Ethics and legislation in the it industry


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Ethics and legislation in the it industry

  1. 1. Contents TOC o "1-3" h z u Ethics and Legislation in the IT Industry PAGEREF _Toc248736302 h 2Introduction PAGEREF _Toc248736303 h 2Copyright and Patents PAGEREF _Toc248736304 h 2Identify the act PAGEREF _Toc248736305 h 2Explanation PAGEREF _Toc248736306 h 2Scenario PAGEREF _Toc248736307 h 3Computer misuse act PAGEREF _Toc248736308 h 3Identify the act PAGEREF _Toc248736309 h 3Explanation PAGEREF _Toc248736310 h 3Scenario PAGEREF _Toc248736311 h 3Data protection PAGEREF _Toc248736312 h 4Identify the act PAGEREF _Toc248736313 h 4Explanation PAGEREF _Toc248736314 h 4Scenario PAGEREF _Toc248736315 h 4Threats to computer systems could include, hackers, viruses, security PAGEREF _Toc248736316 h 4Explanation PAGEREF _Toc248736317 h 4Scenario PAGEREF _Toc248736318 h 5Ethical Considerations – BCS role PAGEREF _Toc248736319 h 5Identify BCS PAGEREF _Toc248736320 h 5Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc248736321 h 5<br />Ethics and Legislation in the IT Industry<br />Introduction<br />This is a short formal report on ethics and IT industry. In this report the following will be covered.<br /><ul><li>Copyright and Patents
  2. 2. Computer misuse
  3. 3. Data Protection</li></ul>Some discussion around the activities of hackers and the use of viruses to disrupt business and computer use, also the role of the BCS and what benefits it brings to the industry and to you as an individual copyright and patent.<br />Copyright and Patents<br />Identify the act<br />Copyright is a property right which subsists in accordance with this part in the following descriptions of work – original literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works, sound recordings, film, broadcasts or cable programmes, and the typographical arrangement of published editions.<br />In this part of “Copyright Work” means a work unless the requirements of this part with respect to qualification for copyright protection are met.<br />Explanation<br />Copyright and patents was first introduced in 1988. It is a protection provided to inventors of original works of authorship. A patent for an invention is the grant of property right to the inventor, issued by the patent and trademark office. The right conferred by the patent grant is in the language of the statute and of the grant itself the right to exclude others from making, using and offering for sale or selling the invention in the UK or importing the invention into the UK. What is granted is not the right to make, use or offer for sale, sell or import, but the right to exclude other from making, using, offering for sale, selling or importing the invention you see the copyright dates in more or less on every book, film and on every other published work and most products carry the patent symbol somewhere visible on their product. You cannot copyright works that do not have the tangible form, a dance for example must have all the choreography written down properly and checked before it can be protected by the copyright. You also cannot copy basic names, titles, lists etc. The maximum prison sentence you can receive is 10 years for breaking the copyright and patent act. The fine for breaking the copyright and patent act is unlimited. It is even illegal to copy a music album that you already own. You are breaking the law by downloading any sort of file that has copyright on it.<br />Scenario<br />The copyright act would apply in a scenario when Harry Potter was claimed to be copied, the law made sure the person who made the book claimed 100% profits from the Harry Potter book.<br />Computer misuse act<br />Identify the act<br />The Computer Misuse Act was first introduced in 1990 by parliament to prevent misuse of computers. It was introduced due to a number of reasons. Hackers were able to gain access past security and see data stored on other computers using an internet connection. Copying can also be quick using online computers and large storage devices such as hard disks. Personal data and written work, such as textbooks, can all be copied without permission. Copies of music tracks can be distributed on the internet using computer equipment. The misuse of computers and internet, breach copyright regulations. Spam is another abuse with millions of emails being sent to advertise both legal and illegal products. Viruses are also being made which are designed to cause damage to other computers.<br />Explanation<br />The Computer Misuse Act is good to keep hackers, viruses, and spyware at bay. There was a news article about a hacker that hacked into the NASA database and is being extradited to the USA for prosecution. The computer misuse act is in place because some things are not meant to be uncovered such as government issues, sensitive information relating to wars, etc. All these will be on government/NASA/security computers. If this information wasn’t protected by the misuse act then hackers would easily be able to disclose secret information. Gary McKinnon the person that hacked into NASA has seen things that could have easily caused protests, demonstrations, etc. When the computer misuse act was put in place it stopped a lot of breaches in security from happening. Viruses also play a massive part in this role as they seem to dominate the internet at the moment.<br />Scenario<br />The computer misuse act would apply in a scenario where Gary McKinnon hacked into NASA Computers. The law made sure he faces trial and prosecution for breaking the computer misuse act and could face up to 60 years in prison. He is currently being extradited to USA for prosecution.<br />Data protection<br />Identify the act<br />The Data Protection Act gives individuals the right to know what in formation is held about them. It provides a framework to ensure the personal information is handled properly. The Act works in two ways. Firstly, it states that anyone who processes personal information must comply with eight principles, which make sure that personal information is:<br /><ul><li>Fairly and lawfully processed
  4. 4. Processed for limited purposes
  5. 5. Adequate, relevant and not excessive
  6. 6. Accurate and up to date
  7. 7. Not kept for longer than is necessary
  8. 8. Processed in line with your rights
  9. 9. Secure
