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The operational Amplifier (Part 2) Floyd 7 ed For Part 1 Visit below link https://www.slideshare.net/jamilahmedk1/the-operational-amplifier-part-1

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1.1 Generation of alternating voltage, phasor representation of sinusoidal qu...

This document provides a summary of key topics from the Unit 1 presentation of the Electric Circuits course. It discusses:
1) How alternating voltage can be generated by rotating a coil or magnetic field. The voltage induced will be sinusoidal.
2) Phasor representation is introduced as a simplified way to represent sinusoidal quantities by a rotating vector rather than a waveform.
3) Important terms are defined including frequency, time period, amplitude, RMS value, average value, peak value, and phase difference.
4) Calculations are shown for peak, RMS, and average values of a sinusoidal current. Phase and phasor representation are also demonstrated numerically.

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER using MOSFET

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER using MOSFET, Modes of operation,
The MOS differential pair with a common-mode input voltage ,Common mode rejection,gain, advantages and disadvantages.

Basic op amp circuits

The document discusses various applications of operational amplifiers as comparators and other circuits. It describes how op-amps can be used as zero-level detectors, nonzero-level detectors, and how hysteresis can reduce noise effects in comparators. It also discusses summing amplifiers, averaging amplifiers, scaling adders, and how op-amps can be configured as integrators and differentiators.

Op amp comparator

An operational amplifier (op-amp) can function as a voltage comparator due to its high gain and balanced difference input. When the non-inverting input is at a higher voltage than the inverting input, the op-amp outputs the most positive voltage, and when the non-inverting input drops below the inverting input, it outputs the most negative voltage. However, using an op-amp as a comparator has disadvantages compared to a dedicated comparator, such as slower propagation delays, lack of internal hysteresis, increased current without feedback, and compatibility issues with digital logic.

Two port network

This document provides information about two-port network parameters including Z, Y, H, and ABCD parameters. It defines a two-port network as having two ports for input and output with two terminals pairs. The document explains that the parameters relate the terminal voltages and currents and can be determined by setting the input or output port to open or short circuit conditions. Examples are given to show how to calculate the parameters for simple circuits. Key points are summarized in less than 3 sentences.

operational amplifiers

Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are high-gain amplifiers used as building blocks in analog electronic design. Key characteristics of op-amps include high input impedance, low output impedance, and very high voltage gain. Op-amps are often used in negative feedback configurations which allow the closed-loop gain to be determined by external resistors independently of the op-amp's open-loop gain. Common op-amp configurations include inverting, non-inverting, difference amplifier, integrator, and differentiator circuits.

Operational Amplifiers

This Presentation provides the full details of Operational Amplifiers, It`s types , construction..everything.

Presentation on Op-amp by Sourabh kumar

Visit Andro Root ( http:\\www.androroot.com ) for Tech. news and Smartphones.
Presentation on Op-amp(Operational Amplifier) by Sourabh kumar. B.tech Presentation,

1.1 Generation of alternating voltage, phasor representation of sinusoidal qu...

This document provides a summary of key topics from the Unit 1 presentation of the Electric Circuits course. It discusses:
1) How alternating voltage can be generated by rotating a coil or magnetic field. The voltage induced will be sinusoidal.
2) Phasor representation is introduced as a simplified way to represent sinusoidal quantities by a rotating vector rather than a waveform.
3) Important terms are defined including frequency, time period, amplitude, RMS value, average value, peak value, and phase difference.
4) Calculations are shown for peak, RMS, and average values of a sinusoidal current. Phase and phasor representation are also demonstrated numerically.

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER using MOSFET

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER using MOSFET, Modes of operation,
The MOS differential pair with a common-mode input voltage ,Common mode rejection,gain, advantages and disadvantages.

Basic op amp circuits

The document discusses various applications of operational amplifiers as comparators and other circuits. It describes how op-amps can be used as zero-level detectors, nonzero-level detectors, and how hysteresis can reduce noise effects in comparators. It also discusses summing amplifiers, averaging amplifiers, scaling adders, and how op-amps can be configured as integrators and differentiators.

Op amp comparator

An operational amplifier (op-amp) can function as a voltage comparator due to its high gain and balanced difference input. When the non-inverting input is at a higher voltage than the inverting input, the op-amp outputs the most positive voltage, and when the non-inverting input drops below the inverting input, it outputs the most negative voltage. However, using an op-amp as a comparator has disadvantages compared to a dedicated comparator, such as slower propagation delays, lack of internal hysteresis, increased current without feedback, and compatibility issues with digital logic.

Two port network

This document provides information about two-port network parameters including Z, Y, H, and ABCD parameters. It defines a two-port network as having two ports for input and output with two terminals pairs. The document explains that the parameters relate the terminal voltages and currents and can be determined by setting the input or output port to open or short circuit conditions. Examples are given to show how to calculate the parameters for simple circuits. Key points are summarized in less than 3 sentences.

operational amplifiers

Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are high-gain amplifiers used as building blocks in analog electronic design. Key characteristics of op-amps include high input impedance, low output impedance, and very high voltage gain. Op-amps are often used in negative feedback configurations which allow the closed-loop gain to be determined by external resistors independently of the op-amp's open-loop gain. Common op-amp configurations include inverting, non-inverting, difference amplifier, integrator, and differentiator circuits.

Operational Amplifiers

This Presentation provides the full details of Operational Amplifiers, It`s types , construction..everything.

Presentation on Op-amp by Sourabh kumar

Visit Andro Root ( http:\\www.androroot.com ) for Tech. news and Smartphones.
Presentation on Op-amp(Operational Amplifier) by Sourabh kumar. B.tech Presentation,

TPS720xx: LDO Linear Regulators

Technical review of TPS20xx low dropout voltage regulators and detailed discussions of internal operation

Circuit Analysis – DC Circuits

I = U/R = 1,5 V / 20 Ω = 0,075 A = 75 mA
So the current I is 75 mA.

Differential amplifier

it will be useful for engineering students in analog electronics subject. this ppt is showing basic of differential amplifier.

Rectifiers (ac dc)

This document discusses power electronics and various types of rectifiers. It covers topics such as diode rectifiers, controlled rectifiers, rectifier performance parameters, single-phase and three-phase rectifiers, and applications of single-phase controlled rectifiers in battery chargers. Diode and thyristor-based rectifiers are classified as uncontrolled and controlled rectifiers. Key performance parameters discussed include form factor, efficiency, ripple factor, and transformer utilization factor. Circuit diagrams and voltage and current waveforms of half-wave, full-wave, and bridge rectifiers are presented.

Operational Amplifiers

The document discusses operational amplifiers and their ideal characteristics and common configurations. It describes the ideal op-amp as having infinite input impedance, zero output impedance, infinite gain, and zero offset between the input terminals. It then explains the inverting and non-inverting amplifier configurations using two resistors, and derives their closed-loop voltage gain formulas. Finally, it introduces the voltage follower configuration using one resistor with very high value and no feedback resistor, providing unity voltage gain.

Regions of operation of bjt and mosfet

This document discusses the regions of operation for bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). It defines the three main regions for both device types as cutoff, active/triode, and saturation. The characteristics and criteria for each region are described. Examples of biasing circuits are provided to illustrate how BJTs and MOSFETs can be biased into the different regions of operation. Transistor symbols and the relationships between terminal voltages and currents are also reviewed.

Feedback amplifier

This document discusses feedback amplifiers and their classifications. It describes four types of amplifiers: voltage amplifiers, current amplifiers, transconductance amplifiers, and transresistance amplifiers. It explains their characteristics and how they are defined based on input and output resistances. The document also introduces the concept of feedback, describing the basic components of a feedback loop including the signal source, feedback network, and sampling network. Feedback modifies the characteristics of an amplifier by combining a portion of the output signal with the external input signal.

