

SS
1

SS
2

SS
3

SS
4

EE
1

EE
2

EE
3

W
E1

W
E2

W
E3

SR
1

SR
2

SR
3

5

4

2

4

4

4

2

4

5

2

4

4

5

5

3

5

4

3

2

1

3

4

5

2

4

2

5

5

4

2

2

2

4

5

4

2

4

2

2

4

4

2

5

5

4

3

1

2

4

1

1

4

2

2

2

2

4

4

2

5

5

5

3

2

4

5

3

4

2

5

3

2

2

1

5

5

4

4

3

4

3

4

4

3

3

2

3

4

4

3

4

5

3

3

4

2

4

3

4

1

5

5

2

1

4

2

1

1

1

1

2

2

3

2

4

2

5

5

2

5

2

4

5

4

3

3

5

4

3

2

1

3

4

5

2

4

2

5

5

2

4

5

5

5

5

3

3

5

5

2

2

1

4

4

4

1

4

2

3

5

5

4

5

4

5

5

5

5

3

4

5

5

2

2

1

4

4

4

1

4

2

3

5

5

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

5

2

2

3

4

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

4

2

2

4

3

4

37

1

4

4

4

2

3

3

1

4

2

4

4

4

2

2

2

2

2

4

5

3

4

5

4

38

3

4

5

5

2

5

5

2

2

5

5

1

2

1

3

3

2

3

2

4

2

5

5

1

39

4

5

2

5

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

2

2

2

4

4

4

2

4

4

4

4

40

3

4

3

5

4

4

4

5

2

4

2

4

5

1

1

4

2

1

4

4

4

5

5

4
48
IN
TR
1

IN
TR
2

IN
TR
3

IN
TR
4

IN
TR
5

IN
TR
6

W W W
RE RE
OR OR OR
M1 M2
K1 K2 K3

41

4

3

5

4

5

3

4

4

4

4

42

1

5

4

5

4

5

5

3

4

43

2

5

4

4

2

4

5

2

44

5

5

4

5

5

4

5

45

1

1

5

5

2

5

46

2

4

1

4

2

47

4

4

2

5

48

2

5

5

49

2

4

50

1

5

SS
1

SS
2

SS
3

SS
4

EE
1

EE
2

EE
3

W
E1

W
E2

W
E3

SR
1

SR
2

SR
3

3

2

4

4

2

4

4

4

2

2

4

4

4

2

2

4

2

2

2

1

2

2

2

4

4

4

5

5

2

2

1

4

1

5

4

1

1

4

2

5

4

4

2

5

1

4

2

5

4

2

4

1

3

4

4

3

1

5

5

5

5

5

5

4

1

1

2

1

1

3

4

5

4

1

5

5

4

5

5

2

4

5

2

4

4

2

4

2

2

4

3

4

2

4

4

4

4

4

5

4

4

4

4

2

2

5

4

2

4

4

4

2

4

5

2

4

4

5

5

5

2

4

5

4

3

3

5

4

3

2

1

3

4

5

2

4

2

5

5

4

1

5

1

4

5

4

2

2

2

4

5

4

2

4

2

2

4

4

2

5

5

4

4

5

4

4

5

3

1

2

4

1

1

4

2

2

2

2

4

4

2

5

5

5

49
ANNEXURE C
INTEREST

WORKLOAD

INTR1 INTR 2 INTR3 INTR4 INTR5 INTR6 Mean
2
5
4
4
2
4
3.50
5
5
4
5
5
4
4.67
1
1
5
5
2
5
3.17
2
4
1
4
2
4
2.83
4
4
2
5
4
4
3.83
2
5
5
5
2
4
3.83
2
4
1
5
1
4
2.83
1
5
4
5
4
4
3.83
2
4
3
5
2
4
3.33
4
4
5
5
4
3
4.17
1
4
5
5
1
5
3.50
2
5
5
5
2
4
3.83
1
5
4
5
5
5
4.17
1
5
4
5
5
5
4.17
4
4
4
4
4
4
4.00
1
4
4
4
2
3
3.00
3
4
5
5
2
5
4.00
4
5
2
5
4
4
4.00
3
4
3
5
4
4
3.83
4
3
5
4
5
3
4.00
1
5
4
5
4
5
4.00
2
5
4
4
2
4
3.50
5
5
4
5
5
4
4.67
1
1
5
5
2
5
3.17
2
4
1
4
2
4
2.83
4
4
2
5
4
4
3.83
2
5
5
5
2
4
3.83
2
4
1
5
1
4
2.83
1
5
4
5
4
4
3.83
2
4
3
5
2
4
3.33
4
4
5
5
4
3
4.17
1
4
5
5
1
5
3.50
2
5
5
5
2
4
3.83
1
5
4
5
5
5
4.17
1
5
4
5
5
5
4.17

WORK1 WORK2 WORK3 Mean
5
2
2
3.00
5
4
2
3.67
5
4
1
3.33
5
2
4
3.67
4
4
2
3.33
5
4
3
4.00
5
4
2
3.67
5
3
1
3.00
3
2
4
3.00
4
4
3
3.67
5
2
1
2.67
5
4
3
4.00
5
3
3
3.67
5
3
4
4.00
5
2
2
3.00
3
1
4
2.67
5
2
2
3.00
4
4
4
4.00
4
5
2
3.67
4
4
4
4.00
5
3
4
4.00
5
2
2
3.00
5
4
2
3.67
5
4
1
3.33
5
2
4
3.67
4
4
2
3.33
5
4
3
4.00
5
4
2
3.67
5
3
1
3.00
3
2
4
3.00
4
4
3
3.67
5
2
1
2.67
5
4
3
4.00
5
3
3
3.67
5
3
4
4.00
50
4
1
3
4
3
4
1
2
5
1
2
4
2
2
1

4
4
4
5
4
3
5
5
5
1
4
4
5
4
5

4
4
5
2
3
5
4
4
4
5
1
2
5
1
4

4
4
5
5
5
4
5
4
5
5
4
5
5
5
5

4
2
2
4
4
5
4
2
5
2
2
4
2
1
4

2.38

4.22

3.68

4.76

3.08

4.00
3.00
4.00
4.00
3.83
4.00
4.00
3.50
4.67
3.17
2.83
3.83
3.83
2.83
3.83
3.71

4
3
5
4
4
3
5
4
4
5
4
4
4
4
4
4.14

REMUNERATION
REM1 REM2 Mean
1
4
2.50
5
4
4.50
1
2
1.50
4
2
3.00
2
5
3.50
3
5
4.00
2
2
2.00
2
4
3.00
5
3
4.00
3
2
2.50
4
2
3.00
3
5
4.00
5
5
5.00
5
5
5.00
3
4
3.50
2
4
3.00
5
5
5.00
4
4
4.00
4
2
3.00

SOCIAL/ MUTUAL SUPPORT
SS1
1
2
1
4
4
4
4
1
4
3
1
4
2
2
2
4
1
4
4

SS2
5
4
1
2
2
3
5
1
2
4
1
3
2
2
2
4
2
4
5

SS3
4
1
3
2
4
2
4
4
5
4
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1

SS4
1
3
4
4
4
1
2
2
3
3
1
1
4
4
2
2
3
2
1

Mean
2.75
2.50
2.25
3.00
3.50
2.50
3.75
2.00
3.50
3.50
1.00
2.50
2.25
2.25
2.00
3.00
1.75
3.00
2.75

5
3
5
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
4
5
5
5

2
1
2
4
5
4
3
2
4
4
2
4
4
4
3

2
4
2
4
2
4
4
2
2
1
4
2
3
2
1

4.62

3.18

2.62

3.00
2.67
3.00
4.00
3.67
4.00
4.00
3.00
3.67
3.33
3.67
3.33
4.00
3.67
3.00
3.47

EMOTIONAL EXHAUSTION
EE1
1
4
5
3
4
3
4
2
2
4
2
3
4
4
2
2
3
2
4

EE2
4
4
4
4
2
4
2
2
2
5
2
4
4
4
2
2
2
4
2

EE3
2
3
1
2
4
5
2
2
1
3
3
5
1
1
2
2
3
4
1

Mean
2.33
3.67
3.33
3.00
3.33
4.00
2.67
2.00
1.67
4.00
2.33
4.00
3.00
3.00
2.00
2.00
2.67
3.33
2.33
51
4
2
1
5
1
4
2
3
2
2
5
3
4
3
5
5
3
2
5
4
4
4
2
1
5
1
4
2
3
2
2

3
4
4
4
2
2
5
5
2
4
3
2
2
5
5
5
4
4
5
4
2
3
4
4
4
2
2
5
5
2
4

3.16

3.6

3.50
3.00
2.50
4.50
1.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
2.50
3.00
4.00
5.00
5.00
3.50
3.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
3.50
3.00
2.50
4.50
1.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
2.00
3.00
3.38

2
2
1
2
1
4
4
4
4
1
4
3
1
4
2
2
2
4
1
4
4
2
2
1
2
1
4
4
4
4
1

4
2
5
4
1
2
2
3
5
1
2
4
1
3
2
2
2
4
2
4
5
4
2
5
4
1
2
2
3
5
1

4
2
4
1
3
2
4
2
4
4
5
4
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
4
2
4
1
3
2
4
2
4
4

2
1
1
3
4
4
4
1
2
2
3
3
1
1
4
4
2
2
3
2
1
2
1
1
3
4
4
4
1
2
2

2.66

2.86

2.56

2.42

3.00
1.75
2.75
2.50
2.25
3.00
3.50
2.50
3.75
2.00
3.50
3.50
1.00
2.50
2.25
2.25
2.00
3.00
1.75
3.00
2.75
3.00
1.75
2.75
2.50
2.25
3.00
3.50
2.50
3.75
2.00
2.63

