Nervous system 3; Synapses and Neurotransmitters

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Lecture notes and diagrams for Anatomy and Physiology students describing / showing the connections between nerve cells (synapses) and how neurotransmitters work. Video of animation that shows how drugs affect neurotransmitters is included, although it will not show in slideshare.

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Nervous system 3; Synapses and Neurotransmitters

  1. 1. Nervous system 3 Neuron synapses Neurotransmitters Effects of drugs on synapses
  2. 2. One direction
  3. 3. No that’s not what I meant.
  4. 4. Synapse A structure that permits a neuron (nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell.
  5. 5. Excitatory post synaptic potential Inhibitory post synaptic potential
  6. 6. Types of synapses
  7. 7. Electrical v. Chemical synapse
  8. 8. Types of synapses Synapse with another neuron Junction between two nerve cells Neuroeffector Neuromuscular: synapse of motor neuron and muscle Neuroglandular: synapse of neuron and endocrine or exocrine gland.
  9. 9. Neurotransmitters Excitatory – can cause next cell to initiate a new impulse – ACh (acetylcholine) – neuromuscular junction – NE (norepinephrine) – DA (dopamine)
  10. 10. Neurotransmitters Inhibitory– can cause hyperpolarization of next cell, reduce chance of a new impulse – Serotonin – GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) – Glycine
  11. 11. Convergence and Divergence
  12. 12. Synapse function Essential for homeostasis A problem with communication between nerves at synapses is often the basis for disease Examples: Parkinsons, Azheimers, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia
  13. 13. Drug effects Can increase permeability of nerve cell membrane to Na+ makes impulses more likely Can decrease permeability of nerve cell membrane to Na+ makes impulses less likely Can block / compete for receptor site binding Aspirin, Morphine, Curare Can inhibit secretory vesicle formation / release Botulism / Tetanus

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