Operational Amplifier

The basic Op-amp construction is of a 3-terminal device, with 2-inputs and 1-output, (excluding power connections). • An Operational Amplifier operates from either a dual positive ( +V ) and an corresponding negative ( -V ) supply, or they can operate from a single DC supply voltage.

Collector to base bias & self bias

The document summarizes the collector-to-base bias circuit with voltage feedback (voltage divider bias). It provides the following key points:
1) Derives expressions for the stability factors S, S', and S" by taking derivatives of the key equations for the circuit.
2) S is approximately 1, providing good stability, due to the resistor RE which provides negative feedback.
3) The voltage divider formed by R1 and R2 provides bias voltage VTH, while RE improves stability by reducing the effect of variations in the collector current IC.

Transistor Amplifier Configuration.ppt

The document discusses different configurations of bipolar transistors in electronic circuits: common base, common emitter, and common collector. Each configuration has different characteristics in terms of current gain, voltage gain, power gain, input/output impedance, and phase reversal. The common base configuration has voltage gain but no current gain. The common emitter configuration has both current and voltage gain. The common collector configuration has current gain but no voltage gain.

Analog CMOS design

The document discusses operational amplifiers (op-amps) and differential amplifiers. It provides details on the basic requirements and characteristics of op-amps such as high gain, differential inputs, and high input/low output impedance. It describes the typical internal structure of an op-amp including differential, gain, and output stages. Ideal op-amp assumptions and linear op-amp operation in inverting and non-inverting configurations are also covered. The document then discusses differential amplifiers, including their advantages and applications in analog circuits. It provides details on a proposed CMOS differential amplifier design and its high common-mode rejection ratio.

5. differential amplifier

This document discusses differential amplifiers, which measure the difference between two input signals and offer advantages like noise immunity. It describes the basic differential pair circuit and how loading it with resistors can improve linearity and differential gain. The document also covers analyzing differential amplifiers, including their differential and common-mode gains, as well as more advanced topics like using MOS loads and the Gilbert cell configuration.

Hybrid model for Transistor, small signal Analysis

The document discusses transistor hybrid parameters (h-parameters) and their use in analyzing transistor circuits. It defines the four h-parameters - h11, h12, h21, h22 - for a two-port network. It describes how h-parameters are defined for common emitter, base, and collector configurations. The hybrid model allows representing a transistor as a dependent current source and voltage-controlled dependent voltage/current sources. The parameters help analyze small signal amplifiers by obtaining their current gain, input resistance, voltage gain, and output resistance.

Op amp tutorial-1

Operational amplifiers, or op amps, are devices that amplify input voltages or currents to produce larger output signals. They have very high gain and are used to build analog circuits. The four main types are voltage amplifiers, current amplifiers, transconductance amplifiers, and transresistance amplifiers. Voltage amplifiers, also called voltage controlled voltage sources (VCVS), can be configured non-inverting or inverting. In a non-inverting configuration, the output voltage is equal to the input voltage plus the input voltage multiplied by the feedback resistance. In an inverting configuration, the output voltage is equal to the negative input voltage multiplied by the feedback resistance divided by the input resistance.

Operational Amplifiers And Logic Gates

Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are linear integrated circuits used in applications such as communication and medical electronics to sense and amplify signals. An op-amp consists of transistors, resistors, and a capacitor, and has two inputs and a single output. There are several configurations of op-amps including inverting amplifiers, non-inverting amplifiers, summing amplifiers, and difference amplifiers. Logic gates are digital circuits with one or more inputs and one output that processes digital signals. Common logic gates include OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR, and EXOR gates.

Ppt on sawtooth wave form generator

This document discusses the sawtooth wave and its generator circuit. It defines a sawtooth wave as a non-sinusoidal triangular waveform with unequal rise and fall times. The general circuit for a sawtooth wave generator is presented, using components like inverters, transistors, capacitors and resistors. The working process is explained as the capacitor charges through a resistor during one cycle and discharges quickly through a transistor during the next cycle. Applications of sawtooth waves include sound generation in music synthesizers and generating raster scans for CRT displays.

Electronic devices-and-circuit-theory-10th-ed-boylestad-chapter-2

This document discusses various diode applications including load line analysis, rectifier circuits, clipping circuits, and voltage multiplier circuits. Rectifier circuits such as half-wave, full-wave, and voltage doublers are used to convert AC to DC power. Clipping and clamping circuits use diodes to limit output voltages. Voltage multiplier circuits step up voltage using combinations of diodes and capacitors. Practical applications include battery charging, overvoltage protection, and setting reference voltages.

dc to dc-converter

This document discusses DC-DC converters known as choppers. It describes two types - step-down choppers and step-up choppers. A step-down chopper uses a thyristor switch to reduce input voltage to a lower output voltage for a load. Waveforms of the output voltage and current are shown. Different classes of choppers - Classes A through E - are defined based on the triggering schemes of the thyristors used. An example calculation is given to determine thyristor conduction period based on input voltage, output voltage, and operating frequency.

Slide bab op amp

The document discusses operational amplifiers (op-amps), including:
- An op-amp is a differential amplifier with very high gain used to amplify signals and perform mathematical operations. It has two inputs (inverting and non-inverting) and one output.
- An op-amp works by comparing the difference between its two input voltages and amplifying that difference by a very large amount, around 200,000 times.
- An op-amp has very high input impedance, low output impedance, and can provide either voltage or current gain depending on the configuration. It is used to build various circuits like filters, oscillators, and instruments.

Op amp basics

The document provides information about operational amplifiers (op-amps). It defines an op-amp as a high-gain amplifier consisting of differential and other stages used to amplify signals and perform math functions. Key characteristics are very high differential gain, high input impedance, low output impedance. The document outlines op-amp components like inputs, outputs, power supplies. It describes stages within an op-amp like the input, intermediate, level shifting and output stages. Performance parameters discussed include input offset voltage, input resistance, open loop gain, output resistance and more. Closed loop and open loop op-amp configurations are explained.

Oscillators

This document describes different types of oscillators. It discusses oscillators that use positive feedback to generate AC signals at a desired frequency. It provides block diagrams and explanations of RC phase shift oscillators, Wein bridge oscillators, Hartley oscillators, Colpitts oscillators, and Clapp oscillators. Equations for calculating the oscillation frequency of each type of oscillator are also presented.

Op amp

This presentation contains the basic information you need to know about operational amplifier.
I have tried to cover all the basic info. If anything is left out or you have any suggestions i will appreciate it.

TPS720xx: LDO Linear Regulators

Technical review of TPS20xx low dropout voltage regulators and detailed discussions of internal operation

Circuit Analysis – DC Circuits

I = U/R = 1,5 V / 20 Ω = 0,075 A = 75 mA
So the current I is 75 mA.

Differential amplifier

it will be useful for engineering students in analog electronics subject. this ppt is showing basic of differential amplifier.

Rectifiers (ac dc)

This document discusses power electronics and various types of rectifiers. It covers topics such as diode rectifiers, controlled rectifiers, rectifier performance parameters, single-phase and three-phase rectifiers, and applications of single-phase controlled rectifiers in battery chargers. Diode and thyristor-based rectifiers are classified as uncontrolled and controlled rectifiers. Key performance parameters discussed include form factor, efficiency, ripple factor, and transformer utilization factor. Circuit diagrams and voltage and current waveforms of half-wave, full-wave, and bridge rectifiers are presented.