4
2
1
4
5
3
4
3
4
2
2
4
2
3
4
4
2
2
3
2
4
4
2
1
4
5
3
4
3
4
2

4
2
4
4
4
4
2
4
2
2
2
5
2
4
4
4
2
2
2
4
2
4
2
4
4
4
4
2
4
2
2

4
2
2
3
1
2
4
5
2
2
1
3
3
5
1
1
2
2
3
4
1
4
2
2
3
1
2
4
5
2
2

3.08

3.12

2.54

4.00
2.00
2.33
3.67
3.33
3.00
3.33
4.00
2.67
2.00
1.67
4.00
2.33
4.00
3.00
3.00
2.00
2.00
2.67
3.33
2.33
4.00
2.00
2.33
3.67
3.33
3.00
3.33
4.00
2.67
2.00
2.91

52
WORKING ENVIRONMENT
WE1
WE2
WE3
Mean
5
4
4
4.33
1
5
5
3.67
5
5
4
4.67
4
4
4
4.00
5
2
4
3.67
2
4
2
2.67
4
4
2
3.33
4
4
2
3.33
5
5
4
4.67
3
4
2
3.00
2
4
2
2.67
2
4
2
2.67
4
2
3
3.00
4
2
3
3.00
4
2
2
2.67
4
5
3
4.00
2
4
2
2.67
4
2
4
3.33
4
4
4
4.00
2
2
4
2.67
4
4
4
4.00
5
4
4
4.33
1
5
5
3.67
5
5
4
4.67
4
4
4
4.00
5
2
4
3.67
2
4
2
2.67
4
4
2
3.33
4
4
2
3.33
5
5
4
4.67
3
4
2
3.00
2
4
2
2.67
2
4
2
2.67
4
2
3
3.00
4
2
3
3.00
4
2
2
2.67
4
5
3
4.00

SR1
2
5
5
4
4
5
5
5
4
4
5
5
5
5
4
4
5
4
5
4
5
2
5
5
4
4
5
5
5
4
4
5
5
5
5
4
4

SELF RESPECT
SR2
SR3
5
1
5
5
5
2
4
5
5
5
5
4
5
4
5
5
3
4
3
4
5
2
5
2
5
4
5
4
3
4
5
4
5
1
4
4
5
4
4
2
5
2
5
1
5
5
5
2
4
5
5
5
5
4
5
4
5
5
3
4
3
4
5
2
5
2
5
4
5
4
3
4
5
4

Mean
2.67
5.00
4.00
4.33
4.67
4.67
4.67
5.00
3.67
3.67
4.00
4.00
4.67
4.67
3.67
4.33
3.67
4.00
4.67
3.33
4.00
2.67
5.00
4.00
4.33
4.67
4.67
4.67
5.00
3.67
3.67
4.00
4.00
4.67
4.67
3.67
4.33
53
2
4
4
2
4
5
1
5
4
5
2
4
4
3.56

4
2
4
2
4
4
5
5
4
2
4
4
4
3.68

2
4
4
4
4
4
5
4
4
4
2
2
2
3.18

2.67
3.33
4.00
2.67
4.00
4.33
3.67
4.67
4.00
3.67
2.67
3.33
3.33
3.47

5
4
5
4
5
2
5
5
4
4
5
5
5
4.46

5
4
5
4
5
5
5
5
4
5
5
5
5
4.62

1
4
4
2
2
1
5
2
5
5
4
4
5
3.5

3.67
4.00
4.67
3.33
4.00
2.67
5.00
4.00
4.33
4.67
4.67
4.67
5.00
4.19

54

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An Analytic Study on Factors of Job Burnout in Working Folks Grammar School System

