Passively Cooled Data Centers (Weec 2009)

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Presented to the World Energy Engineering Conference on November 5th, 2009.

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  • Passively Cooled Data Centers (Weec 2009)

    1. 1. Passively Cooled Data Centers<br />Jamil Scott<br />
    2. 2. Data Center<br />Data Center<br />Key Cause & Effect RelationshipsData Center<br />Data Processing<br />Profits<br />Energy Consumption<br />
    3. 3. Key Cause & Effect RelationshipsData Center (Beneficial Effects Only)<br />Electricity<br />Power Supply<br />Ease of Manufacturing<br />Lower Cost Servers<br />Processor Power<br />Processors<br />Data Processing<br />Data<br />Profits<br />
    4. 4. Key Cause & Effect RelationshipsData Center (With Harmful Effects)<br />Electricity<br />Power Supply<br />Ease of Manufacturing<br />Lower Cost Servers<br />Close Proximity<br />Processor Power<br />Excessive Heat Near Processors<br />Processor Damage<br />Processors<br />Data Processing<br />Excessive Heat In Processors<br />Data<br />Profits<br />
    5. 5. Key Cause & Effect RelationshipsData Center (With Harmful Effects & Counteractions)<br />Electricity<br />Power Supply<br />Ease of Manufacturing<br />Lower Cost Servers<br />Close Proximity<br />Processor Power<br />Excessive Heat Near Processors<br />Processor Damage<br />Processors<br />Data Processing<br />Excessive Heat In Processors<br />Cooling<br />Cooled Air<br />Data<br />Low Density Cooling<br />Profits<br />Electricity Consumption For Cooling<br />HVAC<br />
    6. 6. Ease of Manufacturing<br />Power Supply<br />Key Cause & Effect RelationshipsData Center (Full System View)<br />Electricity<br />Lower Cost Servers<br />Close Proximity<br />Power Supply<br />Ease of Manufacturing<br />Processor Power<br />Excessive Heat Near Processors<br />Processor Damage<br />Data Processing<br />Processors<br />Excessive Heat In Processors<br />Data Processing<br />Cooling<br />Cooled Air<br />Cooling<br />Cooled Air<br />Data<br />Low Density Cooling<br />Profits<br />Electricity Consumption For Cooling<br />HVAC<br />
    7. 7. Cooling Mechanism<br />Cooling is provided to counteract excessive heat, but requires consumption of electricity<br />Current cooling methods rely on cool air for cooling. Air is significantly less dense than processor materials. The disparity between materials makes air cooling relatively inefficient. <br />Form Factor<br />Power supplies are placed in close proximity to processors to provide ease of manufacturing & installation<br />Power supplies generate (and can operate in conditions of) heat in excess of processor limits<br />Processor Construction<br />Current processor construction allows the processor to generate sufficient heat to damage itself.<br />Key System Contradictions<br />Page 7<br />
    8. 8. Find an alternative way to obtain: Cooling that offers the following: <br />Eliminates, reduces, or prevents High Heat Near Processors and Excess Heat in Processors<br />Does not cause Additional Electricity Consumption<br />Does not require HVAC and Air<br />Is not influenced by Low Density Cooling.<br />Proposed Resolutions<br />Eliminate HVAC<br />Use a dense cooling material (water, oil, etc..)<br />Use a dense thermal transfer material (metal, concrete, etc…)<br />Use conduction to move heat away from processor boards<br />Then forced convection with flows other than air<br />Find a beneficial use for the excess heat<br />Power generation power via sterling engine<br />Key System Contradictions(Cooling Mechanism)<br />Page 8<br />
    9. 9. Find an alternative way to provide Processor Power without causing High Heat Near Processors.<br />Proposed Resolution<br />Separate the power supply from the processor boards<br />Provide power through a standardized power bus<br />Provide data through a standardized data bus<br />Find a way to eliminate Rack-based Server.<br />Proposed Resolution<br />Redesign processor boards for:<br />Flush mounting against processor surface<br />Machine (e.g. robot) handling<br />Standardize power and data connections for machine handling<br />Make the data center the ‘rack’<br />Use the thermal transfer structure to provide the mounting surface<br />Minimize space between walls to provide dense processing capacity<br />Key System Contradictions(Form Factor)<br />Page 9<br />
    10. 10. Convection Concept<br />Page 10<br />
    11. 11. What changes will be required?<br />Redesign Processor boards<br />Standardize power connections<br />Standardize data connections<br />Design machine-based board management system<br />Re-engineer data centers<br />Redesign spaces to provide optimum environment for processing components, not humans<br />Data Center becomes the server<br />Walls become the rack and heat transfer mechanism<br />Reuse waste heat<br />Making Passive Cooling a Reality<br />Page 11<br />
    12. 12. Current Processor Board Design<br />Page 12<br />
    13. 13. Ease of Manufacturing<br />Power Supply<br />Key Cause & Effect Relationships(Revisiting the Full System View)<br />Ease of Manufacturing<br />Power Supplyb<br />Electricity<br />Close Proximity<br />Lower Cost Servers<br />Close Proximity<br />Power Supply<br />Ease of Manufacturing<br />Processor Power<br />Excessive Heat Near Processors<br />Processor Damage<br />Data Processing<br />Processors<br />Excessive Heat In Processors<br />Data Processing<br />Passive Cooling<br />Cooling<br />Cooled Air<br />Data<br />Low Density Cooling<br />Profits<br />Electricity Consumption For Cooling<br />HVAC<br />
    14. 14. Key Cause & Effect Relationships(Improved Ideality)<br />Electricity<br />Power Supply<br />Lower Cost Servers<br />Close Proximity<br />Ease of Manufacturing<br />Processor Power<br />Processor Damage<br />Processors<br />Data Processing<br />Excessive Heat In Processors<br />Passive Cooling<br />Data<br />Profits<br />
    15. 15. Separating the power supply from the processors allows each to operate in their own optimized environment<br />Flush mounting the processor boards allows natural convection to remove excess heat without electricity consumption<br />Redesigning processor boards for flush mounting & machine handling allows re-thinking board design<br />High speed inter-board communications (optics, etc…)<br />Redesigning processor boards allows re-thinking of data center architecture<br />Data Center is the server<br />Significant increase in processor density in proportion to floor space<br />Dynamic reallocation of processing capacity<br />Enhanced security by optimizing the environment for systems rather than people<br />Very tight tolerances between boards<br />Elimination of air (to reduce thermal radiation)<br />Reuse thermal energy<br />Benefits<br />Page 15<br />
    16. 16. Rethinking data center, processor, and server designs will open up a new and exciting period in information processing.<br />Meeting the processing needs of the future requires new thinking<br />Future data centers must be designed to host processors, not people.<br />Future processors must use less energy and produce less heat<br />Processing components must operate in optimized environments<br />Conclusion<br />Page 16<br />
    17. 17. Jamil Scott<br />Principal Information Systems Engineer<br />jamil@mitre.org<br />(703) 983-5709<br />Dr. Thomas J. Heiman<br />Senior Information Systems Engineer<br />theiman@mitre.org<br />(703) 983-2951<br />Team Members<br />Page 17<br />
    18. 18. Questions<br />Page 18<br />

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