Operational Amplifiers

The document discusses operational amplifiers and their ideal characteristics and common configurations. It describes the ideal op-amp as having infinite input impedance, zero output impedance, infinite gain, and zero offset between the input terminals. It then explains the inverting and non-inverting amplifier configurations using two resistors, and derives their closed-loop voltage gain formulas. Finally, it introduces the voltage follower configuration using one resistor with very high value and no feedback resistor, providing unity voltage gain.

Regions of operation of bjt and mosfet

This document discusses the regions of operation for bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). It defines the three main regions for both device types as cutoff, active/triode, and saturation. The characteristics and criteria for each region are described. Examples of biasing circuits are provided to illustrate how BJTs and MOSFETs can be biased into the different regions of operation. Transistor symbols and the relationships between terminal voltages and currents are also reviewed.

Feedback amplifier

This document discusses feedback amplifiers and their classifications. It describes four types of amplifiers: voltage amplifiers, current amplifiers, transconductance amplifiers, and transresistance amplifiers. It explains their characteristics and how they are defined based on input and output resistances. The document also introduces the concept of feedback, describing the basic components of a feedback loop including the signal source, feedback network, and sampling network. Feedback modifies the characteristics of an amplifier by combining a portion of the output signal with the external input signal.

Operational Amplifier

The basic Op-amp construction is of a 3-terminal device, with 2-inputs and 1-output, (excluding power connections). • An Operational Amplifier operates from either a dual positive ( +V ) and an corresponding negative ( -V ) supply, or they can operate from a single DC supply voltage.

Collector to base bias & self bias

The document summarizes the collector-to-base bias circuit with voltage feedback (voltage divider bias). It provides the following key points:
1) Derives expressions for the stability factors S, S', and S" by taking derivatives of the key equations for the circuit.
2) S is approximately 1, providing good stability, due to the resistor RE which provides negative feedback.
3) The voltage divider formed by R1 and R2 provides bias voltage VTH, while RE improves stability by reducing the effect of variations in the collector current IC.

Transistor Amplifier Configuration.ppt

The document discusses different configurations of bipolar transistors in electronic circuits: common base, common emitter, and common collector. Each configuration has different characteristics in terms of current gain, voltage gain, power gain, input/output impedance, and phase reversal. The common base configuration has voltage gain but no current gain. The common emitter configuration has both current and voltage gain. The common collector configuration has current gain but no voltage gain.

Analog CMOS design

The document discusses operational amplifiers (op-amps) and differential amplifiers. It provides details on the basic requirements and characteristics of op-amps such as high gain, differential inputs, and high input/low output impedance. It describes the typical internal structure of an op-amp including differential, gain, and output stages. Ideal op-amp assumptions and linear op-amp operation in inverting and non-inverting configurations are also covered. The document then discusses differential amplifiers, including their advantages and applications in analog circuits. It provides details on a proposed CMOS differential amplifier design and its high common-mode rejection ratio.

5. differential amplifier

This document discusses differential amplifiers, which measure the difference between two input signals and offer advantages like noise immunity. It describes the basic differential pair circuit and how loading it with resistors can improve linearity and differential gain. The document also covers analyzing differential amplifiers, including their differential and common-mode gains, as well as more advanced topics like using MOS loads and the Gilbert cell configuration.

Hybrid model for Transistor, small signal Analysis

The document discusses transistor hybrid parameters (h-parameters) and their use in analyzing transistor circuits. It defines the four h-parameters - h11, h12, h21, h22 - for a two-port network. It describes how h-parameters are defined for common emitter, base, and collector configurations. The hybrid model allows representing a transistor as a dependent current source and voltage-controlled dependent voltage/current sources. The parameters help analyze small signal amplifiers by obtaining their current gain, input resistance, voltage gain, and output resistance.

Op amp tutorial-1

Operational amplifiers, or op amps, are devices that amplify input voltages or currents to produce larger output signals. They have very high gain and are used to build analog circuits. The four main types are voltage amplifiers, current amplifiers, transconductance amplifiers, and transresistance amplifiers. Voltage amplifiers, also called voltage controlled voltage sources (VCVS), can be configured non-inverting or inverting. In a non-inverting configuration, the output voltage is equal to the input voltage plus the input voltage multiplied by the feedback resistance. In an inverting configuration, the output voltage is equal to the negative input voltage multiplied by the feedback resistance divided by the input resistance.

Operational Amplifiers And Logic Gates

Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are linear integrated circuits used in applications such as communication and medical electronics to sense and amplify signals. An op-amp consists of transistors, resistors, and a capacitor, and has two inputs and a single output. There are several configurations of op-amps including inverting amplifiers, non-inverting amplifiers, summing amplifiers, and difference amplifiers. Logic gates are digital circuits with one or more inputs and one output that processes digital signals. Common logic gates include OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR, and EXOR gates.

Ppt on sawtooth wave form generator

This document discusses the sawtooth wave and its generator circuit. It defines a sawtooth wave as a non-sinusoidal triangular waveform with unequal rise and fall times. The general circuit for a sawtooth wave generator is presented, using components like inverters, transistors, capacitors and resistors. The working process is explained as the capacitor charges through a resistor during one cycle and discharges quickly through a transistor during the next cycle. Applications of sawtooth waves include sound generation in music synthesizers and generating raster scans for CRT displays.

Electronic devices-and-circuit-theory-10th-ed-boylestad-chapter-2

This document discusses various diode applications including load line analysis, rectifier circuits, clipping circuits, and voltage multiplier circuits. Rectifier circuits such as half-wave, full-wave, and voltage doublers are used to convert AC to DC power. Clipping and clamping circuits use diodes to limit output voltages. Voltage multiplier circuits step up voltage using combinations of diodes and capacitors. Practical applications include battery charging, overvoltage protection, and setting reference voltages.

dc to dc-converter

This document discusses DC-DC converters known as choppers. It describes two types - step-down choppers and step-up choppers. A step-down chopper uses a thyristor switch to reduce input voltage to a lower output voltage for a load. Waveforms of the output voltage and current are shown. Different classes of choppers - Classes A through E - are defined based on the triggering schemes of the thyristors used. An example calculation is given to determine thyristor conduction period based on input voltage, output voltage, and operating frequency.

Slide bab op amp

The document discusses operational amplifiers (op-amps), including:
- An op-amp is a differential amplifier with very high gain used to amplify signals and perform mathematical operations. It has two inputs (inverting and non-inverting) and one output.
- An op-amp works by comparing the difference between its two input voltages and amplifying that difference by a very large amount, around 200,000 times.
- An op-amp has very high input impedance, low output impedance, and can provide either voltage or current gain depending on the configuration. It is used to build various circuits like filters, oscillators, and instruments.

Op amp basics

The document provides information about operational amplifiers (op-amps). It defines an op-amp as a high-gain amplifier consisting of differential and other stages used to amplify signals and perform math functions. Key characteristics are very high differential gain, high input impedance, low output impedance. The document outlines op-amp components like inputs, outputs, power supplies. It describes stages within an op-amp like the input, intermediate, level shifting and output stages. Performance parameters discussed include input offset voltage, input resistance, open loop gain, output resistance and more. Closed loop and open loop op-amp configurations are explained.