  • 1. An analytical study on Factors of Job Burnout in Working Folks Grammar Schools System A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY OF PAKISTAN IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MBA (2.5 YEARS) (EQUIVALENT TO MS) Submitted By JAMAL SHAH mc110203190 Department of Management Sciences, Virtual University of Pakistan 2013 1
  • 2. 2
  • 3. Dedicated to My PARENTS Who have always encouraged me in my studies and persuaded me to get excellence in education which I am still striving for. 3
  • 4. Acknowledgement First of all I am thankful to ALLAH the ALMIGHTY, the most beneficial and merciful who gave me the courage to finish my project. Secondly, I wish to express my gratitude to my research supervisor for his constructive advice, directions, comments, support and professional guidance. I am also extremely thankful to all the authors of the references in my project. Finally, the prayers from my family members played an important role in the completion of the project. Without their moral and financial support it would have been impossible for me to write this project report. Especially I extend gratitude to my brothers Dr. Zakir Shah and Zahid Shah for their valuable guidance and assistance. Thanks to all my teachers and friends for providing me timely assistance in completion of this project. Jamal Shah 4
  • 5. Abstract Early researches indicate that the main reasons of job burnout were i) emotional exhaustion, ii) depersonalization and iii) reduced personal accomplishments. Many researches conducted in different parts of the world showed that factors of job burnout may include stressed working environment, job overload, pay & reward, fairness and value. In addition age, gender, marital status, and experience were also considered some factors of job burnout among employees in an organization. This study investigated the reasons behind the job burnout and collected data through self-developed questionnaires from teachers working in Working Folks Grammar Schools system in district Mardan. Collected data was then feed into MS Excel worksheets to find out percentage, mean value and overall mean value. After analysis of the data it was realized that respondents were interested in teaching as profession. The subjects were still found under an unkind level of stress during their work at school. Results showed that the factors of job burnout were found to be job overload, lack of mutual support, higher expectations from the job, and less leisure times during work among teachers working the selected schools. Researcher recommends that school time should be flexible with more focus on extracurricular activities. Supervisors should be friendly towards teachers working under their surveillance. Family friendly events should be celebrated in the schools in which all employees participated without concerning their positions. This will promote social relationship between the employees in the same institutions. 5
  • 6. Table of Contents Acknowledgment S# Abstract 1.1 Introduction ………………………… 1.2 Background …………..……..……… 1 Chapter 1 1.3 Introduction of the organization 1.4 Objectives …………………..……… 1.9 Significance ………….……..……… Page # 8 8 10 10 11 Literature Review 2.1 Job burnout ………………………… 2.2 Job burnout in Educational Institutions 2 Chapter 2 12 14 2.3 Job burnout in Pakistani Institutions/ Organization ……………………………. 2.4 Factors of job burnout ……………… 16 17 Methodology 2.1 Data Collection Sources……..…..… 2.5 Data Processing & Analysis……..…. 3 20 20 20 21 Chapter 4 Data Analysis 4.1 Summary …………………………... 22 34 Chapter 5 Conclusion, Recommendations & Limitations 5.1 Conclusion ………………………… 5.2 Recommendations ………………… 5.2 Limitations ………………………… 38 38 39 Chapter 3 2.2 Data Collection Tools/ Instruments... 2.3 Subjects/ Participants……..…..……. 4 5 6 References Appendixes 40 42 6
  • 7. List of Illustrations Table No. 1 ……………………………………. 21 Table No. 2 ……………………………………. 21 Table No. 3 ……………………………………. 22 Table No. 4 ……………………………………. 22 Table No. 5 ……………………………………. 22 Table No. 6 ……………………………………. 23 Table No. 7 ……………………………………. 23 Table No. 8 ……………………………………. 23 Table No. 9 ……………………………………. 24 Table No. 10 ………………………………….. 24 Table No. 11 ………………………………….. 24 Table No. 12 ………………………………….. 25 Table No. 13 ………………………………….. 25 Table No. 14 ………………………………….. 25 Table No. 15 ………………………………….. 26 Table No. 16 ………………………………….. 26 Table No. 17 ………………………………….. 26 Table No. 18 ………………………………….. 27 Table No. 19 ………………………………….. 27 Table No. 20 ………………………………….. 27 Table No. 21 ………………………………….. 28 Table No. 22 ………………………………….. 28 Table No. 23 ………………………………….. 28 Table No. 24 ………………………………….. 29 Table No. 25 ………………………………….. 29 Table No. 26 ………………………………….. 30 Table No. 27 ………………………………….. 30 Table No. 28 ………………………………….. 31 Table No. 29 ………………………………….. 31 Table No. 30 ………………………………….. 32 Table No. 31 ………………………………….. 32 7
  • 8. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Human resource is considered as the backbone of any organization. Unlike machine human beings have feelings and emotions which can affect the achievements of the organization. Better feelings about a job in an organization are therefore inevitable for all employees to achieve better results. Satisfaction that an employee can get due to his job because of the positive thinking about his job is known as job satisfaction. Lacks of interest, emotional exhaustion, workload, etc. are considered to be the reasons behind job stress. This study is aimed to find out the reasons producing job burnout in an organization. This project is about finding the reasons that give lift to job burnout in Working Folks Grammar School system in district Mardan. Job burnout is therefore an important topic to discuss. Every person wants to know what the indicators of a job burnout are. They also want to know about the factors that affect this. Though various researches have been done on the topic but they are mostly related to medical institutions and organizations. Few researches are concerned with teachers in an institutional environment. This study is about the factors that are responsible for producing job burnout in a specific school system that would help other similar systems to minimize the job burnout in their institutions. Therefore this study is of immense importance for both employee and employers. 1.1 Background: Resources plays a pivotal role in prosper of an organization. Large amount of resources with their best utilization is the maximum requirement of any organization. Most organizations in past were relying totally on their human resources only. But due to advancement in science and technology the intervention of human was cut off to half or even less than that. Technology on one hand if assisted a person to do its job quickly and 8
  • 9. accurately but on the other hand it also reduced the need of human resources considerably. This lays pressure on man to compete with each other and even with the efficiency of technology in order to sustain his job. This leads to job stress/ burnout in every organization. Employees under job stress sometimes fail to resist and quit organization. Topic job burnout due to its mammoth importance always attracted researchers to find out the indicators and reasons. Job burnout is considered a limitation in personal perfection. Job burnout has many reasons that can affect the performance of an employee in an organization. Workload pressurizes an employee to achieve a challenging task either in a shorter time or against the capabilities of that employee. Employee therefore strives more than what is required but in vain. Failing in achievement of that task, employee gets under stress day by day. This resentment paves the way for job burnout which compels the employee to quit that job. Job burnout was felt when employee that they are paid less than what is expected for a specific job. Major reasons of job burnout were found to be workload, low salary, lack of self-esteem, etc. (Sari, 2000) Employees usually have to face the problem of workload. Failing to fulfill the needs of the employer often gives birth to job burnout. Job burnout is lack of motivation and satisfaction for an employee. It happens when there is lack of communication, mismatch of employer’s requirements and employees capabilities, overwhelming workload, bad working condition, etc. Employees with job burnout are often seen cynical, unmotivated, strained, unsatisfied, dejected, annoyed and hopeless. Both employees and employer of an organization tends to reduce job burnout for the effective and efficient work to achieve their personal and organizational goals. Job burnout gives blows to the motivation, self-respect, self-esteem, high level of concern of others, efficient performance, effective outcomes, and even offers obstacles in achievement of challenging objectives. Job burnout is deliberated mostly a psychological problem. Self-esteem is one of the basic factors of job satisfaction and a higher level in Abraham Maslow hierarchy of 9
  • 10. human needs. Some other sources of job burnout can be edgy working environment, miscommunication, lack of information, interaction with others, etc. In most countries of the world job burnout was found to be due to lack of flexible work time, good remuneration, self-respect, high interest and favorable work environment. This study will show factors that produce job burnout in teachers in WFGS system. 1.2 Introduction of the Organization: Working Folks Grammar Schools system is setup by Workers Welfare Board (W.W.B.) for the welfare of the children of labors working in factories in Pakistan. W.W.B. was established under section 11(a) of the Workers Welfare Funds Ordinance, 1971. The purpose of its establishment was to provide residence, health facilities, education, dowry (Jahez), merit scholarships, sewing machines, bicycles and much more to labors and their family members. NWFP W.W.B. established a directorate of education in 2000 in order to provide free education and scholarships to the children of industrial labor. W.W.B. has founded 25 schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to provide education to labors’ children. 1680 teachers are working in these schools in Dec, 2012. These schools are providing education from elementary to higher secondary level. Teachers are paid better remuneration for their services. Working Folks Grammar School (WFGS) system is considered parallel to Army Public School & College (APSAC) system in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Curriculum and co-curriculum is given immense importance in this system of education. Modern facilities and educational materials are provided to each and every school. No research has yet been done on any topic on WFGS system. But works on factors that affect job burnout have been completed in different organizations throughout the world. 1.3 Objectives Objectives of the study are given as following; 1.3.1 To find out the factors of job burnout in Working Folks Grammar Schools system in district Mardan 1.3.2 To rank the factors of job burnout according to their intensity in the selected schools. 10
  • 11. 1.3.3 To pinpoint ways of improvement adopted by other similar organizations. 1.3.4 To give recommendations for improvement in the WFGS system. 1.4 Significance: This study will be significant for an employee and employer of an organization to know about the main reasons behind job burnout. This will also help employees of an organization in seeking job satisfaction by reducing job burnout. They will assist employers and stakeholder about the needs of an employee working in that specific organization. This study will help strategic managers to make requisite planning for reducing situations which yield in job burnout. This study will add to existing researches done with the same title but in different work environment of WFGS system. Specifically this will show teachers the ways to avoid job burnout. Results of this study will be implemented by W.W.B. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in assessing teachers’ satisfaction against their performances. This will benefit concern authority in taking any future decisions about teachers and their work environments. This study will help researchers anywhere around the world for analyzing the same situation in different working environment. 11
