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Chapter 2 pwrpt


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Chapter 2 pwrpt

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 Humanistic Cognitive Evolutionary Ethical & Bias IssuesFree Will & Determinism
  2. 2. Humanism• Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow• Focus on subjective experience• Personal responsibility, free will, and the individual’s striving toward personal growth• Critics “merely self reporting”- anecdotal• Not subscribe to scientific research• “more valuable than traditional ‘hardhead’ empirical approach – uniqueness of the individual does not fit what we know as science”• Main achievements: Needs Theory of Motivation and Client Center Therapy
  3. 3. • Click to edit Master text styles – Second level • Third level – Fourth level » Fifth level
  4. 4. CLIENT CENTERED THERAPY• Concept of “SELF” key to understanding human behavior• Main goal: become self actualized• Who am I? Where am I going? Why?• Three qualities of a therapist: 1. Unconditional positive regard 2. Genuineness 3. Empathy• Would work on anyone, any problem• Refuse to accept scientific approach
  5. 5. Cognitive• Aaron Beck – father of cognitive therapy• Developed from growing dissatisfaction with the behaviorist approach• Cognition: key to therapy• Focus: internal processes which make sense of the environment & choose an action• Includes attention, perception, learning, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning, and thinking• Research: almost entirely lab experiments (students)• Contribute to understanding of human cognition• Large influence on neuropsychology & cognitive neuroscience
  6. 6. • Cognitive Therapy focus on dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs about self and world• Replace dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs• Therapy challenges dysfunctional thoughts• I must be perfect at all times in all places• I am useless and I can’t do anything right• Self talk (“tyranny of the should’s)• Exaggerated perception of threat• Over-generalization, and selective perception• Cog Psych well controlled experiments• Effective therapy, compares well against others
  7. 7. • One branch combined with behavior therapy into Cognitive Behavior Therapy• CBT – Arnold A. Lazarus• REBT – Albert Ellis• Integration of behavior therapy (Edward Thorndike) with cognitive therapy (Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis)• Cognitive psychology placed increased focus on cognitive neuroscience• Brain imaging: PET Scan• Prosopagnosia – fusiform gyrus (frontal lobe)
  8. 8. Evolutionary Psychology• Darwin: theory of natural selection based on survival of the fittest• Steven Pinker: EP is "not a single theory but a large set of hypotheses"• Focus on natural selection determinants of behavior• Many claims cannot be tested empirically• No major leader identified with EP• Video
  9. 9. ETHICS AND BIAS• More such issues exist in psych research• All experiments involve living creatures• Results may reveal unpleasant facts• Political exploitation possible• Principles:1. Protect from physical harm2. Protect from psychological harm3. Confidentiality•. Informed consent, avoidance of deception, and right to withdraw•. Zimbardo
  10. 10. • Three types of bias:1. Gender bias•. Alphas bias – exaggerate differences Freud - diagnosis•. Beta bias – minimize or ignore differences experimental research2. Cultural bias DSM-IV3. Racial bias Rushton p. 38
  11. 11. FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM• Determinism – people’s actions are totally determined by external & internal forces• Free Will – people have some ability to choose his/her own behavior• “Could an individual’s behavior in a given situation have been different if he/she had willed it?”• Everything has a definite cause vs. has no definite cause• If free will, impossible to predict human behavior or carry out controlled experiments• Skinner & Freud – determinism• Rogers & Maslow – free will