TPS720xx: LDO Linear Regulators

TPS720xx: LDO Linear Regulators

Circuit Analysis – DC Circuits

Circuit Analysis – DC Circuits

Differential amplifier

Differential amplifier

Rectifiers (ac dc)

Rectifiers (ac dc)

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers

Regions of operation of bjt and mosfet

Regions of operation of bjt and mosfet

Feedback amplifier

Feedback amplifier

Operational Amplifier

Operational Amplifier

Collector to base bias & self bias

Collector to base bias & self bias

Transistor Amplifier Configuration.ppt

Transistor Amplifier Configuration.ppt

Analog CMOS design

Analog CMOS design

5. differential amplifier

5. differential amplifier

Hybrid model for Transistor, small signal Analysis

Hybrid model for Transistor, small signal Analysis

Op amp tutorial-1

Op amp tutorial-1

Operational Amplifiers And Logic Gates

Operational Amplifiers And Logic Gates

Ppt on sawtooth wave form generator

Ppt on sawtooth wave form generator

Electronic devices-and-circuit-theory-10th-ed-boylestad-chapter-2

Electronic devices-and-circuit-theory-10th-ed-boylestad-chapter-2

dc to dc-converter

dc to dc-converter

Slide bab op amp

Slide bab op amp

Op amp basics

Op amp basics

Oscillators

This document describes different types of oscillators. It discusses oscillators that use positive feedback to generate AC signals at a desired frequency. It provides block diagrams and explanations of RC phase shift oscillators, Wein bridge oscillators, Hartley oscillators, Colpitts oscillators, and Clapp oscillators. Equations for calculating the oscillation frequency of each type of oscillator are also presented.

Op amp

This presentation contains the basic information you need to know about operational amplifier.
I have tried to cover all the basic info. If anything is left out or you have any suggestions i will appreciate it.

Oscillators

The document discusses different types of oscillators. It begins by describing the basic concept and principles of operation for oscillators. RC and LC oscillators are analyzed in more detail. RC oscillators like the Wien bridge and phase-shift oscillators are described as generating signals in the kHz range using RC timing circuits. LC oscillators like the Colpitts, Hartley, and crystal oscillators can generate higher frequency signals from hundreds of kHz to hundreds of MHz using LC tuned circuits or crystals in the feedback network. The key conditions for oscillation are also summarized.

Operation amplifier

This document provides information on operation amplifiers (op-amps) including their ideal characteristics and common circuit configurations. It describes how op-amps can be used as inverting amplifiers, non-inverting amplifiers, summing amplifiers, differential amplifiers, and integrators/differentiators. Key points covered include the ideal properties of op-amps such as infinite gain and zero input impedance, as well as how negative feedback impacts closed-loop gain. Common applications of each circuit type are also discussed.

Operational amplifier

An operational amplifier (op-amp) is a differential amplifier that amplifies the difference between voltages at its two input terminals and provides a single-ended output. Op-amps are designed to have very high gain, very high input impedance, very low output impedance, and can be used as inverting or non-inverting amplifiers, summing amplifiers, subtractors, differentiators, integrators, and comparators. Common op-amp configurations include inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, summing amplifiers, subtractors, differentiators, integrators, and comparators.

Chapter 5 operational amplifier

The document discusses operational amplifiers and their applications. It describes the basic op-amp configuration, ideal op-amp model, and applications such as inverting amplifier, non-inverting amplifier, summing amplifier, differential amplifier, integrator, differentiator, and voltage follower. It also discusses offset adjustments and multiple op-amp circuits.

Operational Amplifiers

The document discusses ideal operational amplifiers and their characteristics. It describes how an operational amplifier is a differential amplifier that takes the difference between signals at its two inputs and amplifies that difference. An ideal op-amp has infinite voltage gain, infinite input impedance, zero output impedance, infinite bandwidth, and zero offset voltage. However, real op-amps have limitations compared to these ideal characteristics. The document provides examples of calculating gain and bandwidth using typical op-amp specifications. It also briefly mentions some common op-amp applications and types.

Operational Amplifier Part 1

Introduction to operational Amplifier. For A2 level physics (CIE). Discusses characteristics of op amp, inverting and non inverting amplifier, and voltage follower, and transfer characetristics, virtual earth , etc

Operational Amplifier (OpAmp)

1. The op-amp circuit consists of an input stage, intermediate stage, and output stage, as well as biasing circuits.
2. The input stage uses a differential amplifier configuration to provide high input impedance. The intermediate stage provides voltage gain.
3. The output stage is typically class AB to reduce crossover distortion, using a voltage source to provide constant base voltage for the transistors.

Oscillator multivibrotor

This document provides an overview of different types of electronic oscillators. It begins with introducing oscillators and their basic components. It then describes several common oscillator circuits in more detail, including tuned collector oscillators, tuned base oscillators, Hartley oscillators, Colpitts oscillators, and Clapp oscillators. It discusses the working principles, construction, and frequency of oscillation calculations for some of these oscillator types. The document provides a useful reference for understanding the different categories of oscillators and how they generate oscillations.

Op amp(operational amplifier)

This document presents an overview of operational amplifiers (op-amps). It begins with an introduction to op-amps, followed by their circuit symbol, pin diagram, important terms and equations. It describes the ideal properties of an op-amp, as well as non-ideal behaviors. Applications discussed include analog to digital converters, current sources, and zero crossing detectors. Advantages are listed as versatility and uses in various circuits. Disadvantages include limitations in power and load resistance.

Oscillators

An oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces repetitive waveforms without an external input signal. It uses positive feedback to sustain oscillations, with the frequency determined by circuit components like inductors and capacitors. Common types include sinusoidal oscillators that produce sine waves, and relaxation oscillators that produce non-sinusoidal waves like square waves. Oscillators are essential components in many electronic devices and systems to generate stable frequency signals.

Oscillators

Oscillators

Op amp

Op amp

Oscillators

Oscillators

Operation amplifier

Operation amplifier

Operational amplifier

Operational amplifier

Chapter 5 operational amplifier

Chapter 5 operational amplifier

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifier Part 1

Operational Amplifier Part 1

Operational Amplifier (OpAmp)

Operational Amplifier (OpAmp)

Oscillator multivibrotor

Oscillator multivibrotor

Op amp(operational amplifier)

Op amp(operational amplifier)

Oscillators

Oscillators

The operational amplifier (part 1)

The operational amplifier (part 1) Floyd 7 edition
For part 2 click below
https://www.slideshare.net/jamilahmedk1/the-operational-amplifier-part-2

Agdon

The document provides details about operational amplifiers including:
1. Operational amplifiers are high-gain amplifiers used to perform computing or transfer functions like filtering. They have very high input impedance and low output impedance.
2. Common op-amp configurations include inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, comparators, integrators, differentiators, and more.
3. Op-amps can be used to simulate components like inductors through circuits like the inductance gyrator.

EE101 Lab4 Guillemaud

1. The document describes an experiment investigating the properties of operational amplifiers. It examines op-amp circuits including an inverting amplifier, integrator, and differentiator.
2. For the inverting amplifier, it was found that the experimental gain matched the theoretical gain calculated from resistor values. The output voltage was linear with respect to input voltage within the power supply limits.
3. Testing the integrator circuit showed the output voltage was proportional to the time integral of the input signal, with the expected phase shift observed. Frequency response was also measured.

Ee1 chapter12 phasor_diagram

This document discusses phasor diagrams and their use in analyzing AC circuits. It begins by defining phasors and explaining that phasor diagrams represent the magnitude and phase of sinusoidal voltages and currents. The document then examines phasor diagrams for pure resistive, inductive, and capacitive circuits. In a pure resistive circuit, the current and voltage are in phase. In a pure inductive circuit, the current lags the voltage by 90 degrees. In a pure capacitive circuit, the current leads the voltage by 90 degrees. Characteristics of each type of circuit are provided along with examples of phasor diagrams.