  • 12. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Job Burnout: Sole proprietorship is considered a very old type of business. Due to its elastic nature of starting and ending a business easily, it always gained preference as compared to other types of businesses. It is estimated that 80% of businesses are sole proprietorships which create the idea of self-employed. Self-employed persons usually have a large responsibility of management its owned business themselves. They are owner and managers at the same time. But due to unlimited liabilities this type of business is not like by investors when it comes to large capital investment. Partnership and companies are more likely for large capital investment. Companies where management is kept aloof from owners are very prosperous. Though this type of business is very rare but has almost all the money invested in businesses in the world. Companies hire employees which are usually not owners of the business themselves. Business itself is considered an entity from both managers and owners. The development of a company mostly depends on the performance of its employees. Employees do hardwork to achieve organizational objectives in order to increase the organization’s reputation, assets and owners’ shares. On the other company provides promotion, remuneration, benefits, relaxation and other facilities to encourage its employees to move forward. When both these channels are working properly, company does prosper and employees are usually satisfied. Any blockage in these channels can produce job burnout. Job burnout or Job stress is usually considered as negative feelings about one’s own job in an organization. Job burnout deteriorates the performance of an employee which can result in reduction of outcomes of that organization. "Burnout refers to a cluster of physical, emotional, and interactional symptoms, including emotional exhaustion, a sense of lacking personal accomplishment and depersonalization of clients” (Musa Gursel, Sunbul & Sari 2002). 12
  • 13. Job burnout is a physical and psychological situation of a person in which he feels discomfort and dejected due to certain reasons during job in an organization. Job burnout is a mental experience with negative inclination that may be the response of supervisor and subordinate to stress related to their jobs. It is a collection of physical, emotional, and relative signs, including emotional exhaustion, i.e. a sense of lacking selfsatisfaction and lack of personalization. (Gursel et al., 2002) It is a kind of situation in which a person feels that what he is doing is much more than what he gets in response of this job. It may be the inner feelings of an employee about his internal and external environment. He may be feeling that his inner self is not satisfied with what he is considering to acquire from a job doing in an organization or he may be thinking that others are not giving him what he is worthy of. There is a lack of confidence, lack of required energy, disappointment, and hence depersonalization in a person with job burnout. Sometimes it is difficult to investigate a person with job burnout because certain people have the ability to conceal one’s own feelings from others and do his job regularly though he may be relentless inside. This can be very perilous for the organization and that person itself. But most employees with job stress want to make others know that they are not satisfied with the current situation. Hence job burnout can be identified in a person because of few symptoms that can be sensed among the affectees. Lack of job commitment, cynicism, helplessness, resentfulness and prolongs absenteeism are some symptoms that describe job burnout in an employee. Job burnout also produces some health related problems such as anxiety, hypertension, and weariness. Various researches have been done to find out the symptoms of Job burnout, factors that produce it and intensity of each factor. Probably, the work of Maslach is the most prominent one. Maslach (2003) defines burnout as a psychological syndrome which includes persistent stress in the workplace. Burnout is intellectualized as consequence of prolong professional stress, particularly among workers who deal with other persons in one or another way. (Federici, Skaalvik, 2012) 13
  • 14. Job burnout, in most researches, has been stated as psychological disease that affects the job of an employee in an organization. Similarly this disease is closely connected with stress in job workplace. A person under severe stress becomes vulnerable to job burnout. This stress has been noticed to become much more disturbing when a person has to interact with other persons inevitably and unwillingly. This pressurizes a person to intermingle with other persons reluctantly which gives birth to negative stress. If the person continues his job under stress in this situation usually produces physical, emotional and psychological diseases. Hence, it becomes the cause of job burnout. 2.2 Job Burnout in Educational Institutions: Job burnout in education institution has an equal importance like in any other organization. Researchers are usually more concerned with teaching staff in educational institutions to identify the reasons of their job burnout. Teachers and students are the two key wheels of the same vehicle. Jobs that require no formal education was perceived easy to get and jobs that require higher degree of education were considered difficult to pursue. People found it most easy to pursue a job as a farmer and most difficult as a teacher, doctor and to work as a government employee if studied independent of age, sex and education. (Zhang et al., 2012) Teaching being a difficult profession is usually supported by recreational activities to alleviate boredom and physical exhaustion. Teachers still do feel job burnout in one or another form of its nature. It is sometimes very necessary to identify latent danger burnout poses for the individual and for the organization and it is also not impossible to take practical actions to alleviate stress. Teachers require chances to remember their motives for uniqueness entering the field, to search increasing their achievements to feel pride in past successes, to know that feelings of the frustration and dissuasion are mutually shared by most of the colleagues. (Meadow, 1981) 14
  • 15. Researches displayed that male teachers are more vulnerable to job burnout as compared to female. There may be many reasons behind this but it was seen that female teachers showed more commitment to their jobs as compared to male teachers. Female are considered to be more responsible, superior qualification, and showed great aptitude. They have more propensities for challenging jobs comparatively, though they have to do their domestic jobs as well. Additionally, male teachers are rectified by too much tuition work and are not compelled to fulfill any domestic obligations. A research study conducted in India shows that rural teachers are more satisfied as compared to urban teachers. It is because urban teachers expect more from their jobs as compared to rural teachers inspite of their better qualification and talent. (Singh et al., 2010) Teachers tend to get maximum of their jobs in educational institutions, especially colleges. Their job satisfaction is therefore linked with what they expect from their services. In other words good remuneration and better compensation can add to the job satisfaction of teachers. A study revealed that when the psychological needs of teachers are satisfied they showed high level of self-esteem, higher mental comfort, true motivation, less anxiety and positive institutional behavior. This leads to higher efficacy of teachers towards their jobs. (Sadegi et al., 2013) Teachers believe that they should be more respected than any other professional because of their services towards the society. In most civilized nations of the world teachers are given their desirable respect but this is faded away with modernization in the world. Society, teachers, students, parents are closely connected. Teachers cannot be segregated from their society. Teachers are assumed, in a study in China, to be more satisfied with their lives but less satisfied with their communities. Teachers are still respected in in China under the effect of traditional Chinese culture. (Chen, 2010) An objection on teachers is that they are more reserved from the society they live in. They are considered more rigid to any change around them. 15
  • 16. Education professionals are seldom prepared for change. Teacher trainings usually do not succeed to highlight the dangerous of the status quo in their working lives. Similarly social support and guidance of head teachers or principals are also vital for high morale. Teachers usually believe that appointment of new head teacher or principal will develop the quality of his working life. On the other hand, dissatisfaction results when current head teacher or principal does not respond well. (Evas, 2000) 2.3 Job Burnout in Pakistani Organizations/ Institutions: Pakistan is a developing country due to which its literacy rate is very low as compared to some other developing countries. Different systems of education do exist in Pakistan, which if improved the literacy but also deteriorated the overall situation of educational system. Teachers in most of these schools are more exposed to job burnout because of many reasons. A study in public sector in Pakistan tells that overall, 59% respondents were dissatisfied with their job. Less than half of the participants showed satisfaction towards their working environment, and 68% participants were contented with their responsibilities. Participants 66% showed frustration due to the extraneous tasks consigned to them. (Kumar et al., 2013) Due to cultural constrains, female workers find it difficult to work in Pakistan. They find it difficult to move to their work places and back home. They also discover deterrence during work in working places. However, research showed that gender have almost no relationship to job satisfaction. But comparatively female showed less satisfied that males. (Dantzker, 1998) Female teachers in Pakistan are facing too many problems as compared to other countries of the world. Men are considered more dominant in the society in Pakistan as compared to women though women are highly revered in this culture. Both male and female teachers are given their due regard in the society in Pakistan. They are not respected as they should be according to the state religion of Islam. Teachers in Pakistan mostly belong to the middle status and therefore live their lives hardly. 16
  • 17. 2.4 Factors Affecting Job: Researchers have used many methodologies to identify reasons behind job burnout and recommend solutions to reduce them for producing job satisfaction in an organization. Experimental research methodology is used by researches in medical sciences mostly whereas descriptive research has been used by researches in social sciences preferably. Findings of both these types of researches are not much different from each other. Job burnout may be due to situations that have prolong stressed working hours, work overload under pressure, absence of breaks and rest, inappropriate challenging expectations to accomplish a task in limited intervals of time and with less available resources. It is both physical and psychological problem which may be due to internal conflicts within itself or external uncontrollable forces. (Altaf & Awan, 2011) Personal interest, job overload, working environment, lack of social support, less pay and benefits and nonexistence of self-respect are few main reasons behind job burnout. Various aspects of working environments have been postulated or perceived to be related to experiencing stress that would eventually affect health. Job settings that are possible sources of stress for workers are the social or psychosocial characteristics of the work situation. (Pugliesi, 1999) Working environment has tremendous effects on human nature which can be both positive and negative. Working environment may consist of leadership style, structure of organization, goals and mission, nature of workers in the same setting, etc. Intensive researches indicate the individuals with higher educational levels undergo more job burnout. They may be exposed to it due to their substantial responsibilities or because of their greater expectations from their jobs. (Maslach et al., 2001) Higher qualified individuals therefore are considered to be more under stressed mainly either because of their high expectations or challenging tasks assigned to them. Usually tasks are assigned to an employee according to its caliber. Accomplishing that task with no proper compensation dishearten a qualified employee. 17
