Free Open Source as Technology Transfer Tool in the Arab world


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Free Open Source as Technology Transfer Tool in the Arab world.
Master Thesis

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  • Free Open Source as Technology Transfer Tool in the Arab world

    1. 1. Free Open Source as Technology Transfer tool in the Arab world Jamil Khatib
    2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Transfer (TT) </li></ul><ul><li>Free Open Source (FOS) </li></ul><ul><li>FOS TT Model </li></ul><ul><li>FOS TT in the Arab world </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions/Recommendations </li></ul>
    3. 3. Arab World
    4. 4. Arab world Innovation System Source: multiple sources available in the text
    5. 5. Major Problems <ul><li>Absence of National ICT R&D funding </li></ul><ul><li>Technology industry based on import & use (No development) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of links between Research/Education and industry </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Drain </li></ul>
    6. 6. Core Questions <ul><li>The study will discuss the Effectiveness of FOS related processes to improve the cooperation between the industry and Research institutes in the Arab world </li></ul><ul><li>What can be learned from FOS for technology transfer in the Arab world? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Transfer (TT) </li></ul><ul><li>Free Open Source (FOS) </li></ul><ul><li>FOS TT Model </li></ul><ul><li>FOS TT in the Arab world </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions/Recommendations </li></ul>
    8. 8. Technology Transfer (TT) <ul><li>“ The conventional conception of technology transfer is that it is a processes through which the results of basic and applied research are put into use by receptors” (Rogers, 2003, p.150) </li></ul><ul><li>TT main Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry Science Relation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and Know-how component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-way of information flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industry ↔ Research </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Approaches Source: (OECD,2000,p.165) “ Innovation and transfer are recognized to be complex social activities with communication processes at the core of them” (Hodgson, 2002, p.1).
    10. 10. Some TT Measures / effectiveness <ul><li>Shared licenses, publications & contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Clear rewards system for cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Contact with knowledge holders </li></ul>
    11. 11. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Transfer (TT) </li></ul><ul><li>Free Open Source (FOS) </li></ul><ul><li>FOS TT Model </li></ul><ul><li>FOS TT in the Arab world </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions/Recommendations </li></ul>
    12. 12. FOS (Software) philosophy <ul><li>Cheap software + community of volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redistribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Access (open source code) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop, Modify and Improve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joining/leaving the development </li></ul></ul>Source FSF and OSI
    13. 13. FOS characteristics <ul><li>FOS models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronics Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social activities with sharing culture </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralized Development </li></ul><ul><li>Users’ feedback integrity </li></ul><ul><li>IP rights  Copyright </li></ul>
    14. 14. Community <ul><li>Internet based </li></ul><ul><li>Network of developers & users </li></ul><ul><li>Common interest </li></ul><ul><li>Users are co-developers and testers </li></ul><ul><li>Informal and lightweight management </li></ul>
    15. 15. FOS Process characteristics <ul><li>Release early and often </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency & Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Shared testing and development </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback and discussion (users and developers) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Evaluation <ul><li>Development vs. Users Observability </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project completion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and shape of the community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social trust building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Knowledge creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction (Bugs reporting and fixes) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Motivations / Internal factors <ul><li>Knowledge sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition among peers </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and skills development </li></ul><ul><li>Self satisfaction and fulfillment through achievments </li></ul>
    18. 18. Motivations / External incentives <ul><li>Governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free access to new information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase personal value (self marketing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better future positions </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Motivations / External incentives <ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User Involvement in project definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost reduction  (R&D and support) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Channels with users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to external knowledge and skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Business models </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Transfer (TT) </li></ul><ul><li>Free Open Source (FOS) </li></ul><ul><li>FOS TT Model </li></ul><ul><li>FOS TT in the Arab world </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions/Recommendations </li></ul>
    21. 21. “ A substantial part of technology transfer occurs outside the technology transfer market itself. That is technical knowledge spreads internationally by noncommercial forms means, and it may even be transmitted free of charge .” (UNIDO, 1996, p.21)
    22. 22. FOS TT shared concepts TT FOS Knowledge movement Main component Motivator Direct interaction Effective TT Development Style Free info access Speed up Main concept Feedback/ multi-way Needed Within community
    23. 23. TT FOS Adoption <ul><li>Direct FOS adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Common research problem for large participants </li></ul><ul><li>Common communication infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Open membership (all levels) </li></ul><ul><li>Early release/share of information/results </li></ul>
    24. 24. Advantages & incentives <ul><li>Early publication with commercialization </li></ul><ul><li>More information for startups </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller Firms </li></ul><ul><li>Resource sharing </li></ul>
    25. 25. Measures <ul><li>Diversity of participants </li></ul><ul><li>Community size </li></ul><ul><li>Size and quality of exchanged information </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge created </li></ul>
    26. 26. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Transfer (TT) </li></ul><ul><li>Free Open Source (FOS) </li></ul><ul><li>FOS TT Model </li></ul><ul><li>FOS TT in the Arab world </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions/Recommendations </li></ul>
    27. 27. FOS in the Arab world <ul><li>Still in infancy stage </li></ul><ul><li>Small community </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on use and Translation not development </li></ul><ul><li>No clear national strategies for FOS </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of promotion to FOS products </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge of existence </li></ul>
    28. 28. Arab world TT <ul><li>No (weak) links between industry & uni. </li></ul><ul><li>Curricula based on international unis. </li></ul><ul><li>Researches based on personal objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Weak research cooperation with outside </li></ul>
    29. 29. FOS developing countries <ul><li>Local research and innovation promotion </li></ul><ul><li>No reliance on external support or fund </li></ul><ul><li>New sources of information </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage the local skills </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize investment risks </li></ul><ul><li>(Dravis,2003, pp.20–22) </li></ul>
    30. 30. FOS TT Advantages <ul><li>Low cost tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No need for special Institute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transaction cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Short adoption time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal communication/ No bureaucracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wider network of knowledge sources </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Drain effect minimization </li></ul>
    31. 31. Advantages for Arab world <ul><li>Unemployment effect minimization </li></ul><ul><li>Uni. (No industry cooperation)  FOS </li></ul><ul><li>International recognition of researchers </li></ul><ul><li>investment risk minimization (ready products) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost minimization through Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Business model (minimum R&D based) </li></ul>
    32. 32. Difficulties <ul><li>Weak ICT infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Weak knowledge in FOS </li></ul><ul><li>Small FOS community </li></ul><ul><li>Culture of low degree of general freedom </li></ul>
    33. 33. Conclusions <ul><li>Time & speed efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Need for strategic plans & policies </li></ul><ul><li>Social values in education & industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valuing individual participations (Reward system) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>Thanks for your time and interest </li></ul>