UNIT-3 OPAMP.pptx

The document discusses operational amplifiers and linear integrated circuits. It describes the ideal and practical characteristics of op-amps, including infinite input impedance, zero output impedance, and infinite gain in the ideal case. It also discusses various op-amp parameters such as common mode rejection ratio, input offset voltage, input bias current, and slew rate. The document then covers op-amp applications including difference amplifiers, integrators, differentiators, comparators, and timers. It provides examples of using the IC 555 in monostable and astable multivibrator circuits.

Voltage measurement using arduino

The document discusses measuring voltage using an Arduino. An AC voltage is stepped down using a transformer whose primary winding is connected to the power supply and secondary winding to a voltage divider circuit. This further reduces the voltage level. A step-down transformer converts a high AC voltage like 230V to a lower 12V AC. Two voltage divider circuits are then used to step down the 12V to voltages within Arduino's 0-5V range - one produces 1.09V and the other 2.5V. The combined outputs of 3.59V and 1.41V from the voltage dividers fall within Arduino's operating range.

Eet3082 binod kumar sahu lecturer_21

This document discusses the operation of a synchronous generator (alternator) connected to an infinite bus under loaded conditions. An infinite bus maintains constant voltage and frequency regardless of load variations. When an alternator is connected to an infinite bus, changes in its excitation will change the reactive power output while keeping the active power constant. If excitation increases, reactive power output becomes lagging and the alternator is overexcited. If excitation decreases, reactive power becomes leading and the alternator is underexcited. The document explains these concepts through voltage and phasor diagrams.

Chopper

This document discusses different types of DC-DC converters known as choppers. It describes:
1) Buck and boost choppers, where buck choppers produce output voltages lower than the input, and boost choppers produce outputs higher than the input.
2) The basic operation of choppers which involves turning a switch on and off periodically to connect and disconnect a constant voltage source from the load, allowing variable output voltages.
3) Key circuits for buck, boost, and buck-boost choppers along with explanations of how energy transfer from input to output works during switch on and off periods to achieve different output voltages.

Operational Amplifiers with MATLAB

Operational amplifier (op amp) and its Requirements, Applications,
Modes, Circuit. Simulating and analyzing some op amp circuits on
MATLAB.

10 win-mech-iv-rev-ie

The document contains the answers to multiple questions from an Industrial Electronics exam for a Mechanical Engineering course.
1) It provides the voltage-current characteristics of an SCR, explaining its forward and reverse breakdown voltages.
2) It compares series and parallel inverters based on 5 differences such as commutation class, need for resonant circuit, distortion level, use of feedback, and output wave shape.
3) It explains the functions of the address bus and data bus in an 8085 microprocessor, noting that the address bus selects memory/I/O devices while the data bus is multiplexed with the address bus.

Feedback in amplifier

An amplifier is one of the most important applications of transistor. Generally, transistor in CE configuration was used for faithful amplification of signal due to high gain, high input impedance and high power gain. But it has been observed that feedback in an amplifier introduces significant improvement in gain and gives amplified output in required form.

Analog Electronics interview and viva questions.pdf

1. The document contains 50 questions and answers related to analog electronics viva questions covering topics like operational amplifiers, integrated circuits, sample and hold circuits, and more.
2. It provides definitions and explanations of key terms like input offset voltage, common mode rejection ratio, slew rate, and open and closed loop configurations of op-amps.
3. The questions are asked by Engineering Funda YouTube channel professor Hitesh Dholakiya and cover concepts tested in analog electronics viva exams.

14699775563. feedback amplifiers

The document discusses feedback amplifiers and the concepts of positive and negative feedback. It states that negative feedback reduces amplifier gain but provides benefits like lower distortion, increased stability and improved input/output impedances. Feedback can be connected in either voltage or current series/shunt configurations, each affecting the input and output impedances differently. Negative feedback also increases an amplifier's bandwidth and makes its gain less sensitive to component variations. The Barkhausen criterion for oscillation is that the open-loop gain must be unity with a phase shift of 0° or 360° around the feedback loop.

Comparative Study of H-Bridge Multi Level Inverters

This document compares the performance of cascaded H-bridge multi-level inverters with different numbers of levels (5-level, 7-level, 9-level, 11-level) by analyzing their output waveforms, harmonic content, power losses, and behavior under faults. The inverters are simulated in MATLAB/Simulink supplying a 2kVA load. Their output voltages, currents, harmonic spectra, power losses, and performance with faults like a disconnected battery or failed switch are examined and compared across inverter levels.

Percentage Impedance of Transformer

Electrical Engineer with overall 23 years of diversified experience in Projects, Design, Engineering, Installation, Testing, Commissioning & Maintenance of electrical system in petrochemical & fertilizer plants.

#66 ANSWERS 2 Query from RENAULT NISSAN.pdf

The document discusses techniques for regenerative acceleration in electric vehicles using a generator. It proposes that by introducing a load current time delay in the generator coils, the normal counter-electromagnetic torque produced during braking can be reversed. This reversal is achieved because the time delay prevents current from flowing in the coils immediately, so no opposing magnetic field is generated. As a result, the rotational force is assisted rather than resisted, converting kinetic energy back into electrical energy through regeneration rather than braking. Several videos are provided to further explain the concepts of armature reaction, load current delay techniques, and how regenerative acceleration occurs above a critical minimum frequency.

Answers 2 Query from Renault Nissan

The document discusses techniques for regenerative acceleration in electric vehicles using a generator. It proposes that by introducing a load current time delay in the generator coils, the normal counter-electromagnetic torque produced during braking can be reversed. This reversal is achieved because the time delay prevents current from flowing in the coils immediately, so no opposing magnetic field is generated. As a result, the rotational force is assisted rather than resisted, converting kinetic energy back to electrical energy through regeneration rather than braking. Several videos are provided to further explain the concepts of armature reaction, load current delay techniques, and how regenerative acceleration occurs above a critical minimum frequency.

Soft Switched Multi-Output Flyback Converter with Voltage Doubler

A novel multi-output voltage doubler circuit with resonant switching
technique is proposed in this paper. The resonant topology in the primary
side of the flyback transformer switches the device either at zero voltage or
current thus optimizing the switching devices by mitigating the losses. The
voltage doubler circuit introduced in the load side increases the voltage by
twice the value thereby increasing the load power and density. The proposed
Multi-output Isolated Converter removes the need for mutiple SMPS units
for a particular application. This reduces the size and weight of the
converters considerably leading to a greater payload. This paper aims at
optimizing the proposed converter with some design changes. The results
obtained from the hardware prototype are given in a comprehensive manner
for a 3.5W converter operating at output voltages of 5V and 3.3V at 50 kHz
switching frequency. The converter output is regulated with the PI controller
designed with SG3523 IC. The effects of load and line regulation for ±20%
variations are analyzed in detail.

Sheela arokia mary

This paper proposes a novel integrated AC/DC/AC converter for direct drive permanent magnet wind power generation systems. It aims to reduce switching losses and minimize circulating current compared to existing converters. The proposed converter uses 9 switches compared to 24 in existing converters. It includes a Vienna rectifier for stable DC voltage with power factor improvement and 6-switch inverters. Simulation results show reduced switching losses, minimized circulating current, improved power factor from 0.8 to 0.9, and improved efficiency to 90%. The converter provides promising features for direct drive permanent magnet wind power applications.