  • 18. Of many reasons behind teachers’ job burnout recruiting, retaining, promotion and remuneration based on their assessment of teachers’ capabilities and actual efficacy in hovering students’ achievement and other results, and is not based on a set of teacher characteristics such as education and experience in the same field. (Hanushek & Rivkin, 2007) Researches explored that social support can reduce the job burnout. If teachers get social support they feel less job burnout. A researcher finds a shortage in research because it does not explore any relationship between the teachers job burnout and teachers social support. (Zhongying, 2008) Remuneration also plays a pivotal role in reducing job burnout. Teacher if gets what he wants out of the job, he feels satisfaction towards that job. Remuneration can be in the form of salary and other benefits that teachers get in response of their jobs in an organization. If a person finds it work interesting, pay reasonable, promotional chances decent, supervisor compassionate and co-workers sociable, then this situation leads a person to envisage job satisfaction. (Singh, 2010) Teachers’ performance can be enhanced by providing them their due rights, i.e. timely promotion, good payment and recreational breaks. Teachers need favorable working milieu where they can effectually impart their duties. Sudden teachers’ promotion, worthwhile payment and job contentment are the main factors that guide teachers’ insight as a vehicle of conveying, creating and improving their job performance. (Alimi et al., 2011) Recreational breaks do not mean that they should be indulged into frivolous activities. These breaks should facilitate teachers to spare time for their families. Low income of teachers does not support too much luxurious accomplishments. Teachers who have lower income are more susceptible to job burnout through emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Less experience Turkish teachers stated their high 18
  • 19. depersonalization. Whereas drinking, smoking and marital status as other factors showed no relations with job burnout. (Demirel et al., 2005) Corollary, these studies showed that there are many reasons that produce job burnout of teachers but emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and stressed working environment can be considered the most important of these. Lack of personal interest, less remuneration, work overload, no promotional opportunities, lack of rewards, nonexistence of leisure times, lack of social support, high job expectations, absence of self-respect are few reasons that yield job burnout among teachers. 19
  • 20. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Descriptive type of research is used in this study and used quantitative research for collection of data. Quantitative research has been used to get responses of the subject. Data collected is compared with the research results obtained from researches done on the same topic worldwide. 2.1 Data Collection Sources Researcher used survey to collect data from teachers in WFGS system in district Mardan. Primary source of data collection is used to gather data for analysis of factors of job burnout. Whereas the secondary data is collected from published books, journals, research papers, etc. available in hard at library or through reliable sources on internet. 2.2 Data Collection Tools/ Instruments This study is conducted through using questionnaires prepared by the researcher according to the need of the project. These questionnaires are framed on the famous Likert Scale. Self-made Questionnaires are used in order to acquire correct and to the point data about the research topic. 2.3 Subject/ Participants There are 4 Working Folks Grammar Schools in district Mardan. Population of teachers in these schools is 284, working in two shifts (morning and evening). Unit of analysis of this research is individual, i.e. teacher. Data is collected from teachers teaching at primary, middle and high levels only. A sample of 50 teachers is selected using simple random sampling technique. Sampling frame for the study is teachers working both at morning and evening shift in these four (4) WFG Schools in district Mardan. 20
  • 21. 2.4 Data Processing & Analysis Confidentiality of the respondents was ensured during data collection. Data is collected through self-prepared questionnaires. The data is divided into seven different aspects of job burnout. Data was feed in MS Excel Worksheet. Percentage and mean were calculated to analyze the data. 21
  • 22. CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS Data was collected through self-developed questionnaires from teachers teaching in Working Folks Grammar Schools in district Mardan. Data was placed into tables and percentage and mean were derived. According to Likert Scale data was titled as SDA-1, DA-2, UD-3, A-4 and SA-5. The data is presented in the following tables for analysis and interpretation. TABLE No. 1 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 16 16 4 11 3 Percentage 32% 32% 8% 22% Mean 6% 2.38 The mean value 2.38 shows that tendency of responses is from disagree to neutral that the respondents are disagree with the statement and that they do not dislike their profession. This is also confirmed from the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 32% is disagree and 32% is strongly disagree. TABLE No. 2 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 3 0 2 23 22 Percentage 6% 0% 4% 46% Mean 44% 4.22 The mean value of 4.22 shows that the tendency of the responses is from agree to strongly agree, all the respondents are agree that they want to start their days with enthusiasm and passion. This can be illustrated through percentages table that high percentage, i.e. 46% is agree and 44% is strongly agree with the statement. 22
  • 23. TABLE No. 3 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 6 5 4 19 16 Percentage 12% 10% 8% 38% Mean 32% 3.68 3.68 shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree that most of the respondents like extracurricular activities, this is also confirmed from percentage table that a high percentage i.e. 38% is agree and 32% is strongly agree. TABLE No. 4 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 0 0 0 12 38 Percentage 0% 0% 0% 24% Mean 76% 4.76 4.76 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from agree to strongly agree, all the respondents are strongly agree that they plan their lessons before entering into classrooms. A high percentage i-e 76% is strongly agree and 24% is agree with the statement. TABLE No. 5 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 5 20 0 16 9 Percentage 10% 40% 0% 32% Mean 18% 3.08 3.08 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to disagree, the respondents mostly do not like to check notebooks daily. This is confirmed by high percentage value of disagree, i.e. 40% . 23
  • 24. TABLE No. 6 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 0 0 6 31 13 Percentage 0% 0% 12% 62% Mean 26% 4.14 Mean value 4.14 shows that tendency of responses is from agree to disagree, all the respondents thought that their students are taking interests in classroom activities. This is confirmed by percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 62% is agree and 26% is strongly agree with the statement. TABLE No. 7 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 0 0 4 11 35 Percentage 0% 0% 8% 22% Mean 70% 4.62 4.62 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from agree to strongly agree, all the respondents are quite satisfied with what they are doing as a teacher. This is also confirmed by percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 22% is agree and 70% is strongly agree with the statement. TABLE No. 8 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 2 14 9 23 2 Percentage 4% 28% 18% 46% Mean 4% 3.18 3.18 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, most of the respondents thought that they are under unkind stress during their work in school. This is confirmed by the high percentage, i.e. 46% is agree with the statement. 24
  • 25. TABLE No. 9 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 8 18 9 15 0 Percentage 16% 36% 18% 30% Mean 0% 2.62 2.62 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from disagree to neutral, respondents were found undecided to state whether or not the assigned tasks match their abilities. This is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 30% is agree but 36% is disagree with the statement. TABLE No. 10 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 6 13 9 11 11 Percentage 12% 26% 18% 22% Mean 22% 3.16 Mean value 3.16 shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, the respondents thought that they are not receiving what they can claim out of their jobs. This is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 22% is agree and 22% is strongly agree with the statement. TABLE No. 11 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 0 15 4 17 14 Percentage 0% 30% 8% 34% Mean 28% 3.6 3.6 mean value shows that tendency of the responses is from neutral to agree, most of the respondents thought that their salaries can support their expenses. This is confirmed by percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 34% is agree and 28% is strongly agree. 25
  • 26. TABLE No. 12 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 13 13 2 22 0 Percentage 26% 26% 4% 44% Mean 0% 2.66 2.66 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from disagree to neutral, the respondents were found undecided. Almost half of them thought that they are reserved and half thought that they are active in social relationships. This is confirmed by percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 44% is agree whereas 26% is disagree and 26% strongly disagree with the statement. TABLE No. 13 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 8 18 5 11 8 Percentage 16% 36% 10% 22% Mean 16% 2.86 2.86 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from disagree to neutral. Respondents thought equally in favour and against the statement that they are misjudged or unvalued by their co-workers. This can be illustrated through percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 36% is disagree and 22% is agree with the statement. TABLE No. 14 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 13 16 3 16 2 Percentage 26% 32% 6% 32% Mean 4% 2.56 Mean value 2.56 shows that tendency of responses is from disagree to neutral and the respondents were found undecided. Half of the respondents thought that minor problems irritate them in the school and half of them thought against the statement. This is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 32% is agree and 32% is disagree with the statement. 26