  10. 10. Not transferred to other countries without adequate protection</li></ul>The second area covered by the act provides individuals with important rights, including the right to find out what personal information is held on computer and most paper records.<br />Explanation<br />Well first of all processing means collecting, storing, retrieving or organising data. There must be a good valid reason why they are collecting data. Out of date data will be destroyed and deleted such as application forms etc. Also if they are sending information out about you to other countries they will only send it to the countries which apply with the data protection act. Personal data is anything which identifies you as an individual this is either on its own or is referenced to other information. This is a great idea because it stops other people using valuable information about you or anyone else. Also stops silly little things like junk mail and junk letters. Also gives people a chance to see what is actually on file and paper about themselves because all companies have to comply with this act.<br />Scenario<br />The Data Protection act would apply in a scenario where the Carphone Warehouse company allowed customers to view other peoples account details, passed inaccurate information on to debt collectors and opened accounts in the wrong name. The actions were in breach of the data protection act and the ICO has issued Carphone Warehouse and sister company talk talk with enforcement notices ordering them to comply with the Data Protection Act. If they fail to do so they risk criminal prosecution. Both companies failed to meet the basic principles of the data protection act.<br />Threats to computer systems <br />Explanation<br />Computer systems are vulnerable to many threats that can inflict various types of damage resulting in significant losses. This damage can range from errors harming database integrity to fires destroying entire computer centres. Losses can stem, for example, from the actions of supposedly trusted employees defrauding a system, from outside hackers, or from careless data entry clerks. Precision in estimating computer security related losses is not possible because many losses are never discovered, and others are "swept under the carpet" to avoid unfavourable publicity. The effects of various threats vary considerably. Some affect the confidentiality or integrity of data while others affect the availability of a system. Hackers can use such things as bots, rats, Trojans they are made through coding using programs such as c++, vb etc. Most hackers nowadays use viruses to access other systems, most viruses are protected by something called a STUB. A STUB is another code that fits over the top of the virus so when it is being scanned through anti virus programs such as Norton, AVG, NOD32 it comes up clean because the the stub is protecting the virus code. Also a lot of viruses, spyware and bots are being binded. Binded means putting such things as pictures, music, applications etc. so when a user downloads these and opens them for example to play a music file he would double click it the music would play as normal but because its binded the virus has also been executed and the virus starts to run in the background. Then the hackers can gain much information from key logging(records every key stroke) to passwords to bank details and can even change major settings such as bios, disk management, network router settings and other harmful things. Even little programs we use everyday such as java, hackers can create little scripts for them that can be very harmful. Therefore be very careful about what sites and programs are used. Security plays a massive role in computing. Having good security prevents most of these attacks occurring as it quarantines the virus/hack/code. Having a personal firewall like zone alarm with strict sharing settings can monitor every incoming and outgoing connection. This can stop the virus connecting with the user so it cannot be accessed.<br />Scenario<br />The threat to computer systems scenario would apply with Hackers that broke into the Federal Aviation Administration’s computer system last week, accessing the names and Social Security numbers of 45,000 employees and retirees. The agency said in a statement that two of the 48 files on the breached computer server contained personal information about employees and retirees who were on the FAA’s rolls as of the first week of February 2006. <br />Ethical Considerations – BCS role<br />Identification of BCS <br />BCS, The chartered institute for IT is a professional body and a learned society that represents those working in the information technology. Established in 1957, it is the largest united kingdom-based professional body for computing, which was formerly known as the British computer society. With a worldwide membership of over 70,000 members in over 100 countries, BCS is a registered charity and was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1984. Its objectives are to promote the study and application of communications technology and computing technology and to advance knowledge of education in ICT for the benefit of professional practitioners and the general public. BCS is a member institution of Engineering Council UK, and therefore is responsible for the regulation of ICT and computer science fields within the UK. The BCS is also a member of the Council of European Professional Informatics Societies (CEPIS)<br />Explanation<br />The BCS bring together industry, Academics, practitioners and government to share knowledge, promoting And thinking, they also inform the public of the new policies. They help organisations make the most of computer’s and save them money. They have over 70,000 members. Their mission is to enable the Information society by promoting change and wider social and economic progress through the advancement of information technology science and practice.<br />Scenario<br />The British Computer society it is their vision is to be a world class organisation for IT. For them to do this they need to ensure that their profession has the skills and capabilities to meet IT demands of a changing world. they also need to ensure that they as an organisation are adapting to that world and can continue to grow out impact and influence in the decades ahead.<br />Conclusion<br />Summarizing<br />The key points of this report. Data protection act must be followed at all times. Personal data must be obtained fairly and lawfully and the data subject should be informed of who the data controller is and the data controller representative is. The new act covers personal data in both electronic form and manual form. Personal data must be kept accurate and up to date and shall not be kept for longer than necessary. Appropriate security measures must be taken against unlawful or unauthorised processing of data against accidental loss or damage to personal data. The computer misuse act second offences should be increasingly more severely than first offences and there is a range of penalties from suspension of use of computer facilities, Fines and to the ultimate sanction of being sent down. The copyright and patents act gives the creators of literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works the right to control the ways in which their material may be used. <br />Bibliography<br />Copyright and patents accessed on the 5th of December<br />Computer misuse accessed on the 6th of December<br />Data protection accessed on the 6th of December<br />British computer society accessed on the 7th of December,_The_Chartered_Institute_for_IT<br />Harry potter scenario accessed on the 10th of December<br />Gary McKinnon scenario accessed on the 10th of December<br />Threats to computer systems scenario accessed on the 11th of December<br />British computer society scenario accessed on the 11th of December<br /> <br />