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Supply chain management ch04 chopra

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Supply chain management ch04 chopra

  1. 1. 4-1© 2007 Pearson Education Chapter 4 Designing the Distribution Network in a Supply Chain Supply Chain Management (3rd Edition)
  2. 2. © 2007 Pearson Education Outline The Role of Distribution in the Supply Chain Factors Influencing Distribution Network Design Design Options for a Distribution Network E-Business and the Distribution Network Distribution Networks in Practice Summary of Learning Objectives
  3. 3. © 2007 Pearson Education The Role of Distribution in the Supply Chain Distribution: the steps taken to move and store a product from the supplier stage to the customer stage in a supply chain Distribution directly affects cost and the customer experience and therefore drives profitability Choice of distribution network can achieve supply chain objectives from low cost to high responsiveness Examples: Wal-Mart, Dell, Proctor & Gamble, Grainger
  4. 4. © 2007 Pearson Education Factors Influencing Distribution Network Design Distribution network performance evaluated along two dimensions at the highest level: – Customer needs that are met – Cost of meeting customer needs Distribution network design options must therefore be compared according to their impact on customer service and the cost to provide this level of service
  5. 5. © 2007 Pearson Education Factors Influencing Distribution Network Design Elements of customer service influenced by network structure: – Response time – Product variety – Product availability – Customer experience – Order visibility – Returnability Supply chain costs affected by network structure: – Inventories – Transportation – Facilities and handling – Information
  6. 6. © 2007 Pearson Education Service and Number of Facilities (Fig. 4.1) Number of Facilities Response Time
  7. 7. © 2007 Pearson Education The Cost-Response Time Frontier Local FG Mix Regional FG Local WIP Central FG Central WIP Central Raw Material and Custom production Custom production with raw material at suppliers Cost Response Time HiLow Low Hi
  8. 8. © 2007 Pearson Education Inventory Costs and Number of Facilities (Fig. 4.2) Inventory Costs Number of facilities
  9. 9. © 2007 Pearson Education Transportation Costs and Number of Facilities (Fig. 4.3) Transportation Costs Number of facilities
  10. 10. © 2007 Pearson Education Facility Costs and Number of Facilities (Fig. 4.4) Facility Costs Number of facilities
  11. 11. © 2007 Pearson Education TransportationTransportation Total Costs Related to Number of Facilities TotalCostsTotalCosts Number of FacilitiesNumber of Facilities InventoryInventory FacilitiesFacilities Total CostsTotal Costs
  12. 12. © 2007 Pearson Education Response TimeResponse Time Variation in Logistics Costs and Response Time with Number of Facilities (Fig. 4.5) Number of FacilitiesNumber of Facilities Total Logistics CostsTotal Logistics Costs
  13. 13. © 2007 Pearson Education Design Options for a Distribution Network Manufacturer Storage with Direct Shipping Manufacturer Storage with Direct Shipping and In- Transit Merge Distributor Storage with Carrier Delivery Distributor Storage with Last Mile Delivery Manufacturer or Distributor Storage with Consumer Pickup Retail Storage with Consumer Pickup Selecting a Distribution Network Design
  14. 14. © 2007 Pearson Education Manufacturer Storage with Direct Shipping (Fig. 4.6) Manufacturer Retailer Customers Product Flow Information Flow
  15. 15. © 2007 Pearson Education In-Transit Merge Network (Fig. 4.7) Factories Retailer Product Flow Information Flow In-Transit Merge by Carrier Customers
  16. 16. © 2007 Pearson Education Distributor Storage with Carrier Delivery (Fig. 4.8) Factories Customers Product Flow Information Flow Warehouse Storage by Distributor/Retailer
  17. 17. © 2007 Pearson Education Distributor Storage with Last Mile Delivery (Fig. 4.9) Factories Customers Product Flow Information Flow Distributor/Retailer Warehouse
  18. 18. © 2007 Pearson Education Manufacturer or Distributor Storage with Customer Pickup (Fig. 4.10) Factories Retailer Pickup Sites Product Flow Information Flow Cross Dock DC Customer Flow Customers
  19. 19. © 2007 Pearson Education Comparative Performance of Delivery Network Designs (Table 4.7) Information Facility & Handling Transportation Inventory Returnability Order Visibility Customer Experience Product Availability Product Variety Response Time Manufacturer storage with pickup Distributor storage with last mile delivery Distributor Storage with Package Carrier Delivery Manufacturer Storage with In- Transit Merge Manufacturer Storage with Direct Shipping Retail Storage with Customer Pickup 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 55 5 6 6 5
  20. 20. © 2007 Pearson Education Linking Product Characteristics and Customer Preferences to Network Design Low customer effort High product variety Quick desired response High product value Many product sources Very low demand product Low demand product Medium demand product High demand product Manufacturer storage with pickup Distributor storage with last mile delivery Distributor Storage with Package Carrier Delivery Manufacturer Storage with In- Transit Merge Manufacturer Storage with Direct Shipping Retail Storage with Customer Pickup +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2
  21. 21. © 2007 Pearson Education E-Business and the Distribution Network Impact of E-Business on Customer Service Impact of E-Business on Cost Using E-Business: Dell, Amazon, Peapod, Grainger
  22. 22. © 2007 Pearson Education Distribution Networks in Practice The ownership structure of the distribution network can have as big as an impact as the type of distribution network The choice of a distribution network has very long- term consequences Consider whether an exclusive distribution strategy is advantageous Product, price, commoditization, and criticality have an impact on the type of distribution system preferred by customers
  23. 23. © 2007 Pearson Education Summary of Learning Objectives What are the key factors to be considered when designing the distribution network? What are the strengths and weaknesses of various distribution options? What roles do distributors play in the supply chain?

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