  • 27. TABLE No. 15 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 14 14 9 13 0 Percentage 28% 28% 18% 26% Mean 0% 2.42 2.42 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from disagree to neutral, most of the respondents were found undecided whether they are supportive towards other colleagues in the school. This is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 28% is disagree and 28% is strongly disagree with the statement. TABLE No. 16 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 3 15 10 19 3 Percentage 6% 30% 20% 38% Mean 6% 3.08 3.08 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, the respondents thought that they become frustrated with some tasks of their jobs in the school. This is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 38% is agree with the statement. TABLE No. 17 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 0 23 0 25 2 Percentage 0% 46% 0% 50% Mean 4% 3.12 3.12 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, the respondents felt emotionally or physically exhausted and felt lack of energy during work in school. This is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 50% is agreed with the statement. 27
  • 28. TABLE No. 18 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 11 18 9 7 5 Percentage 22% 36% 18% 14% Mean 10% 2.54 2.54 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from disagree to neutral, the respondents were found undecided to think that they are inclined to negative thinking about their jobs. This is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 36% is disagree and 18% is neutral to the statement. TABLE No. 19 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 3 11 2 23 11 Percentage 6% 22% 4% 46% Mean 22% 3.56 3.56 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, most of the respondents felt that they have all kind of facilities available for teaching in the school. This is confirmed by percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 46% is agree and 22% is strongly agree with the statement. TABLE No. 20 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 0 13 0 27 10 Percentage 0% 26% 0% 54% Mean 20% 3.68 3.68 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, most of the respondents thought that there classrooms are not properly decorated with what should require for teaching learning process. This is confirmed by percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 54% is agree with the statement. 28
  • 29. TABLE No. 21 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 0 19 6 22 3 Percentage 0% 38% 12% 44% Mean 6% 3.18 3.18 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, most of the respondents were found comfortable in the setting environment of the school. This is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 44% is agree with the statement. TABLE No. 22 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 0 3 0 18 29 Percentage 0% 6% 0% 36% Mean 58% 4.46 4.46 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from agree to strongly agree, all the respondents thought that teaching has greatly add to their respect in the society. This is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 58% is strongly agree and 36% is agree with the statement. TABLE No. 23 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 0 0 6 7 37 Percentage 0% 0% 12% 14% Mean 74% 4.62 Mean value 4.62 shows that tendency of responses is from agree to strongly agree, all the respondents are strongly agreed that they proud to be teachers in the school. This is confirmed by the percentage table that high percentage, i.e. 74% is strongly agreed with the statement. 29
  • 30. TABLE No. 24 SDA-1 DA-2 UD-3 A-4 SA-5 Respondent 5 11 0 22 12 Percentage 10% 22% 0% 44% Mean 24% 3.5 3.5 mean value shows that tendency of responses is from neutral to agree, most of the respondents were agreed that that teachers are still respected in the society. A high percentage, i.e. 44% is agree and 24% is strongly agree with statement. TABLE NO. 25 Interest Mean a. I feel that I am in the wrong place/ profession. 2.38 b. I start my day with enthusiasm to do something new and good in teaching. 4.22 c. I like the extra-curricular activities most. 3.68 d. I plan my lessons before entering into classroom. 4.76 e. I feel boredom to check notebooks daily. 3.08 f. I think my students are taking interest in classroom activities. 4.14 3.71 Overall mean value 3.71 shows that tendency of responses about interest is from neutral to agree, most of the respondents are satisfied with their profession. Highest mean value 4.76 reveals that they plan their lessons before entering into classrooms. 30
  • 31. TABLE NO. 26 Workload Mean a. I am satisfied with the work I do during school time. 4.62 b. I find myself under an unkind level of stress to succeed. 3.18 c. I think that I am given tasks that do not match my ability. 2.62 3.47 Overall mean value 3.47 shows that tendency of responses about workload is from neutral to agree. Highest mean value 4.62 shows their satisfaction with their work but mean value 3.18 reveals that they feel they are under an unkind level of stress. Whereas 2.62 mean value illustrates that they think they are given challenging tasks which do not match their abilities. TABLE NO. 27 Remuneration Mean a. I think that I am not receiving what I claim out of my job. 3.16 b. I receive enough salary to support my expenses. 3.60 3.38 Overall mean value 3.38 shows that tendency of responses about remuneration is from neutral to agree. Highest mean value 3.6 shows their satisfaction about their needs but mean value 3.16 reveals that they feel they are not receiving what are expected to be out the current job. 31
  • 32. TABLE NO. 28 Social/ Mutual Support Mean a. I think myself reserved from others to communicate. 2.66 b. I am misjudged/ unvalued by my co-workers in the school. 2.86 c. I feel I get easily irritated by minor problems in the school. 2.56 d. I am less supportive with people than possibly they are worthy. 2.42 2.63 Overall mean value 2.63 shows that tendency of responses about social support was from disagree to neutral. This shows lack of mutual support between the respondents. Mean value of 2.42 shows that they are undecided whether they are supportive or less supportive towards others. TABLE NO. 29 Emotional Exhaustion Mean a. I become frustrated with parts of my job in the school. 3.08 b. I feel exhausted of emotional or physical energy. 3.12 c. I discover that I am inclined to negative thinking about my job. 2.54 2.91 Overall mean value of 2.91 shows that tendency of responses about emotional exhaustion is from disagree to neutral, most of the respondents think that they feel emotional and physical exhaustion during work as revealed by highest mean value 3.12. 32
  • 33. TABLE NO. 30 Working Environment Mean a. I have all kinds of facilities required for teaching. 3.56 b. I feel that classrooms of my school are not properly decorated. 3.68 c. I am not comfortable in the setting environment of my school. 3.18 3.47 Overall mean value of 3.47 shows that tendency of responses about working environment is from neutral to agree, most of the respondents think that their classrooms are not well decorated as revealed by mean value 3.68. TABLE NO. 31 Self-Respect Mean a. I think that teaching as profession has greatly added to my selfrespect. 4.46 b. I feel proud of what I am doing as a teacher. 4.62 c. I think that teachers are respected in the society. 3.5 4.19 Overall mean value of 4.19 shows that tendency of responses about self-respect is from agree to strongly agree, all of the respondents think that teaching is a respectable profession and they feel proud to be teacher as revealed by highest mean value 4.62. 33
  • 34. 4.1 Summary: Analysis of the above data showed that most teachers like their profession of teaching. They thought that teaching as profession greatly added to their respect in society. Teachers showed their extensive interest in teaching. They showed their high intentions to start a day with enthusiasm to do innovative and creative thing in teaching which may improve their own performance in their students’ accomplishments. Lesson planning is considered an important tool in teaching learning process. Teachers highly favored lesson planning before attending any class. However they did not like to check notebooks of the students daily but liked extra-curricular activities. This shows their intents for recreational activities in the school. The interest of the students was felt to be on the high side by them. They were satisfied that there teaching methodologies do attract the interest of their students. This showed that teachers are taking too much interest in their classroom activities. Similarly, most teachers were found very satisfied with their works they do during school time. But they still found themselves under an unkind level of stress which hampers their success in career. However teachers were found undecided to measure their abilities and compare them with the tasks assigned to them during school time. Teachers found their payments enough to fulfill their basic needs but they were still not satisfied with their remunerations. They expected something more when they compare their assigned tasks with their payments. Teachers were undecided about their social relationships. Some teachers thought that they are more reserved from other people in the society whereas few teachers sensed themselves amiable towards others. They were also unsure about their value in the heart of their co-workers. A good chunk of them thought that they are unvalued by their colleagues. Teachers were also undecided to think that they get easily irritated by minor problems in the school. They thought that they support others in accomplishment of their jobs. Job burnout is still felt by teachers. They thought that they become frustrated with few parts of their jobs in the school. They did feel emotional exhaustion during their work at 34
  • 35. school. They thought that they feel lack of energy sometimes. Teachers were undecided about thinking negatively towards their jobs. Working environment is also a factor of job burnout. Teachers though felt that all kinds of facilities are available in the school for teaching but classrooms are not properly decorated. Teachers though found themselves comfortable in the setting environment of the school. Teaching as profession was highly regarded by teachers. They thought that teaching has added to their self-respect and gave them the requisite reverence in the society. They felt immense proud to be teacher compared to any other profession. They also thought that teachers are highly venerated in the society. Objective No. 1: To find out the factors of job burnout in Working Folks Grammar Schools system in district Mardan Overall mean value 3.71 of Table No. 25 shows that respondents found themselves satisfied with their current profession. Highest mean value 4.76 reveals that they plan their lessons before entering into classrooms. Overall mean value 3.47 of Table No. 26 shows that they are under work overload. Mean value of 3.18 shows that the respondents found themselves under an unkind stress during their work in school. (Table No. 8) Whereas they were found undecided when they were asked whether assigned tasks match their abilities or not with a mean value of 2.62. (Table No. 9) This reveals that work overload was the reason of their responses. Overall mean value 3.38 of Table No. 27 shows that respondents think that their current salary fulfills their needs. But mean value 3.16 reveals that they feel they are not receiving what are expected to be out the current job and they have higher expectations from their jobs. (Table No. 10) Overall mean value 2.63 of Table No. 28 shows that respondents were found undecided whether mutual support between them is good or bad. This shows lack of social support between them. Mean value of 2.42 shows that they are undecided whether they are supportive or less supportive towards others. 35
