AS Week 6 Observational Research

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AS Week 6 Observational Research

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AS Week 6 Observational Research

  1. 1. True or False? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Observational studies are investigations where the researcher manipulates an IV. All types of research involve some element of observation Observational studies always have demand characteristics Validity refers to whether a study measures or examines what it claims to measure or examine. An undisclosed observation (or covert) is a type of observational study whereby the participants are not fully aware that they are being studied 6. A structured observation occurs when the researchers control some variables. 7. A coding scheme generally provides qualitative data 8. A participant observation does have a problem that the observer may lose some objectivity. 9. A controlled observation occurs when the researchers control some variables. 10. Observational studies tend to be high in ecological validity.
  2. 2. Lesson Objectives By the end of the lesson you … • Must be able to describe (AO1) the observational method and its components. • Should be able to evaluate the observational method. Pg 6-8
  3. 3. Observation • Participant Observations Objectivity? – Take part in what you’re observing • Non-Participant Observations – Just observe – no interaction • Disclosed (overt) Observations – Participants aware of observer Observer effect Act differently • Undisclosed (covert) Observations – Participants unaware of observer Ethics!
  4. 4. Observation • Structured Observation Event Sampling – Coding scheme is used to record behaviour – Quantitative data collected • Unstructured Observation Time Sampling – Researchers just record what’s going on – Qualitative data collected (usually) • Controlled Observations – Researchers manipulate some variables
  5. 5. Observation - Sampling Event Sampling Time Sampling • Coding Scheme • Researcher decides on a time and then • Researcher records records what is an event every time it occurring a at that happens. time • If too many things happen at once it may • Some behaviours will be missed therefore be difficult to record the observation may everything. not be representative.
  6. 6. Observation Reliability Validity • Difficult to replicate observation – confounding variables. • Check consistency within observations with interrater reliability (≥ 0.8) • Improve reliability by using good coding scheme. • If participants know = low validity • Observer bias = low validity • Improve by using wider categories or single-blind technique
  7. 7. BPS Ethical Concepts (1990) • Informed consent of participant • Right to withdraw • Debriefing • Deception • Observation • Protection of participants • Colleagues • Confidentiality • Competence When conducting research psychologists should adhere to these.
  8. 8. • C AN • DO • CAN’T • DO • W ITH • PARTICIPANTS
  9. 9. • C ONSENT • DECEPTION • COMPETENCE • DEBRIEFING • W ITHDRAWAL • PROTECTION
  10. 10. What are they thinking?
  11. 11. Validity Reliability Check Conduct an survey Inter-rater reliability Improve Covert observations Agreed coding scheme
  12. 12. Key Terms - Observation • • • • • • • • • Ecological Validity Non-participant Obs. Participant Obs. Undisclosed (covert) Disclosed (overt) Structured Unstructured Coding Scheme Controlled Observation • • • • • • • • • • Event Sampling Time Sampling Reliability Inter-rater Reliability Validity Categories Ethics Quantitative Data Qualitative Data Coding Scheme
  13. 13. • Must be able to describe (AO1) the observational method and its components. • Should be able to evaluate the observational method.

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