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Articulations and movement


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Functional and structural classification of articulations (joints) and directional terms of movement for Anatomy and Physiology students

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Articulations and movement

  1. 1. Articulations Functional classification of Joints Structural classification of Joints Terms of movement
  2. 2. Articulations Also known as joints, or arthrosis Point of contact between two bones, or bone and cartilage Arthrology Study of joints Kinesiology Study of human body movement
  3. 3. Functional classification of Joints Synarthrosis / synthroses Immovable joint Amphiarthrosis / amphiarthroses Slightly moveable joint Diarthrosis / diarthroses Freely moveable joint
  4. 4. Structural classification of Joints Fibrous Bones held together by collagen rich fibrous connective tissue; no synovial cavity Cartilaginous Bones held together by cartilage; no synovial cavity Synovial Synovial cavity between bones; united by dense irregular connective tissue, often accessory ligaments too.
  5. 5. Fibrous joints Sutures Dense connective tissue uniting bones of skull Syndemosis / Syndemoses Dense connective tissue unites bones, but more distance between them Gomphosis / Gomphoses Cone shape peg fit in to a socket
  6. 6. Fibrous joints
  7. 7. Cartilaginous joints Synchondroses Connecting material is hyaline cartilage Ex. Epiphysial plate btwn epiphysis and diaphysis of growing bone Symphyses Bones connected by dense flat disc of fibrocartilage Ex. Pubic symphysis
  8. 8. Cartilaginous joints
  9. 9. Cartilaginous joints
  10. 10. Synovial joints Synovial cavity btwn bones (synovial cavity) Freely moveable = diarthrotic Hyaline cartilage covers (does not bind) ends of bones
  11. 11. Synovial joint
  12. 12. Synovial Joints
  13. 13. Movement Not totally free, factors limit movement Structure of bones Ligament length and resulting tension Muscle length, strength and tension Other structures get in the way Hormones (relaxin) Disuse
  14. 14. Types of movement Gliding Angular Flexion – decreases angle btwn bones Extension – increases angle btwn bones Abduction – mvmnt away from body midline Adduction – mvmnt toward body midline
  15. 15. Movement