  • 36. Overall mean value of 2.91 Table No. 29 shows that most of the respondents think that they feel emotional and physical exhaustion during work. Mean value of 3.2 shows that respondents become emotionally or physically exhausted and they feel lack of energy during their work in the school. (Table No. 17) Mean value of 3.08 shows that respondents become frustrated with some parts of their jobs in the school. (Table No. 16) Respondents were also not happy with the working environment. Overall mean value of 3.47 of Table No. 30 shows that most of the respondents think that their classrooms are not fit for teaching learning process. 3.68 mean value shows that most of the respondents thought that there classrooms are not properly decorated with what should be there for teaching learning process. (Table No. 20) Hence this objective was achieved by finding the factors of job burnout in WFGS system in district Mardan that are work overload, physical and emotional exhaustion, high expectations and stressed working environment. Objective No. 2: To rank the factors of job burnout according to their intensity in the selected schools. Factors of job burnout can be ranked from higher intensity to lower intensity in the following way; 1) The overall mean value of 2.63 of social and mutual support towards other coworkers shows that most of the respondents do not know how to cooperate with each other. Therefore lack of cooperation among co-workers was revealed and be the most effective factor. 2) Emotional or physical exhaustion was found to be the second most important factor that affects job satisfaction of teachers in WFGS system in district Mardan as revealed by overall mean value of 2.91. 3) High expectations of teachers from their jobs were found to be the third most important factor influencing teachers’ jobs at school in the same institutions. Overall mean value of 3.38 reveals that they expect more what they get from their job currently. 36
  • 37. 4) Work overload and was found to be the fourth most affective factor of job burnout in the WFGS system in district Mardan. Overall mean value of 3.47 reveals that they respondents feel that they are under unkind of stress during work. 5) Stressed working environment was found to be the last most effective factor of job burnout in WFGS system in Mardan. Overall mean value reveals that teachers were not satisfied with their classroom. Objective No. 3: To pinpoint ways of improvement adopted by other similar organizations. It is evident from the literature review that different reforms have been introduced by similar organizations to reduce job burnout in them. To minimize the effect of work overload similar system of schools have made it sure to maintain a balance between curricular, co-curricular and extra-curricular activities in the school. Some residential institutions have reduced their curricular activities to only 30% per day. Other institutions have introduced different festivals to promote social relationships between co-workers. Classrooms in most modern institutions are usually well-decorated with curriculum related materials. Objective No. 4: To give recommendations for improvement in the WFGS system. To reduce work overload teachers must not be involved in non-teaching or administrative jobs, records maintenance of students at school level, section heads, housemasters, Master of day, etc. Specialized persons should be given these tasks whereas teachers must do only their teaching related activities. Classrooms must be properly decorated that can enhance both its attractiveness and productivity in learning. Classrooms can be decorated with subject related materials, i.e. charts, models, maps, pictures, etc. Teachers should also be involved in extra-curricular activities in the school to alleviate physical and emotional exhaustion. Remuneration should be at the right time in the right amount to all teachers as compared to any other organizations of different sector. Regular events of mirth should be celebrated in the school to promote social relationships among all employees of the institution. 37
  • 38. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION & LIMITATIONS 5.1 Conclusion: This study elaborated that teachers take high interest in their teaching as profession. They highly regard this profession. They think this profession to be the most revered of all professions in their society. They think that they have the social support of the people in local community. They feel proud to be a teacher because it greatly added to their respect in the society. They therefore showed intense interest in classroom activities in the school. This process is however hampered by the work overload during the school when teachers are assigned extra tasks which either do not match their abilities or are more challenging to complete in a given time. They found it difficult to check notebooks daily and like extra-curricular activities to be more in the school. They like to get more relaxation during their works at school. Lack of social support among teachers was revealed in this study. Emotional exhaustion was also felt by the teachers mainly due to some unkind stress from their supervisors or executives. They felt that this stress is usually unseen and unknown to them. They find themselves emotionally exhausted during hardwork at school. They find no energy in the few last hours of the school time and therefore demands for recreation in school daily schedule. Though they find their salaries quite attractive but they expect something more when they look at their hardwork they do during school time. 5.2 Recommendations: In the light of the analyzed data, the researcher recommends following few points for implementation by Workers Welfare Board Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; 5.2.1 School time should be made more flexible for both teachers and students. This would help to reduce boredom of doing similar activities in the school. Extra-curricular 38
  • 39. activities should be given their appropriate time in the school daily schedule. Teachers should not be overburdened with frivolous tasks assigned to them. 5.2.2 Supervisor must be democratic towards their teachers. He must give teachers their due regard. Supervisor must be cooperative rather than authoritative towards teachers. He should not think teachers as his subordinates but members of the same team headed by him. Like the evaluation report that supervisor sends about teachers after a specific period, there must be evaluation of the supervisor done by the teachers so that supervisor can know about his discrepancies. 5.2.3 Working environment should be very comfortable for the teachers. Standard schools usually arrange their staffroom very comfortable for the relaxation of teachers. 5.2.4 Regular family events should be celebrated in the school to promote social relationships among all employees of the institution. 5.2.5 Classrooms should be completely decorated with materials that can help in learning. Charts with attractive colours, beautiful figures, simple structures, pictures, etc. can enhance the development of the learners. Beautiful models related to curriculum must be kept in classroom which will assist teachers in explaining abstract concepts. 5.3 Limitations: The findings of this study cannot be generalized to all schools because of the following limitations; 5.3.1 Access to the concerned participants was a bit difficult. Random sampling method was used which do not assure hundred percent participation of all teachers in the study. 5.3.2 Teachers find it difficult to unclose the actual facts. They may have concealed the facts in some responses. They may be more biased towards themselves. 5.3.3 Likert scale was used in preparing questionnaires which puzzled the respondents and they find this scale a bit difficult to understand. They were sometime indecisive to select between the two closely connected responses. 39
  • 40. References: Alimi Baba Gana, Bukar Adda Gana & Kadai.Yabawa Mohammed (2011) An Assessment of Teacher’s Job Satisfaction and Job Performance in Three Selected Secondary Schools of Borno State, Nigeria, Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 28 - 34, 2011, ISSN: 2141 - 4181 Altaf A. & Awan. M.A., (2011). Moderating Affect of Workplace Spirituality on the Relationship of Job Overload and Job Satisfaction. J Bus Ethics (2011) 104:93–99. DOI 10.1007/s10551-011-0891-0. Chen, Junjun (2010) Chinese Middle School Teacher Job Satisfaction and Its Relationships with Teacher Moving, Asia Pacific Educ. Rev. (2010) 11:263–272, DOI 10.1007/s12564-010-9085-1 Demirel Yeltekin, Güler Nuran, Toktamis Aydın (2005) Burnout among High School Teachers in Turkey, Middle East Journal of Family Medicine, 2005; Vol. 3 (3). Retrieved from Springer Science + Business Media. Evans, Linda (2000) The Effects of Educational Change on Morale, Job Satisfaction and Motivation, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands, .Journal of Educational Change 1: 173–192 Federici, Roger A. & Skaalvik , Einar M. (2012) Principal Self-Efficacy: Relations with Burnout, Job Satisfaction and Motivation to Quit, DOI 10.1007/s11218-012-9183-5, Soc Psychol Educ (2012) 15:295–320 Gursel, M., Sunbul, A.M. & Sari, H. (2002). An analysis of burnout and job satisfaction between Turkish headteachers and teachers. Selcuk University, Faculty of Education, Konya, Turkey. European Journal of Psychology of Education2002, Vol. XVII, /I" J, 3545. Hanushek, Eric Alan & Rivkin, Steven G. (2007) Pay, Working Conditions, and Teacher Quality. The Future of Children, Volume 17, Number 1, Spring 2007, pp. 69-86. Published by Princeton University. DOI: 10.1353/foc.2007.0002 40
  • 41. Kumar, Ramesh, Ahmed Jamil & Shaikh Babar Tasneem (2013) Job satisfaction among public health professionals working in public sector: a cross sectional study from Pakistan, Retrieved from http://www.human-resources-health.com/content/11/1/2 Maslach, Christina & Leiter, Michael P. (2008) Early Predictors of Job Burnout and Engagement, Journal of Applied Psychology Vol. 93, No. 3, 498–512, DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.498 Meadow, Kathryn (1981) Burnout in Professionals Working with Deaf Children. Published by Gallaudet University Press. DOI 10.1353/aad.2012.1483 Pugliesi, S. (1999). The Consequences of Emotional Labor: Effects on Work Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Well-Being. (Motivation and Emotion, Vol. 23, No. 2). Retrieved from Springer Science + Business Media. Research in Education, Guru Arjan Dev Institute of Development Studies, Retrieved from http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/29667/ Sadeghi Karim, Amani Javad, & Mahmudi Hojjat (2013) A Structural Model of the Impact of Organizational Culture on Job Satisfaction Among Secondary School Teachers, Asia-Pacific Edu Res, DOI 10.1007/s40299-013-0074-0 Singh, Gursharan Kainth & Kaur, Gurinder (2010) Job Satisfaction: A Challenging Area of Research in Education. MPRA Paper No. 29667, posted 8, April 2011, Retrieved from http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/29667/ Zhongying, SONG (2008) Current Situation of Job Burnout of Junior High School Teachers in Shangqiu Urban Areas and Its Relationship with Social Support, Front. Educ. China 3(2): 295–309, DOI 10.1007/s11516-008-0019-1 41
  • 42. APPENDIX A Questionnaire for teachers in WFG System Schools in District Mardan Project Title: An analytical study on Factors of Job Burnout in Working Folks Grammar Schools System MBA (2.5years) VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY OF PAKISTAN Designation: __________________ Duty Station: ____________________________ BPS: ______________ Total Service: _____________ Address: ___________________________ Qualification (academic):________________ (Professional if any): ___________ Interest: a. I feel that I am in the wrong place/ profession. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed 4. Agreed 5. Strongly b. I start my day with enthusiasm to do something new and good in teaching. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed 4. Agreed 5. Strongly 4. Agreed 5. Strongly 4. Agreed 5. Strongly 4. Agreed 5. Strongly c. I like the extra-curricular activities most. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed d. I plan my lessons before entering into classroom. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed e. I feel boredom to check notebooks daily. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed f. I think my students are taking interest in classroom activities. 42