Eet3082 binod kumar sahu lecturer_19

1) The document discusses the effect of varying field excitation on two alternators sharing a load and an alternator connected to an infinite bus. It provides a numerical example of how the armature current, power factor, active power, and reactive power shared by two alternators changes when the field excitation of one alternator is adjusted. 2) An infinite bus is defined as a voltage source with zero impedance and infinite inertia that maintains a constant voltage and frequency regardless of load variations. When an alternator is connected to an infinite bus, any change in its field excitation will cause an armature current that helps regain synchronism. 3) For an alternator operating on an infinite bus, a change in field excitation will change the induced

The operational amplifier (part 1)

The operational amplifier (part 1)

Agdon

Agdon

EE101 Lab4 Guillemaud

EE101 Lab4 Guillemaud

Ee1 chapter12 phasor_diagram

Ee1 chapter12 phasor_diagram

UNIT-3 OPAMP.pptx

UNIT-3 OPAMP.pptx

Voltage measurement using arduino

Voltage measurement using arduino

Eet3082 binod kumar sahu lecturer_21

Eet3082 binod kumar sahu lecturer_21

Chopper

Chopper

Operational Amplifiers with MATLAB

Operational Amplifiers with MATLAB

10 win-mech-iv-rev-ie

10 win-mech-iv-rev-ie

Feedback in amplifier

Feedback in amplifier

Analog Electronics interview and viva questions.pdf

Analog Electronics interview and viva questions.pdf

14699775563. feedback amplifiers

14699775563. feedback amplifiers

Comparative Study of H-Bridge Multi Level Inverters

Comparative Study of H-Bridge Multi Level Inverters

Percentage Impedance of Transformer

Percentage Impedance of Transformer

#66 ANSWERS 2 Query from RENAULT NISSAN.pdf

#66 ANSWERS 2 Query from RENAULT NISSAN.pdf

Answers 2 Query from Renault Nissan

Answers 2 Query from Renault Nissan

Soft Switched Multi-Output Flyback Converter with Voltage Doubler

Soft Switched Multi-Output Flyback Converter with Voltage Doubler

Sheela arokia mary

Sheela arokia mary

Eet3082 binod kumar sahu lecturer_19

Eet3082 binod kumar sahu lecturer_19

132/33KV substation case study Presentation

132/33Kv substation case study ppt

22CYT12-Unit-V-E Waste and its Management.ppt

Introduction- e - waste – definition - sources of e-waste– hazardous substances in e-waste - effects of e-waste on environment and human health- need for e-waste management– e-waste handling rules - waste minimization techniques for managing e-waste – recycling of e-waste - disposal treatment methods of e- waste – mechanism of extraction of precious metal from leaching solution-global Scenario of E-waste – E-waste in India- case studies.

Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...

The aquaponic system of planting is a method that does not require soil usage. It is a method that only needs water, fish, lava rocks (a substitute for soil), and plants. Aquaponic systems are sustainable and environmentally friendly. Its use not only helps to plant in small spaces but also helps reduce artificial chemical use and minimizes excess water use, as aquaponics consumes 90% less water than soil-based gardening. The study applied a descriptive and experimental design to assess and compare conventional and reconstructed aquaponic methods for reproducing tomatoes. The researchers created an observation checklist to determine the significant factors of the study. The study aims to determine the significant difference between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquaponics systems propagating tomatoes in terms of height, weight, girth, and number of fruits. The reconstructed aquaponics system’s higher growth yield results in a much more nourished crop than the traditional aquaponics system. It is superior in its number of fruits, height, weight, and girth measurement. Moreover, the reconstructed aquaponics system is proven to eliminate all the hindrances present in the traditional aquaponics system, which are overcrowding of fish, algae growth, pest problems, contaminated water, and dead fish.

原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样

原件一模一样【微信：bwp0011】《(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证》【微信：bwp0011】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问微bwp0011
【主营项目】
一.毕业证【微bwp0011】成绩单、使馆认证、教育部认证、雅思托福成绩单、学生卡等！
二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【微bwp0011】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才

一比一原版(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证如何办理

原版一模一样【微信：741003700 】【(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证成绩单】【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
【主营项目】
一.毕业证【q微741003700】成绩单、使馆认证、教育部认证、雅思托福成绩单、学生卡等！
二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才
办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】外观非常简单，由纸质材料制成，上面印有校徽、校名、毕业生姓名、专业等信息。
办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】格式相对统一，各专业都有相应的模板。通常包括以下部分：
校徽：象征着学校的荣誉和传承。
校名:学校英文全称
授予学位：本部分将注明获得的具体学位名称。
毕业生姓名：这是最重要的信息之一，标志着该证书是由特定人员获得的。
颁发日期：这是毕业正式生效的时间，也代表着毕业生学业的结束。
其他信息：根据不同的专业和学位，可能会有一些特定的信息或章节。
办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】价值很高，需要妥善保管。一般来说，应放置在安全、干燥、防潮的地方，避免长时间暴露在阳光下。如需使用，最好使用复印件而不是原件，以免丢失。
综上所述，办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】是证明身份和学历的高价值文件。外观简单庄重，格式统一，包括重要的个人信息和发布日期。对持有人来说，妥善保管是非常重要的。

Electric vehicle and photovoltaic advanced roles in enhancing the financial p...

Climate change's impact on the planet forced the United Nations and governments to promote green energies and electric transportation. The deployments of photovoltaic (PV) and electric vehicle (EV) systems gained stronger momentum due to their numerous advantages over fossil fuel types. The advantages go beyond sustainability to reach financial support and stability. The work in this paper introduces the hybrid system between PV and EV to support industrial and commercial plants. This paper covers the theoretical framework of the proposed hybrid system including the required equation to complete the cost analysis when PV and EV are present. In addition, the proposed design diagram which sets the priorities and requirements of the system is presented. The proposed approach allows setup to advance their power stability, especially during power outages. The presented information supports researchers and plant owners to complete the necessary analysis while promoting the deployment of clean energy. The result of a case study that represents a dairy milk farmer supports the theoretical works and highlights its advanced benefits to existing plants. The short return on investment of the proposed approach supports the paper's novelty approach for the sustainable electrical system. In addition, the proposed system allows for an isolated power setup without the need for a transmission line which enhances the safety of the electrical network

Data Driven Maintenance | UReason Webinar

Discover the latest insights on Data Driven Maintenance with our comprehensive webinar presentation. Learn about traditional maintenance challenges, the right approach to utilizing data, and the benefits of adopting a Data Driven Maintenance strategy. Explore real-world examples, industry best practices, and innovative solutions like FMECA and the D3M model. This presentation, led by expert Jules Oudmans, is essential for asset owners looking to optimize their maintenance processes and leverage digital technologies for improved efficiency and performance. Download now to stay ahead in the evolving maintenance landscape.

SCALING OF MOS CIRCUITS m .pptx

this ppt explains about scaling parameters of the mosfet it is basically vlsi subject

Design and optimization of ion propulsion drone

Electric propulsion technology is widely used in many kinds of vehicles in recent years, and aircrafts are no exception. Technically, UAVs are electrically propelled but tend to produce a significant amount of noise and vibrations. Ion propulsion technology for drones is a potential solution to this problem. Ion propulsion technology is proven to be feasible in the earth’s atmosphere. The study presented in this article shows the design of EHD thrusters and power supply for ion propulsion drones along with performance optimization of high-voltage power supply for endurance in earth’s atmosphere.

4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf

Conceptos basicos de fisica

Engineering Standards Wiring methods.pdf

Engineering Standards Wiring methods.pdf

Generative AI Use cases applications solutions and implementation.pdf

Generative AI solutions encompass a range of capabilities from content creation to complex problem-solving across industries. Implementing generative AI involves identifying specific business needs, developing tailored AI models using techniques like GANs and VAEs, and integrating these models into existing workflows. Data quality and continuous model refinement are crucial for effective implementation. Businesses must also consider ethical implications and ensure transparency in AI decision-making. Generative AI's implementation aims to enhance efficiency, creativity, and innovation by leveraging autonomous generation and sophisticated learning algorithms to meet diverse business challenges.
https://www.leewayhertz.com/generative-ai-use-cases-and-applications/

Computational Engineering IITH Presentation

This Presentation will give you a brief idea about what Computational Engineering at IIT Hyderabad has to offer.

