AS Week 7 Observation and Levels of Measurement.

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AS Week 7 Observation and Levels of Measurement.

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AS Week 7 Observation and Levels of Measurement.

  1. 1. Add more detail to the mind map
  2. 2. www.jamiesflipped.co.uk @jamiesflipped
  3. 3. Lesson Objectives By the end of the lesson you … • Must be able to describe (AO1) the observational method and its components. • Must be able to evaluate (AO2) the observational method. • Should be able to identify different data types (nominal, ordinal and interval/ratio). Pg 6-8
  4. 4. Validity and Reliability Validity refers to the degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the researcher is attempting to measure. Reliability is the extent to which an experiment, test, or any measuring procedure yields the same result on repeated trials.
  5. 5. Validity Check Conduct an survey Reliability Inter-rater reliability (more than one observer) Improve Covert observations Agreed coding scheme (no demand characteristics) (remove ambiguity of categories)
  6. 6. Scenario Based Questions Select on of the scenarios and answer the questions. 20 mins If you complete one move onto another or design your own scenario and answer the questions.
  7. 7. Key Terms - Observation • • • • • • • • • Ecological Validity Non-participant Obs. Participant Obs. Undisclosed (covert) Disclosed (overt) Structured Unstructured Coding Scheme Controlled Observation • • • • • • • • • • Event Sampling Time Sampling Reliability Inter-rater Reliability Validity Categories Ethics Quantitative Data Qualitative Data Coding Scheme
  8. 8. Quantitative Data Qualitative Data
  9. 9. Levels of Measurement
  10. 10. Descriptive vs. Inferential Descriptive Statistics • Summary of data to illustrate patterns and relationships – BUT can’t infer conclusions Inferential Statistics • Statistical tests that allow us to make conclusions in relation to our hypothesis. eg. Mann-Whitney or Spearman’s Rho or Chi Square.
  11. 11. DESCRIPTIVE Data Analysis y axis label y axis label Scattergram to show the Correlation between variable 1 and variable 2 x axis label 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 2 4 x axis label Titles are VERY important. Title your axis, the integers and give the graph a title. 6
  12. 12. Categorical Nominal - measure of central tendency: mode Data in categories (finished, fell, started) Continuous Levels of Data Interval / Ratio - measure of central tendency: mean Precise and measured using units of equal intervals (1m54s, 1m59s, 2m03s) Ordinal - measure of central tendency: median Data which are ranked or in order (1st 2nd 3rd) Ratio has a definite and meaningful zero point
  13. 13. NOMINAL DATA ORDINAL DATA INTERVAL DATA REPEATED MEASURES Sign test Wilcoxon sign test Related t test* MATCHED PAIRS Sign test Wilcoxon sign test Related t test* INDEPENDENT MEASURES Chi-squared Mann-Whitney 'U' Unrelated t test* CORRELATION Chi-squared Spearman Rho Pearson moment* TYPE DESIGN * For Parametric tests Parametric criteria must also be met.
  14. 14. 20 minutes
  15. 15. • Must be able to describe (AO1) the observational method and its components. • Must be able to evaluate (AO2) the observational method. • Should be able to identify different data types (nominal, ordinal and interval/ratio).
  16. 16. It’s all about you …
  17. 17. Lesson Objectives By the end of the lesson you … • Must be able to design (AO3) an observation. • Should be able to carry out (AO3) an observation to collect data.
  18. 18. Category 1 SC1 SC2 Category 2 SC3 SC1 SC2 SC3 Male Female Eating behaviour in the canteen Politeness in the canteen / around the college On task / off task behaviour …
  19. 19. • Must be able to design (AO3) an observation. • Should be able to carry out (AO3) an observation to collect data.
  20. 20. www.jamiesflipped.co.uk @jamiesflipped

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