  • 43. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed 4. Agreed 5. Strongly 4. Agreed 5. Strongly 4. Agreed 5. Strongly 4. Agreed 5. Strongly 4. Agreed 5. Strongly 4. Agreed 5. Strongly 4. Agreed 5. Strongly Workload: a. I am satisfied with the work I do during school time. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed b. I find myself under an unkind level of stress to succeed. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed c. I think that I am given tasks that do not match my ability. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed Remuneration: a. I think that I am not receiving what I claim out of my job. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed b. I receive enough salary to support my expenses. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed Mutual/ Social Support: a. I think myself reserved from others to communicate. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed b. I am misjudged/ unvalued by my co-workers in the school. 43
  • 44. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed 4. Agreed 5. Strongly c. I feel I get easily irritated by minor problems in the school. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed 4. Agreed 5. Strongly d. I am less supportive with people than possibly they are worthy. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed 4. Agreed 5. Strongly 4. Agreed 5. Strongly 4. Agreed 5. Strongly Emotional Exhaustion: a. I become frustrated with parts of my job in the school. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed b. I feel exhausted of emotional or physical energy. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed c. I discover that I am inclined to negative thinking about my job. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed 4. Agreed 5. Strongly 4. Agreed 5. Strongly Working Environment: a. I have all kinds of facilities required for teaching. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed b. I feel that classrooms of my school are not properly decorated. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed 4. Agreed 5. Strongly c. I am not comfortable in the setting environment of my school. 44
  • 45. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed 4. Agreed 5. Strongly Self-Respect: a. I think that teaching as profession has greatly added to my self-respect. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed 4. Agreed 5. Strongly 4. Agreed 5. Strongly 4. Agreed 5. Strongly b. I feel proud of what I am doing as a teacher. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed c. I think that teachers are respected in the society. 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3. Undecided Agreed 45
  • 46. APPENDIX B Respondent # Tabulation of Data INTEREST WORKLOAD IN TR 1 IN TR 2 IN TR 3 IN TR 4 IN TR 5 IN TR 6 1 2 5 4 4 2 4 5 2 2 1 2 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 4 2 3 1 1 5 5 2 5 5 4 4 2 4 1 4 2 4 5 5 4 4 2 5 4 4 6 2 5 5 5 2 7 2 4 1 5 8 1 5 4 9 2 4 10 4 4 REMUNER ATION W W W RE RE OR OR OR M1 M2 K1 K2 K3 EMOTIO NAL EXHAUS TION SOCIAL/ MUTUAL SUPPORT WORKING ENVIRON MENT SELF RESPECT SS 1 SS 2 SS 3 SS 4 EE 1 EE 2 EE 3 W E1 W E2 W E3 SR 1 SR 2 SR 3 4 1 5 4 1 1 4 2 5 4 4 2 5 1 5 4 2 4 1 3 4 4 3 1 5 5 5 5 5 1 1 2 1 1 3 4 5 4 1 5 5 4 5 5 2 2 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 3 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 2 2 5 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 5 2 4 4 5 5 4 5 4 3 3 5 4 3 2 1 3 4 5 2 4 2 5 5 4 1 4 5 4 2 2 2 4 5 4 2 4 2 2 4 4 2 5 5 4 5 4 4 5 3 1 2 4 1 1 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 5 5 5 3 5 2 4 3 2 4 5 3 4 2 5 3 2 2 1 5 5 4 4 3 4 5 5 4 3 4 4 3 3 2 3 4 4 3 4 5 3 3 4 2 4 3 4 46
  • 47. IN TR 1 IN TR 2 IN TR 3 IN TR 4 IN TR 5 IN TR 6 W W W RE RE OR OR OR M1 M2 K1 K2 K3 11 1 4 5 5 1 5 5 2 1 4 12 2 5 5 5 2 4 5 4 3 13 1 5 4 5 5 5 5 3 14 1 5 4 5 5 5 5 15 4 4 4 4 4 4 16 1 4 4 4 2 17 3 4 5 5 18 4 5 2 19 3 4 20 4 21 SS 1 SS 2 SS 3 SS 4 EE 1 EE 2 EE 3 W E1 W E2 W E3 SR 1 SR 2 SR 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 5 2 3 5 4 3 2 1 3 4 5 2 4 2 5 5 2 3 5 5 2 2 1 4 4 4 1 4 2 3 5 5 4 3 4 5 5 2 2 1 4 4 4 1 4 2 3 5 5 4 5 2 2 3 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 4 3 4 3 3 1 4 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 5 3 4 5 4 2 5 5 2 2 5 5 1 2 1 3 3 2 3 2 4 2 5 5 1 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 3 5 4 4 4 5 2 4 2 4 5 1 1 4 2 1 4 4 4 5 5 4 3 5 4 5 3 4 4 4 4 3 2 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 2 4 4 4 2 1 5 4 5 4 5 5 3 4 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 5 5 2 22 2 5 4 4 2 4 5 2 2 1 4 1 5 4 1 1 4 2 5 4 4 2 5 1 23 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 4 2 5 4 2 4 1 3 4 4 3 1 5 5 5 5 5 24 1 1 5 5 2 5 5 4 1 1 2 1 1 3 4 5 4 1 5 5 4 5 5 2 25 2 4 1 4 2 4 5 2 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 3 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 5 47
  • 48. IN TR 1 IN TR 2 IN TR 3 IN TR 4 IN TR 5 IN TR 6 W W W RE RE OR OR OR M1 M2 K1 K2 K3 26 4 4 2 5 4 4 4 4 2 2 27 2 5 5 5 2 4 5 4 3 28 2 4 1 5 1 4 5 4 29 1 5 4 5 4 4 5 30 2 4 3 5 2 4 31 4 4 5 5 4 32 1 4 5 5 33 2 5 5 34 1 5 35 1 36 SS 1 SS 2 SS 3 SS 4 EE 1 EE 2 EE 3 W E1 W E2 W E3 SR 1 SR 2 SR 3 5 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 5 2 4 4 5 5 3 5 4 3 2 1 3 4 5 2 4 2 5 5 4 2 2 2 4 5 4 2 4 2 2 4 4 2 5 5 4 3 1 2 4 1 1 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 5 5 5 3 2 4 5 3 4 2 5 3 2 2 1 5 5 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 2 3 4 4 3 4 5 3 3 4 2 4 3 4 1 5 5 2 1 4 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 5 2 5 2 4 5 4 3 3 5 4 3 2 1 3 4 5 2 4 2 5 5 2 4 5 5 5 5 3 3 5 5 2 2 1 4 4 4 1 4 2 3 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 3 4 5 5 2 2 1 4 4 4 1 4 2 3 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 2 2 3 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 4 3 4 37 1 4 4 4 2 3 3 1 4 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 5 3 4 5 4 38 3 4 5 5 2 5 5 2 2 5 5 1 2 1 3 3 2 3 2 4 2 5 5 1 39 4 5 2 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 40 3 4 3 5 4 4 4 5 2 4 2 4 5 1 1 4 2 1 4 4 4 5 5 4 48
  • 49. IN TR 1 IN TR 2 IN TR 3 IN TR 4 IN TR 5 IN TR 6 W W W RE RE OR OR OR M1 M2 K1 K2 K3 41 4 3 5 4 5 3 4 4 4 4 42 1 5 4 5 4 5 5 3 4 43 2 5 4 4 2 4 5 2 44 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 45 1 1 5 5 2 5 46 2 4 1 4 2 47 4 4 2 5 48 2 5 5 49 2 4 50 1 5 SS 1 SS 2 SS 3 SS 4 EE 1 EE 2 EE 3 W E1 W E2 W E3 SR 1 SR 2 SR 3 3 2 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 5 5 2 2 1 4 1 5 4 1 1 4 2 5 4 4 2 5 1 4 2 5 4 2 4 1 3 4 4 3 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 1 1 2 1 1 3 4 5 4 1 5 5 4 5 5 2 4 5 2 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 3 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 2 2 5 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 5 2 4 4 5 5 5 2 4 5 4 3 3 5 4 3 2 1 3 4 5 2 4 2 5 5 4 1 5 1 4 5 4 2 2 2 4 5 4 2 4 2 2 4 4 2 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 3 1 2 4 1 1 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 5 5 5 49
  • 50. ANNEXURE C INTEREST WORKLOAD INTR1 INTR 2 INTR3 INTR4 INTR5 INTR6 Mean 2 5 4 4 2 4 3.50 5 5 4 5 5 4 4.67 1 1 5 5 2 5 3.17 2 4 1 4 2 4 2.83 4 4 2 5 4 4 3.83 2 5 5 5 2 4 3.83 2 4 1 5 1 4 2.83 1 5 4 5 4 4 3.83 2 4 3 5 2 4 3.33 4 4 5 5 4 3 4.17 1 4 5 5 1 5 3.50 2 5 5 5 2 4 3.83 1 5 4 5 5 5 4.17 1 5 4 5 5 5 4.17 4 4 4 4 4 4 4.00 1 4 4 4 2 3 3.00 3 4 5 5 2 5 4.00 4 5 2 5 4 4 4.00 3 4 3 5 4 4 3.83 4 3 5 4 5 3 4.00 1 5 4 5 4 5 4.00 2 5 4 4 2 4 3.50 5 5 4 5 5 4 4.67 1 1 5 5 2 5 3.17 2 4 1 4 2 4 2.83 4 4 2 5 4 4 3.83 2 5 5 5 2 4 3.83 2 4 1 5 1 4 2.83 1 5 4 5 4 4 3.83 2 4 3 5 2 4 3.33 4 4 5 5 4 3 4.17 1 4 5 5 1 5 3.50 2 5 5 5 2 4 3.83 1 5 4 5 5 5 4.17 1 5 4 5 5 5 4.17 WORK1 WORK2 WORK3 Mean 5 2 2 3.00 5 4 2 3.67 5 4 1 3.33 5 2 4 3.67 4 4 2 3.33 5 4 3 4.00 5 4 2 3.67 5 3 1 3.00 3 2 4 3.00 4 4 3 3.67 5 2 1 2.67 5 4 3 4.00 5 3 3 3.67 5 3 4 4.00 5 2 2 3.00 3 1 4 2.67 5 2 2 3.00 4 4 4 4.00 4 5 2 3.67 4 4 4 4.00 5 3 4 4.00 5 2 2 3.00 5 4 2 3.67 5 4 1 3.33 5 2 4 3.67 4 4 2 3.33 5 4 3 4.00 5 4 2 3.67 5 3 1 3.00 3 2 4 3.00 4 4 3 3.67 5 2 1 2.67 5 4 3 4.00 5 3 3 3.67 5 3 4 4.00 50
  • 51. 4 1 3 4 3 4 1 2 5 1 2 4 2 2 1 4 4 4 5 4 3 5 5 5 1 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 5 2 3 5 4 4 4 5 1 2 5 1 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 4 2 2 4 4 5 4 2 5 2 2 4 2 1 4 2.38 4.22 3.68 4.76 3.08 4.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 3.83 4.00 4.00 3.50 4.67 3.17 2.83 3.83 3.83 2.83 3.83 3.71 4 3 5 4 4 3 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4.14 REMUNERATION REM1 REM2 Mean 1 4 2.50 5 4 4.50 1 2 1.50 4 2 3.00 2 5 3.50 3 5 4.00 2 2 2.00 2 4 3.00 5 3 4.00 3 2 2.50 4 2 3.00 3 5 4.00 5 5 5.00 5 5 5.00 3 4 3.50 2 4 3.00 5 5 5.00 4 4 4.00 4 2 3.00 SOCIAL/ MUTUAL SUPPORT SS1 1 2 1 4 4 4 4 1 4 3 1 4 2 2 2 4 1 4 4 SS2 5 4 1 2 2 3 5 1 2 4 1 3 2 2 2 4 2 4 5 SS3 4 1 3 2 4 2 4 4 5 4 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 SS4 1 3 4 4 4 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 4 4 2 2 3 2 1 Mean 2.75 2.50 2.25 3.00 3.50 2.50 3.75 2.00 3.50 3.50 1.00 2.50 2.25 2.25 2.00 3.00 1.75 3.00 2.75 5 3 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 2 1 2 4 5 4 3 2 4 4 2 4 4 4 3 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 2 2 1 4 2 3 2 1 4.62 3.18 2.62 3.00 2.67 3.00 4.00 3.67 4.00 4.00 3.00 3.67 3.33 3.67 3.33 4.00 3.67 3.00 3.47 EMOTIONAL EXHAUSTION EE1 1 4 5 3 4 3 4 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 2 4 EE2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 2 5 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 4 2 EE3 2 3 1 2 4 5 2 2 1 3 3 5 1 1 2 2 3 4 1 Mean 2.33 3.67 3.33 3.00 3.33 4.00 2.67 2.00 1.67 4.00 2.33 4.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 2.67 3.33 2.33 51
  • 52. 4 2 1 5 1 4 2 3 2 2 5 3 4 3 5 5 3 2 5 4 4 4 2 1 5 1 4 2 3 2 2 3 4 4 4 2 2 5 5 2 4 3 2 2 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 2 3 4 4 4 2 2 5 5 2 4 3.16 3.6 3.50 3.00 2.50 4.50 1.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 2.50 3.00 4.00 5.00 5.00 3.50 3.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 4.50 1.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 2.00 3.00 3.38 2 2 1 2 1 4 4 4 4 1 4 3 1 4 2 2 2 4 1 4 4 2 2 1 2 1 4 4 4 4 1 4 2 5 4 1 2 2 3 5 1 2 4 1 3 2 2 2 4 2 4 5 4 2 5 4 1 2 2 3 5 1 4 2 4 1 3 2 4 2 4 4 5 4 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 4 2 4 1 3 2 4 2 4 4 2 1 1 3 4 4 4 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 4 4 2 2 3 2 1 2 1 1 3 4 4 4 1 2 2 2.66 2.86 2.56 2.42 3.00 1.75 2.75 2.50 2.25 3.00 3.50 2.50 3.75 2.00 3.50 3.50 1.00 2.50 2.25 2.25 2.00 3.00 1.75 3.00 2.75 3.00 1.75 2.75 2.50 2.25 3.00 3.50 2.50 3.75 2.00 2.63 4 2 1 4 5 3 4 3 4 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 2 4 4 2 1 4 5 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 2 5 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 3 1 2 4 5 2 2 1 3 3 5 1 1 2 2 3 4 1 4 2 2 3 1 2 4 5 2 2 3.08 3.12 2.54 4.00 2.00 2.33 3.67 3.33 3.00 3.33 4.00 2.67 2.00 1.67 4.00 2.33 4.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 2.67 3.33 2.33 4.00 2.00 2.33 3.67 3.33 3.00 3.33 4.00 2.67 2.00 2.91 52
  • 53. WORKING ENVIRONMENT WE1 WE2 WE3 Mean 5 4 4 4.33 1 5 5 3.67 5 5 4 4.67 4 4 4 4.00 5 2 4 3.67 2 4 2 2.67 4 4 2 3.33 4 4 2 3.33 5 5 4 4.67 3 4 2 3.00 2 4 2 2.67 2 4 2 2.67 4 2 3 3.00 4 2 3 3.00 4 2 2 2.67 4 5 3 4.00 2 4 2 2.67 4 2 4 3.33 4 4 4 4.00 2 2 4 2.67 4 4 4 4.00 5 4 4 4.33 1 5 5 3.67 5 5 4 4.67 4 4 4 4.00 5 2 4 3.67 2 4 2 2.67 4 4 2 3.33 4 4 2 3.33 5 5 4 4.67 3 4 2 3.00 2 4 2 2.67 2 4 2 2.67 4 2 3 3.00 4 2 3 3.00 4 2 2 2.67 4 5 3 4.00 SR1 2 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 4 5 2 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 SELF RESPECT SR2 SR3 5 1 5 5 5 2 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 3 4 3 4 5 2 5 2 5 4 5 4 3 4 5 4 5 1 4 4 5 4 4 2 5 2 5 1 5 5 5 2 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 3 4 3 4 5 2 5 2 5 4 5 4 3 4 5 4 Mean 2.67 5.00 4.00 4.33 4.67 4.67 4.67 5.00 3.67 3.67 4.00 4.00 4.67 4.67 3.67 4.33 3.67 4.00 4.67 3.33 4.00 2.67 5.00 4.00 4.33 4.67 4.67 4.67 5.00 3.67 3.67 4.00 4.00 4.67 4.67 3.67 4.33 53