LLM Fine Tuning with QLoRA Cassandra Lunch 4, presented by Anant

Slides for the 4th Presentation on LLM Fine-Tuning with QLoRA Presented by Anant, featuring DataStax Astra

Curve Fitting in Numerical Methods Regression

Curve Fitting

一比一原版(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证如何办理

原版一模一样【微信：741003700 】【(爱大毕业证书)爱荷华大学毕业证成绩单】【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
【主营项目】
一.毕业证【q微741003700】成绩单、使馆认证、教育部认证、雅思托福成绩单、学生卡等！
二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才
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办理(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】格式相对统一，各专业都有相应的模板。通常包括以下部分：
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校名:学校英文全称
授予学位：本部分将注明获得的具体学位名称。
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办理(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】价值很高，需要妥善保管。一般来说，应放置在安全、干燥、防潮的地方，避免长时间暴露在阳光下。如需使用，最好使用复印件而不是原件，以免丢失。
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- 1. Engr.Tehseen Ahsan Lecturer, Electrical Engineering Department EE-307 Electronic Systems Design HITEC University Taxila Cantt, Pakistan The Operational Amplifier (Part 2)
- 2. 12-5 Effect of Negative FeedBack On OP-AMP Impedances ImpedancesofaNon-invertingAmplifier InputImpedance Theinputimpedanceofanon-invertingamplifiercanbedevelopedwiththeaidoffigure12-23. ForthisAnalysis,assumeasmalldifferentialvoltage,Vd,existsbetweenthetwoinputterminalsasindicated.Thismeansthatyoucannotassumetheop-amp’sinputimpedancetobeinfiniteortheinputcurrenttobe0. 2
- 3. 12-5 Effect of Negative FeedBack On OP-AMP Impedances Continue… ImpedancesofaNon-invertingAmplifier InputImpedancecontinue… Theinputvoltagecanbeexpressedas3
- 4. 12-5 Effect of Negative FeedBack On OP-AMP Impedances Continue… ImpedancesofaNon-invertingAmplifier InputImpedancecontinue… 4
- 5. 12-5 Effect of Negative FeedBack On OP-AMP Impedances Continue… ImpedancesofaNon-invertingAmplifier OutputImpedance Anexpressionforoutputimpedanceofanon-invertingamplifiercanbedevelopedwiththeaidoffigure12-24. 5
- 6. 12-5 Effect of Negative FeedBack On OP-AMP Impedances Continue… ImpedancesofaNon-invertingAmplifier OutputImpedancecontinue… ByapplyingKVLtotheoutputcircuitoffig12-24 6
- 7. 12-5 Effect of Negative FeedBack On OP-AMP Impedances Continue… ImpedancesofaNon-invertingAmplifier OutputImpedancecontinue… 7
- 8. 8
- 9. 9
- 10. 12-5 Effect of Negative FeedBack On OP-AMP Impedances Continue… Voltage-FollowerImpedances Sinceavoltagefollowerisaspecialcaseofthenon-invertingamplifierconfiguration,thesameimpedanceformulasareusedbutwithB=1. Noticethatthevoltage-followerinputimpedanceisgreaterforagivenAolandZinthanforthenon-invertingamplifierconfigurationwithvoltage-dividerfeedbackcircuit.Alsotheoutputimpedanceismuchsmaller. 10
- 11. 11
- 12. 12-5 Effect of Negative FeedBack On OP-AMP Impedances Continue… ImpedancesofanInvertingAmplifier InputImpedance Theinputimpedanceofaninvertingamplifiercanbedevelopedwiththeaidoffigure12-26. Theinputsignalisappliedthroughaseriesresistor,Ri,toinverting(-) terminal. TheinputimpedanceofaninvertingamplifierisZin(I)≈Ri12
- 13. 12-5 Effect of Negative FeedBack On OP-AMP Impedances Continue… ImpedancesofanInvertingAmplifier OutputImpedance Aswithanon-invertingamplifier,theoutputimpedanceofaninvertingamplifierisalsodecreasedbythenegativefeedback,theexpressionisthesameasforthenon-invertingcase. Theoutputimpedanceofboththenon-invertingandtheinvertingamplifierconfigurationsisverylow;infactitisalmostzeroinpracticalcases. 13
- 14. 14
- 15. 15
- 16. 12-6 Bias Current and Offset Voltage Thepracticalop-amphassmallinputbiascurrentstypicallyinnArange.Alsosmallinternalimbalancesinthetransistorseffectivelyproduceasmalloffsetvoltagebetweentheinputs. EffectofanInputBiasCurrent Figure12-29(a)nextslideisaninvertingamplifierwithzeroinputvoltage. IdeallythecurrentthroughRiiszerobecausetheinputvoltageiszeroandthevoltageattheinverting(-)terminaliszero. Thesmallinputbiascurrent,I1isthroughRffromtheoutputterminal. I1createsavoltagedropacrossRfasindicated. ThepositivesideofRfistheoutputterminal,thustheoutputerrorvoltageis+I1Rfwhenitshouldbezero16
- 17. 12-6 Bias Current and Offset Voltage Continue… EffectofanInputBiasCurrent17
- 18. 12-6 Bias Current and Offset Voltage Continue… EffectofanInputBiasCurrent Figure12-29(b)previousslideisavoltagefollowerwithzeroinputvoltageandasourceresistanceRs. InputbiascurrentI1,producesadropacrossRsandcreatesanoutputvoltageerrorasshown. Thevoltageattheinvertingterminaldecreasesto-I1Rsbecausethenegativefeedbacktendstomaintainadifferentialvoltageofzeroasindicated. Sincetheinvertingterminalisconnecteddirectlytotheoutputterminal,theoutputerrorvoltageis-I1Rs. 18
- 19. 12-6 Bias Current and Offset Voltage Continue… EffectofanInputBiasCurrent Figure12-30isanon-invertingamplifierwithzeroinputvoltage. Ideallythevoltageattheinvertingterminalisalsozero. TheinputbiascurrentI1,producesavoltagedropacrossRfandthuscreatesanoutputerrorvoltageofI1Rf19
- 20. 12-6 Bias Current and Offset Voltage Continue… BiasCurrentCompensationinaVoltage-Follower Theoutputerrorvoltageduetobiascurrentinavoltage- followercanbesignificantlyreducedbyaddingaresistorRfequaltothesourceresistorRsinthefeedbackpathasshowninfigure12-31nextslide. ThevoltagedropcreatedbyI1acrosstheaddedresistorsubtractsfromthe-I2Rsoutputerrorvoltage. IfI1=I2,thentheoutputvolageiszero UsuallyI1doesnotequalI2buteveninthiscases,theoutputerrorvoltageisreducedasfollowsbecauseIOSislessthanI220
- 21. 12-6 Bias Current and Offset Voltage Continue… BiasCurrentCompensationinaVoltage-Follower 21
