Early christian era2 FINAL

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Early christian era2 FINAL

  1. 1. Early Christian art and architecture (or Paleochristian art) is the art produced by Christians or under Christian patronage from the earliest period of Christianity to, depending on the definition used, some time between about 350 A.D. and 525 A.D.
  2. 2. The beginnings of an identifiable Christian art can be traced to the end of the second century and the beginning of the third century. The Old Testament prohibitions against graven images.
  3. 3. The Bible says, “The soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said therefore among themselves; Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, they parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did.” (John 19:23-24).
  4. 4. “You shall skillfully weave the tunic of fine linen thread, you shall make the turban of fine linen, and you shall make the sash of woven work. For Aaron’s sons you shall make tunics, and you shall make sashes for them. And you shall make hats for them, for glory and beauty.” (Exodus 28:39-43).
  5. 5.    In Christian art, Christ is depicted in a long tunic tied around the waist, or seminude as seen in pictures/crucifixes portraying the passion of the Christ. During medieval times, Christian attire is shown as long flowing tunics of high quality with ornate type cloaks. The fabric and quality of the clothing depended upon the status of an individual, availability of materials and financial resources.
  6. 6. There are not many important buildings of the Early Christian style. It came into being at a time when not much building was going on that is, during the early centuries of Christianity, and what good examples there are, are nearly all churches. During the first three centuries of the Christian era Christianity was under the ban of persecution, and there was not much chance for it to manifest itself in great architecture.
  7. 7. Early Christian churches come in two forms, both inspired by Roman architecture: CENTRALLY PLANNED and AXIALLY PLANNED
  8. 8. AXIALLY PLANNED CENTRALLY PLANNED
  9. 9. Here are some examples of the architectural works during the Early Christian Era:
  10. 10. The Ancient Basilica of Santa Sabina, Rome (circa 425) has a typical basilical plan with a high semi-circular apse.
  11. 11. The Basilica of San Stefano Rotondo, Rome (circa 470) has lost the outer of its three arcades but retains the ancient core of the structure.
  12. 12.  The church consists of a central nave flanked by two narrow isles and separated from them by a monumental colonnade  The central nave rose above the isle roof, and the inner isle rose above the outer  The structure was of brick faced concrete covered with simple trussedtimber roof.
  13. 13.  St. Peter’s Basilica was the most important of the basilica churches built by Constantine  The church has a triple entrance gate leading to an atrium  It was built over what was believed to be the tomb of Saint Peter who was a disciple of Jesus
  14. 14. Little is known about Christian art in the first two centuries after the death of Jesus. Among the earliest manifestations extant are the early 3d-century paintings on the walls of the catacombs in Rome. Whereas the style resembles that of secular Roman wall painting, the subject matter consists mainly of biblical figures.
  15. 15. Other common Early Christian arts: Mosaics and manuscript illumination Sculpture
  16. 16.  Elaborate mosaic narrative cycles covered the upper walls, triumphal arch, and apse of basilican churches.  The use of gold backgrounds heightens the effect of other worldliness and transcendence. In contrast to paganism, the Christian faith was bound by the authority of sacred writings, and it placed increasing importance on the production of books and their illumination.  Some fragments of the biblical text, written in silver and gold on purple vellum and sumptuously illuminated, are still preserved. Foremost of these is the Vienna Genesis, a manuscript of the first half of the 6th cent.
  17. 17. An example of a mosaic found in a basilica The use of gold backgrounds heightens the effect of other worldliness and transcendence
  18. 18.  Some fragments of the biblical text, written in silver and gold on purple vellum and sumptuously illuminated, are still preserved. Foremost of these is the Vienna Genesis, a manuscript of the first half of the 6th century
  19. 19. The sculpture of the stone sarcophagus was extensively practiced in Roman art and was continued into the Christian era. In some cases subjects similar to those of the catacombs were used. In others, scenes of the life of Jesus or more ceremonious compositions were created, showing the enthroned Christ receiving the homage of the apostles. Ivory carvers decorated book covers and reliquary caskets or larger objects
  20. 20.  Families would have chambers or cubicula dug to bury their members. Wealthy Romans would also have sarcophagi or marble tombs carved for their burial.  Christian catacombs were dug frequently adjacent to nonChristian ones, and sarcophagi with Christian imagery were apparently popular with the richer Christians.

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