- 22. 12-6 Bias Current and Offset Voltage Continue… BiasCurrentCompensationinOtherOp-AmpConfigurations Practicalop-amphasverysmallfiniteinputbiascurrentsonbothofitsinputs. Thesetwobiascurrents(I1andI2)canproduceasmalldcoutputvoltage(VOUT(error))evenwhentheinputvoltageiszero. TheeasiestwaytominimizethisproblemisbyincludingacompensatingresistorRcinserieswiththenon-invertinginputofanon-invertingamplifierasshowninfigure12-32(a)nextslide. ThecompensatingresistorRcvalueequalstheparallelcombinationofRiandRf. RcProvideshighinputimpedancewhichwillsignificantlyreducethemagnitudesofbiascurrents. Theinvertingamplifierissimilarlycompensatedshownin12-32(b)22
- 23. 12-6 Bias Current and Offset Voltage Continue… BiasCurrentCompensationinOtherOp-AmpConfigurations23
- 24. 12-6 Bias Current and Offset Voltage Continue… EffectofInputOffsetVoltage InputOffsetVoltageCompensation HOMEREADINGASSIGNMENT24
- 25. 12-7 Open-Loop Response Inthissection,wewilllearnabouttheopen-loopfrequencyresponseandtheopen-loopphaseresponseofanop-amp. Open-loopresponsesrelatetoanop-ampwithnoexternalfeedback. Thefrequencyresponseindicateshowthevoltagegainchangeswithfrequency. Thephaseresponseindicateshowthephaseshiftbetweentheinputandoutputsignalchangeswithfrequency. Theopen-loopgain,liketheβofatransistor,variesgreatlyfromonedevicetothenextofthesametypeandcannotbedependentupontohaveaconstantvalue. 25
- 26. 12-7 Open-Loop Response Continue… VoltageGainisFrequencyDependent Previously,allofthevoltagegainexpressionswerebasedonthemidrangegainandwereconsideredindependentofthefrequency. Themidrangeopen-loopgainofanop-ampextendsfromzerofrequencyuptoacriticalfrequencyatwhichthegainis3dBlessthanthemidrangevalue. Op-Amparedcamplifiers(nocouplingcapacitorsbetweenstages), andthereforenolowercriticalfrequency. Anopen-loopresponsecurve(BodePlot)foracertainamplifierisshowninfigure12-36nextslide. Noticethatthecurverollsoff(decrease)at-20dBperdecade(-6dBperoctave). Themidrangegainis200,000,whichis106dBandthecritical(cutoff)frequencyisapproximately10Hz. 26
- 27. 12-7 Open-Loop Response Continue… 27
- 28. 12-7 Open-Loop Response Continue… 3dBOpen-LoopBandwidth GenerallytheB.Wequalstheuppercriticalfrequencyminusthelowercriticalfrequency. BW=fcu-fcl Sincefclforanop-ampiszero,theB.Wissimplyequaltotheuppercriticalfrequency. BW=fcu Fromnowon,wewillrefertofcuassimplyfc;andwewilluseopen- loop(ol)orclosed-loop(cl)subscriptdesignators,forexample,fc(ol). 28
- 29. 12-7 Open-Loop Response Continue… Unity-GainBandwidth Noticeinfigure12-36thatthegainsteadilydecreasestoapointwhereitisequaltounity(1or0dB).Thevalueofthefrequencyatwhichthisunitygainoccursistheunity-gainbandwidthdesignatedfT fT=AolBW=Aolfcu=Aolfc(ol) Gain-Versus-FrequencyAnalysis TheRClag(low-pass)circuitswithinanop-ampareresponsiblefortheroll-offingainasthefrequencyincreases.Frombasicaccircuittheory,theattenuationofanRClagcircuitsuchasinfigure12-37nextslideisexpressedas29
- 30. 12-7 Open-Loop Response Continue… Gain-Versus-FrequencyAnalysis 30
- 31. 12-7 Open-Loop Response Continue… Gain-Versus-FrequencyAnalysis31
- 32. 32
- 33. 12-7 Open-Loop Response Continue… PhaseShift AnRCcircuitcausesapropagationdelayfrominputtooutputthuscreatingaphaseshiftbetweentheinputsignalandoutputsignal. AnRClagcircuitsuchasfoundinanop-ampstagecausestheoutputsignalvoltagetolagtheinputasshowninfigure12-39.Frombasicaccircuittheory,thephaseshiftθis33
- 34. 12-7 Open-Loop Response Continue… PhaseShift34
- 35. 35
- 36. 36
- 37. 12-7 Open-Loop Response Continue… CompleteFrequencyResponse Previouslyanop-ampwasassumedtohaveaconstantroll-offof-20dB/decadeaboveitscriticalfrequency.Formostop-ampsitisthecase. However,thesituationismorecomplexwhenICop-ampmayconsistoftwoormorecascadedamplifierstages. Thegainofeachstageisfrequencydependentandrollsoffat-20dB/decadeaboveitscriticalfrequency. Thereforethetotalresponseofanop-ampisacompositeoftheindividualresponsesoftheinternalstages. Asanexample,athree-stageop-ampisrepresentedinfigure12-41(a)nextslide,thefrequencyresponseofeachstageisshowninfigure12-41(b),sincegainsareaddedsothatthetotalop-ampfrequencyresponseisshowninfigure12-41(c)37
- 38. 38
- 39. 12-7 Open-Loop Response Continue… CompletePhaseResponse Inmultistageamplifier,eachstagecontributestothetotalphaselag. SinceeachRCcircuitcanproduceuptoa-90˚phaseshift. Thereforeanop-ampwiththreeinternalstagescanhaveamaximumphaselagof-270˚. Thephaselagofeachstageislessthan-45˚whenthefrequencyisbelowthecriticalfrequency,equalto-45˚atthecriticalfrequencyandgreaterthan-45˚whenthefrequencyisabovecriticalfrequency. Thephaselagsofthestages(threestages)ofan-ampareaddedtoproduceatotalphaselagasfollows39
- 40. 40
- 41. 12-8 Closed-Loop Response Op-Ampsarenormallyusedinaclosed-loopconfigurationwithnegativefeedbackinordertoachieveprecisecontrolofthegainandbandwidth. Recallthatthemidrangegain(midrangeopen-loopgain)isreducedbynegativefeedback.Foranon-invertingamplifier41
- 42. 12-8 Closed-Loop Response Continue… EffectofNegativeFeedbackonBandwidth Theclosed-loopcriticalfrequencyofanop-ampis fc(cl)=fc(ol)(1+BAol(mid)) Thisexpressionshowsthattheclosed-loopcriticalfrequencyfc(cl)ishigherthantheopen-loopcriticalfrequencyfc(ol)bythefactor1+BAol(mid). BWc(cl)=BWc(ol)(1+BAol(mid)) 42
- 43. 12-8 Closed-Loop Response Continue… EffectofNegativeFeedbackonBandwidth Figure12-42nextslidegraphicallyillustratestheconceptofclosed- loopresponse. Whentheopen-loopgainofanop-ampisreducedbynegativefeedback,thebandwidthisincreased. Theclosed-loopgainisindependentoftheopen-loopgainuptothepointofintersectionoftwogaincurves. Thispointoftheintersectionisthecriticalfrequencyfc(cl)fortheclosed-loopresponse. Noticethattheclosed-loopgainhasthesameroll-offrateastheopen- loopgain,beyondtheclosed-loopcriticalfrequency. 43
- 44. 12-8 Closed-Loop Response Continue… EffectofNegativeFeedbackonBandwidth44
- 45. 12-8 Closed-Loop Response Continue… Gain-BandwidthProduct Anincreaseinclosed-loopgaincausesadecreaseinthebandwidthandviceversa. Thisistrueaslongastheroll-offrateisfixed. Unity-GainBandwidth fT=AclBWcl=Aclfcl=Aclfc(cl) 45
- 46. 46
- 47. 47
- 48. 48